p-book vs.e-book in higher education: LAU Libraries Case Study


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Lebanese Library Association Annual Conference 2012
In coordination with IFLA - Asia and Oceania Section

Le Bristol Hotel, Beirut
April 26-28, April, 2012

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p-book vs.e-book in higher education: LAU Libraries Case Study

  1. 1. p-Book vs. e-Book in higher education: LAU Libraries Case Study by Houeida Kammourié-Charara InfoCommons Librarian Lebanese American University Lebanese Library Association Annual Conference 2012 In coordination with IFLA - Asia and Oceania Section Le Bristol Hotel, Beirut April 26-28, April, 2012
  2. 2. Introduction• This is the second presentation about LAU Libraries shift from print to online. It focuses on eBooks world in general and LAU’s experience in particular.• The first presentation about LAU’s journals shift to online was offered in 2011 during AMICAL 8th conference held in Beirut, Lebanon. Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara
  3. 3. Definition of eBook• Electronic books have many names: e-book, e-book reader, e-book device, and digital book.• The simplest definition is: “An e-book is an electronic book that can be read digitally on a computer screen, a special e-book reader, a personal digital assistant (PDA), or even a mobile phone” (Nelson, 2008). Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara
  4. 4. eBooks VendorsSue Polanka identified three main vendor types:• Publishers: Direct price negotiation with no intermediary. This process requires staff time, mainly for licensing.• Aggregators: An Aggregator represents several publishers, therefore will renegotiate with all publishers any change in business models, or license terms.• Wholesalers: These are similar to aggregators because they negotiate the licenses and track billing and ordering (and shipping for print titles). But most do not have an eBook interface, thus they sell access to eBooks from multiple aggregators. Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara
  5. 5. Business Models• Subscription: Provides access to a large number of eBooks for a set period of time; or leases the content for a designated period of time.• Purchase.• Subject Based Package: Provides access to a subject collection.• Title by Title: Same like traditional selection.• Patron Driven Acquisition (PDA): MARC records are loaded in the catalog; when a library user opens the content a charge is generated (pre-defined library parameters).• Pay-per-View: Patron will pay only for the chapter, book, section he/she is interested in (similar to PDA).• Firm Order: This is done through the online ordering system (usually via aggregators), and is mainly suitable for single title basis. Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara
  6. 6. Business Models (Cont’d)• Number of Users: One book/one user, Multiuser, Unlimited, etc.• Consortia Deals: eBooks can be shared across a consortium, however the specific needs of libraries may not be satisfied due to the complexity of their structures.• Members of the Lebanese Academic Library Consortium (LALC) are working together on subscribing to eBooks packages, such as ebrary, Safari, etc. However purchasing eBooks and sharing them among LALC members is not yet foreseeable.N.B. The price of an eBook is generally the print book list price plus a percentage, and publishers -usually after selling all the print- may give aggregators the eBook as a way of generating more revenues. Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara
  7. 7. Ownership & Archives• Perpetual Access is when the library owns the title in perpetuity. This is very similar to the traditional print model. – Barrier: Platform maintenance fee Maintenance fees may be waived if a negotiated purchase amount is spent with the vendor annually.• Ownership is a critical issue with eBooks. LAU Libraries spend the majority of its eBooks budget on purchases NOT subscriptions.• A vendor may also send content files directly to libraries for archival purposes; at the same time provides access through its interface (GALE Literature Criticism Online (LCO) titles at LAU). – Barrier: Archival copies format are unreadable most of the time. Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara
