EDWARDIAN ERA (1901-1914) • Last period to be named after a monarch • In contrast to the strict moral codes of Victoria, and the almost Puritan example of his father Albert, Edward, or "Bertie" as he was known to his friends, loved the luxuries of life. • As Prince of Wales, Edward was a playboy, a bon viveur and a gambler. Even though he had married in 1863, he continued to live the bachelor lifestyle • He surrounded himself with men who had made their fortunes in trade and finance - the "plutocracy" • Led the "fast set" in the conspicuous consumption that so typifies the period.
OVERVIEW OF EDWARDIAN ERAEconomic and social changes createmobilityRising interest in socialism Common laborers and women becomepoliticizedAttention to plight of poorWomen’s suffrage
OVERVIEW OF EDWARDIAN ERAIncreased opportunities as a result ofindustrialization Leisure sports (first international rugby match in1903; Olympic games held in London in 1910)Last period of the English country houseIntroduction of ladies magazines High fashion (corset modified); tea gownsintroduced (informal); empire waist; wide-brimmedhats; tailor made suits
WOMEN Women were educated differently; they had fewer rights both in and out of marriage, and they werent able to vote in national elections. 1903, Emmeline Pankhurst set up the Womens Social and Political Union (WSPU) The Unions members - or "Suffragettes" as they were called by the disapproving Daily Mail - lived up to their motto. These women threw eggs, they chained themselves to railings, scattered marbles under police horses hooves and set fire to pillar boxes. Many were imprisoned, and some even went on hunger strike. Emily Davison ran out in front of the Kings horse during the Derby in June 1913 and was killed while campaigning for the suffragette cause.
FASHION•Alexandra, Princess of Wales and Queen,was leader of Edwardian fashion with herbeautiful clothes, high-piled hair and multi-stranded pearl chokers.• An Edwardian lady married to a wealthyman bought dresses from Paris. Shoppingbecame a leisure pastime.• Women could change clothes five or sixtimes a day, depending on the event.
•New design of corset introduced in 1900 intended FASHIONto be more "natural" and "healthy" than Victorianones. Produced an S-shaped figure by forcing thebust forward and the bottom out.• Corsets, dresses and high-necked blouses werefastened at the back. Woman needed help ingetting dressed.• To achieve the necessary fullness that wasfashionable at the time, a ladys maid would windher mistress’ hair around balls of padding, called"rats".
E.M. ForsterHis life and work
Early lifeBorn in 1879 in London Forster as a child, 1890Edward Morgan ForsterFather was an architect Died before Edward was 2Raised by women - mother andaunts Used money from great aunt to travel and write later in life
Childhood home, Rooksnest
College Life Attended King’s College of Cambridge 1897-1901 Member of Apostles Discussion group Later became Bloomsbury Group Virginia Woolf also a member Enjoyed freedom of intellectual discussions and focus on personal relationships
After graduation Traveled with his mother to Italy and Greece Gave him material to use later Satire of British tourists Feared anything “foreign” Wrote essays and stories for liberal IndependentForster with mother Review
Tutoring 1905 - tutored in Germany for a Countess’s son 1906 - tutored Syed Ross Masood Indian Muslim patriot Forster, 1915 Grew fond of him Forster with Masood , 1911
Personal lifeKept personal life hiddenand out of discussion1930 - involved in arelationship with a Londonpoliceman Also friends with his wifeMaurice publishedposthumously
Travel and work 1912-1913 - traveled to India with Masood 1914-1915 - worked for National Gallery in London WWI - worked for Red Cross in Egypt Wrote poetry while there 1921 - returned to India Worked as private secretary to Maharajah of Dewas
Written work1905 - Where AngelsFear to Tread1907 - The LongestJourney1908 - A Room with aView1910 - Howard’s End1971 - Maurice
Key themes in Forster’s novels 1. The pursuit of personal connections in spite of the restrictions of contemporary society 2. The irreconcilability of class differences 3. Sexuality: the discovery of ones’ own
A Room with a View Lucy Honeychurch and her nervous chaperone embark on a grand tour of Italy. Alongside sweeping landscapes, Lucy encounters a suspect group of characters — socialist Mr. Emerson and his working-class son George, in particular — who both surprise and intrigue her. When piqued interest turns to potential romance, Lucy is whisked home to England, where her attention turns to Cecil Vyse. But now, with a well-developed appetite for adventure, will Lucy make the daring choice when it comes to love?