Reading Skill: Cause and EffectA cause is an event, an action, or a situation thatproduces a result. An effect is the result produced. Tobetter follow a story, analyze causes and effects asyou read, determining which earlier events lead towhich later events. Many stories are chains of causeand effect, in which one event leads to the next. To analyze causes and effects, reflect on keydetails that the writer spends time explaining ordescribing. For example, a writer’s description of adangerous coastline prepares you to understand thecause-and-effect relationships leading to the sinking ofa ship.
Literary Analysis: Conflict and ResolutionThe conflict in a short story is a struggle between two forces.Conflict usually drives the plot of a story.In an external conflict, a character struggles against an outsideforce, such as an element of nature or another character.In an internal conflict, a character struggles with his or her ownopposing desires, beliefs, or needs.In many stories, the conflict intensifies until one force wins and aresolution of the conflict occurs. To build interest in a story’sconflict, writers may hint at events to come or ―stretch out‖ episodesthat lead up to a crucial moment. In these ways, they createsuspense, a rising curiosity or anxiety in readers.
Using the Strategy: Conflict ChartAs you read, use a chart like this one to record conflicts. Force 1 Conflicts Force 2 External External External Storm Will boat arrive? Sailors on ship headed to shore Internal Internal Internal Sailor’s sense of Will sailors abandon Sailor’s fear of bugs duty ship?
“Games at Twilight” by Anita DesaiAbout the Author: Anita Desai• Born as Anita Mazumdar to a German mother and a Bengali businessman in India.• Grew up speaking German at home and Bengali, Urdu, Hindi and English outside the house.• First learned to read and write in English at school and as a result it became her "literary language“.
“Games at Twilight” by Anita DesaiAbout the Author: Anita Desai• Student at Queen Marys Higher Secondary School in Delhi and received her B.A. in English literature in 1957 from the Miranda House of the University of Delhi. – Following year she married Ashvin Desai, the director of a computer software company and author of the book: Between Eternities: Ideas on Life and The Cosmos. – Four children, including Booker Prize-winning novelist Kiran Desai.• Desai published her first novel, Cry The Peacock, in 1963.• Considers Clear Light Of Day (1980) her most autobiographical work as it is set during her coming of age and also in the same neighborhood in which she grew up.
“Games at Twilight” by Anita DesaiAbout the Author: Anita Desai (cont.)• In 1984 she published In Custody - about an Urdu poet in his declining days• In 1993 she became a creative writing teacher at MIT• Her novel, The Zigzag Way (2004), is set in 20th-century Mexico and her latest novel The Artist of Disappearance came in 2011.• Desai has taught at Mount Holyoke College, Baruch College and Smith College. She is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature, the American Academy of Arts and Letters, and of Girton College, Cambridge University (to which she dedicated Baumgartners Bombay).• In addition, she writes for the New York Review of Books.
Reading Skill: Cause and Effect• A cause is an event, an action, or a situation that makes something happen. An effect is the event that results. To analyze cause and effect, determine which events cause which effects. • Reread passages to determine whether some events in a sequence are the reason that other events happen. • Look for cause-and-effect terms such as because, as a result, for that reason, and so on.
Using the Strategy: Sequence ChartAs you read, use a sequence chart like the one below torecord connections between causes and effects. Cause Cause/Effect Effect
Literary Analysis: Author’s Purpose• An author’s purpose is his or her main reason for writing.• An author may seek to inform, explain, persuade, describe, or entertain. He or she may also have more than one purpose.• If an author’s primary purpose is to inform or persuade, the author presents a thesis—the main point or argument about the subject. To explain and prove the thesis, the author supplies support: evidence, facts, and other details confirming the thesis.• Another way authors achieve purpose is through their style—their use of language. Word choice, sentence length, and complexity contribute to an authors style.• As you read, look for ways in which the authors achieve their purposes.
Meet the Author: Rachel Carson• (May 27, 1907 – April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist and conservationist whose writings are credited with advancing the global environmental movement.• Carson began her career as a biologist in the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, and became a full-time nature writer in the 1950s.• In the late 1950s, Carson turned her attention to conservation and the environmental problems caused by synthetic pesticides. The result was Silent Spring (1962) spurred a reversal in national pesticide policy—leading to a nationwide ban on DDT