  8. 8. Approval Plans (AP) vs. Patron Driven Acquisition (PDA)• In an approval plan, librarians identify the parameters for new titles (subject area, publisher, price, etc.), and the vendors send fitting titles to the library which review them for approval or rejection.• This process reduces the cost of title acquisition.• “Approval plans have been used by libraries for decades, and the profiles developed for them can be an essential component of the current PDA offerings” (Esposito, 2012).• The literature shows that over a period of perhaps 5 years, most institutions, will have some money budgeted to PDA. Both AP and PDA are not practiced at LAU Libraries; One or two libraries are implementing them in Lebanon. Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara
  9. 9. Access modelsCheckout Unlimited model access One user can lend one title at a time, unless library has several Allowing several users to copies to satisfy demand use the same title at a time. Commonly used with Not yet used by LAU package or PDA model Because eBook vendor platforms are Preferred model at LAU more expensive than traditional LAU practices While print book borrowing at libraries remains healthy, eBook lending still has a way to go according to statistics in the 2010 survey of Book Buying Behavior by Digital Book World. Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara
  10. 10. eBooks Formats & Types •E-reference •E-textbooks PDF •E-literature •E-monographs- in-series Need downloading additional software, drivers, plug- ins Access on campus/off campus HTML IP or via username and password Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara
  11. 11. Digital Rights Management (DRM)DRM is like a lock and key for digital content. The media is locked,and you have to have the key to unlock it. Imagine you purchased aDVD that works in your home player; then your player breaks, youbuy another one, and your DVD will not play in it.“It prevents legitimate customers from doing what they want withtheir content while doing absolutely nothing to the people whoacquired the same content illegally” (Griffey, 2010).The most compelling reasons to bypass Digital RightsManagement is by purchasing eBooks hosted on the publisher’ssite. Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara
  12. 12. eReaders platforms Nesbitt said “ If you can afford an eReader you can get eBooks. If not, youre out of luck“ (Kelley, M., Fialkoff, F., & Miller, R. 2011).• 2005: Sony was first to introduce e-reader in the market, and to use the E Ink technology. Sony was also the first to have partnership with OverDrive (library e- book vendor) to load content from libraries for lending eBooks.• 2007: Amazon launched the Kindle, now the most popular e-book reader in the United States. Kindle is not fully operational in the Middle East; LAU Libraries as an American institution are doing the setup in the States and are using American credit cards in order to purchase eBooks. Kindle is linked to Amazon account by default @kindle.com.• October 2009: Barnes and Noble launched its e-reader the Nook in support of its own e-book store. Lately Barnes and Noble made a deal with Google Books too.• September 2011: Amazon Kindle Fire Launching (UK release update Feb. 14, 2012); OverDrive and Amazon launch Kindle® compatibility with Library eBooks for Public and school libraries. Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara
  13. 13. eReaders/Tablets at LAU Libraries Name Location Date received # of Loans RemarksKindle 2.0.2 Riyad Nassar Library 19-Feb-10 17Kindle DX Wireless (9.7") Byblos Library 7-Apr-10 0 No copiesSony reader Riyad Nassar Library 13-Jan-11 3 GiftiPad Riyad Nassar Library 17-Jan-11 529iPad Riyad Nassar Library 17-Jan-11 543iPad Byblos Library 21-Jan-11 72iPad 2 Riyad Nassar Library 25-Oct-11 175iPad 2 Riyad Nassar Library 25-Oct-11 13iPad 2 Byblos Library 24-Jan-12 71 Not yet inKindle 6.2.1 (kindlefire) Riyad Nassar Library 30-Jan-12 1 Circulation Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 13 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara
  14. 14. eBooks and eReaders Standards• Standards for the creation of electronic publications are still in development. According to Polanka EPUB is the most commonly adopted standard these days; she also listed the following standards: XML, DRM, METADATA, SERU, ISBN, DOI and ISTC.• eBook readers has standardized around a type of display designed and built by the E Ink Corporation, a private firm based on technology developed at the MIT Media Lab in the early to mid-2000s. Today in addition to E Ink another technology is widely used for eReaders screens: LCD. LAU Libraries are the only libraries (as far as we know) currently circulating eBooks readers/Tablets among students in academic libraries in Lebanon. Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara 14
  15. 15. Moving to e-colletion@LAU• Almost complete for eJournals, still have Art and Popular magazines in print.• Ongoing process for selected Reference works, mainly Standing Orders.• Switch to eBooks packages is currently happening.• Consolidation of eBook/eJournal purchasing is attractive for LAU Libraries by eliminating time and effort used for licensing; e.g., SpringerLink, Elsevier agreements, etc. Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara 15
  16. 16. eBooks Workflow @LAU• Title Selection: – Titles to be shifted/purchased are selected by Concerned Librarians with the approval of the Library Directors.• Content evaluation (excerpt/portion/one or two chapters preview) through: – Trial via IP (preferably) sent to all@lau, or via username and password.• Licensing: Before ordering, the library negotiates the license agreement and makes sure Perpetual Access/Archival Rights clause is to the benefit of the library; and the cost of online format is justifiable.• Ordering: Once ordered, and upon activation, an email to all@lau is sent to promote the newly added resource. Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara
  17. 17. eBooks Figures @LAUConversion of print book (p-book) to e-book started in 2000 withEncyclopaedia Britannica …ongoing process Encyclopaedia of Islam in2011… 2011-2012 2010-2011 # of eBooks: *137,208 # of eBooks: *121,553• Ebrary and SAFARI are entered as one entry in OPAC; however Springer is added at the title level.• March 2012: 27,805 Springer titles are in OPAC with clean Library of Congress Subject Headings. Total spending in 2010-2011 eBooks $90,216 vs. Print Books $741,553 *Data collected from Serials Solutions Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara 17
  18. 18. LAU Libraries e-Books Collections E- Reference Perpetual containingReference Subscription Access eBooks Columbia Credo Gazetteer of the Access Reference World Encyclopedia Medicine of Journalism Oxford Encyclopaedia Islamic Encyclopedia Studies of Islam Access of Online Science Quantitative Encyclopaedia Finance Oxford Britannica Reference Online ebrary Literature Encyclopedia of Criticism Testing & Food Sciences Online Education and Nutrition Reference Safari Books Center Online Springer Europa World eBooks of Learning, Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara
  19. 19. SAMPLE of p-b switched to e-b Literature Criticism Online - GaleMonth/Yea # of Month/Yea # of r searches r search In 2010 the Libraries decided to switch Gale es Standing Orders to online. CollectionsAug. 2010 95 Aug. 2011 27 housed in the Reference Departments in both RNL & Byblos Libraries.Sept. 2010 140 Sept. 2011 140 20th century LiteraryOct. 2010 38 Oct. 2011 107 criticismNov. 2010 310 Nov. 2011 131 Shakespearean Short storyDec. 2010 761 Dec. 2011 67 criticism criticismJan. 2011 368 Jan. 2012 319Feb. 2011 15 Feb. 2012 28Mar. 2011 146 Mar. 2012 90 LiteratureApr. 2011 155 criticism from Drama criticism 1400 to 1800May 2011 201Jun. 2011 60July 2011 201 19th century Contemporary Literary Literary criticism criticismTOTAL Aug. 10 to Mar. 3399 Library Association Annual conference 2012 Lebanese 19 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara
  20. 20. Marketing & Discovering eBookseBooks need to be discoverable, and thefirst choice for libraries is via their catalogs. OPAC Library catalog Library flyers, posters, marketingSafari supplies MARC records for campaigns - LOHsubscribed titles, each including an 856 Webinarsfield linking to the full text. Instruction & Information literacyLAU is considering the addition of both Discovery and open URL linking toebrary and SAFARI titles into library promote eBooks indirectlycatalog. Links embedded in course managementCurrently only e-references and Springer General internet search enginepurchased eBooks are discoverable via the Library websiteOPAC. “ "digital powerwall" a large touch screen for patrons to browse the ebook collection with ease and elegance.” (Kelley, M., Fialkoff, F., & Miller, R. 2011). Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara
  21. 21. eBooks in Lebanon & USLebanese Market:Several private academic libraries started the purchase of eBooks;however we do not have accurate statistics.US Market:In 1999 eBooks became available in academic libraries; a decade afterthey are widely used in U.S. libraries: – 95% of Academic libraries are offering eBooks; – 93% increase rate of eBook collections. – 19.1% of libraries budgets will go to eBooks in five years.• It is worth noting that lack of financial means is a major factor in influencing libraries not to invest in eBooks, in addition the shortage of trained staff to support eBooks.• Another factor is strategic precaution: Librarians may want to see how others are dealing with eBooks, eBooks readers, platforms etc. before going live. Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara 21
  22. 22. eBooks spending in US Market by Millions of Dollars 500 450 441.3 400 350 300 250 200 169.5 150 100 61.3 50 25.2 31.7 9.3 16 0 2.1 6 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010From Association of American Publishers (AAP) Annual Report.eBooks sales top paperbacks for first time in 2011 after Christmas holidays. Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara 22
  23. 23. To discover:Open Access eBooks and Mobile Learning• Open Access eBooks is a topic that needs to be discussed later on. However it is worth listing: Project Gutenberg www.gutenberg.org; Free Copyrighted Content; Creative Commons http://creativecommons.org and Google Books with all its controversy.• As for Mobile Learning we found it useful to mention the experience of Seton Hill University who provided iPads to all full- time students in 2010. The program, called the Griffin Technology Advantage, had several objectives mainly the creation of a teaching and learning environment that would go beyond the confines of the traditional classroom in time and space. Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara
  24. 24. SAMPLE of Free eBooks Website Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara
  25. 25. Advantages of eBooks• Searchability: Search within and across eBook content.• Timeliness: Fast access to relevant content via keywords searching.• Practicality: eBooks can be used anytime and everywhere.• Accessibility: eBooks provide an easy way of accessing work at patrons convenience and leisure.• Portability: A large number of eBooks can be carried in a portable device.• Download-ability: Download chapters or sections to a device for later use.• Interactivity: Annotating, bookmarking and highlighting.• Simplicity: Ease of use of dedicated eBook readers (Kindle, Nook, etc.) and Mobile devices, iPhone, iPad, etc. Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara
  26. 26. Barriers to eBook adoption• Cultural resistance is one of the most challenging barriers to eBooks.• Switching to eBooks is uncomfortable for anything more than reference purposes mainly for “Digital immigrants”.• Piracy of eBook content creates concerns on campuses already weary of suits and subpoenas from the Recording Industry Protection of IP.• Ownership of eBook content; constraint of DRM software.• Acquisition/Cataloging processes and decisions are time consuming,• Negotiating licenses for each different platform and/or individual books.• Printing/Downloading restrictions are hard to identify; cut-and-paste often disabled.• Inability to lend a book to a friend, e.g., with LendMe you can’t access it during the loan period. Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara
  27. 27. Challenges• Vendor’s version •Addressing eBook •Printing/Downloading of DRM is a major requires involvement capabilities are not barrier to eBooks of IT units, librarians, college stores, unified among implementation. publishers. faculty, and students.• Librarians should investigate the •Any resentment from any stakeholder, may • This should be license agreement carefully. slow down the investigated and process. negotiated during licensing process.DRM Cooperation Printing Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara 27
  28. 28. Before going with eBooks• As “one of the biggest attitudinal challenges of book implementation comes from the library staff and not from patrons” it is useful to have a frank discussion about the evolving role of library from just-in-case to just- in-time.• Make sure staff will understand that acquiring eBooks does not mean not acquiring print. Share statistics regarding circulation, cost, publishers etc.• The introduction of eBooks and e-Readers in academic libraries was faster than the capability of librarians to change. We are trying to adapt to change, changing our current practices becomes mandatory, it is not a choice anymore.• Several questions need to be addressed: What is the role of the Reference Librarians, Acquisitions Librarians, Electronic Resources Librarians? Who is responsible for eBooks acquisition? Licensing? When there will be stable standards and rules? Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara
  29. 29. ConclusionWe need to satisfy the needs of today’s college students who are “digital natives” while the rest of us are “digital immigrants.” (Kelley, M., Fialkoff, F., & Miller, R. 2011).• New products, technologies, opportunities, and business models will continue to emerge. Therefore we need to look at the invasion of eBooks in our libraries as opportunities, not obstacles.• We cannot just follow the trends, we need to be part of the change.• It is too early to go entirely online. I cannot see LAU Libraries and the majority of academic libraries in Lebanon, “print free”, instead they will continue to operate in a hybrid print/electronic environment for the years to come. Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara
  30. 30. Useful WebsitesProject Gutenberg - free ebookswww.gutenberg.org/Google Bookshttp://books.google.com/20 Best Websites To Download Free Ebookshttp://www.hongkiat.com/blog/20-best-websites-to-download-free-e-books/2012 Best eBook Reader Comparisons and Reviewshttp://ebook-reader-review.toptenreviews.com/Creative Commonshttp://creativecommons.orgLibrary Anywherewww.librarything.com/forlibraries Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara
  31. 31. References• Major reference: Polanka, S., (Ed.). (c2011). No shelf required: E-books in libraries. Chicago: American Library Association.Carreiro, E. (2010). Electronic books: How digital devices and supplementary new technologies are changing the face of the publishing industry. Publishing Research Quarterly, 26(4), 219-235. Retrieved March 1, 2012, from http://www.springerlink.com/content/815l71g801370q2u/Cox, J. (2004, October). E-Books: Challenges and Opportunities. D-Lib Magazine 10(10). Retrieved March 1, 2012, from http://www.dlib.org/dlib/october04/cox/10cox.htmlDarwin, Charles. The Origin of Species. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1968. P. 130-172.Esposito, J. (2012). The Faculty’s Role in Patron-driven Acquisitions, The Scholarly Kitchen. Retrieved February 28, 2012, from http://scholarlykitchen.sspnet.org/2012/02/08/the-facultys-role-in-patron-driven-acquisitions/Gawelek, M.A., Spataro, M., &Komarny, P. ( 2011, March/April). Mobile Perspectives: On iPads Why Mobile?. Educause Review, 46(2). Retrieved February 10, 2012, from http://www.educause.edu/EDUCAUSE+Review/EDUCAUSEReviewMagazineVolume46/iMobilePerspectivesOniPadsibrW/22616 3Griffey, J. (2010). Electronic book readers. Library Technology Reports, 46(3), 7-19, 2. Retrieved February 10, 2012, from http://search.proquest.com/docview/202709359?accountid=27870Johnson, L., Smith, R., Willis, H., Levine, A., & Haywood, K., (2011). The 2011 Horizon Report. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium.Kelley, M., Fialkoff, F., & Miller, R. (2011). The ebook opportunity. Library Journal, 136(19), 36-n/a. Retrieved February 20, 2012, from http://search.proquest.com/docview/902852500?accountid=27870 Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara
  32. 32. References (Cont’d)Li, C., Poe, F., Potter, M., Quigley, B., & Wilson, J. (2011, May). UC Libraries Academic e-Book Usage Survey. Retrieved March 2, 2012, from http://www.cdlib.org/services/uxdesign/docs/2011/academic_ebook_usage_survey.pdfMiller, R. (2011). Dramatic growth. Library Journal, 136(17), 32-32. Retrieved February 11, 2012, from http://search.proquest.com/docview/896338418?accountid=27870Nelson, M. R. (2008). E-books in higher education: Nearing the end of the era of hype? Educause Review, 43(2). Retrieved March 1, 2012, from http://www.educause.edu/EDUCAUSE+Review/EDUCAUSEReviewMagazineVolume43/EBooksinHigherEducationNearing/1 62677.OverDrive and Amazon launch Kindle® compatibility with Library eBooks. (2011, September 21). Retrieved March 3, 2011, from http://www.overdrive.com/News/getarticle.aspx?newsArticleID=20110921Price, J. S. (2011). Patron driven acquisition of publisher-hosted content: Bypassing DRM. Retrieved March 1, 2012, from http://scholarship.claremont.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1001&context=library_staff.Polanka, S. (2011). Purchasing E-books in libraries: A maze of opportunities and challenges. Library Technology Reports, 47(8), 4-7, 58. Retrieved February 17, 2012, from http://search.proquest.com/docview/908429942?accountid=27870.Rapp, D. (2011),. Digital Book World Panels Tackle Libraries. Library Journal, 136(4),16. Retrieved March 1, 2012, from http://www.libraryjournal.com/lj/ljinprint/currentissue/889052-403/infotech_digital_book_world_panels.html.csp2009 Estimates (U.S.): Total Book Sales Down 1.8%; eBook Sales Up 176.6% to Overtake Audiobooks. (2010, April 7). Retrieved March 3, 2011, from http://web.resourceshelf.com/go/resourceblog/58352 Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara
  33. 33. Thank You A copy of this presentation will be available online on slideshare http://www.slideshare.net/houeidakam/ Please feel free to contact me @ houeida.charara@lau.edu.lb“ It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor themost intelligent, but the ones most responsive to change.” Charles Darwin Lebanese Library Association Annual conference 2012 ©Houeida Kammourié-Charara