Ebooks challenges and opportunities in academic library: A case study from the Lebanese American University and ProQuest
Lebanese American University
Director – Academic Segment Planning for Europe, Middle East, Africa and Latin America
Vickery, B C. Scientific Communication in History. Lanham, Md: Scarecrow Press, 2000.
Vickery, B C. Scientific Communication in History. Lanham, Md: Scarecrow Press, 2000.
Borrowed from Daniel Forsman at Stellenbosch Symposium 2013 who borrowed from Lars Juhl Jensen
Borrowed from Maslow and BBC http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-23902918
Borrowed from Tony Davies ‘Ebooks Down Under’ Charleston
Monograph budgets in decline – squeeze by electronic journals,
Lack of space in the library
Cost of keeping books on shelves
Web – changing users expectations
Use of print monographs low and in decline
Rise in expenditure on Interlibrary loan
Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines eBook as “a
book composed in or converted to digital
format for display on a computer screen or
“An e-book is an electronic book that can be read
digitally on a computer screen, a special e-
book reader, a personal digital assistant
(PDA), or even a mobile phone” (Nelson, 2008).
Portability: A large number of eBooks can be
carried in a portable device.
Download-ability: Download chapters or
sections to a device for later use.
Interactivity: Annotating, bookmarking
Simplicity: Ease of use of dedicated
eBook readers and Mobile devices.
Searchability: Search within and across
Timeliness: Fast access to relevant
content via keywords searching.
Practicality: eBooks can be used anytime and
Accessibility: eBooks provide an easy way of
accessing work at patrons
convenience and leisure.
Cultural resistance mainly from “Digital
Piracy of eBook content
Ownership of eBook content
Constraint of DRM software
Acquisition/Cataloging processes and
decisions are time consuming
Negotiating licenses for each different
platform and/or individual books.
“libraries with foreign credit cards may be
unable to obtain certain titles” (Walters,
Printing/Downloading restrictions are hard to
Cut-and-paste often disabled
“previously acquired e-books may become
inaccessible if the user crosses into a
nation where the original license agreement
is not in force” (Walters, 2013).
Subject Based Package
Acquisition (PDA) or
Title by Title
Number of Users
Members of the Lebanese Academic Library Consortium (LALC) are working
together on subscribing to eBooks packages, such as ebrary, Safari, etc.
However purchasing eBooks and sharing them among LALC members is not
In AP librarians identify the parameters for new
titles (subject area, publisher, price, etc.), and the
vendors send fitting titles to the library which
review them for approval or rejection.
AP profiles can be used for PDA offerings.
Reduces cost of title acquisition.
Over a period of perhaps 5 years, most
institutions, will have some money budgeted to
PDA, (Esposito, 2012).
PDA/DDA not yet practiced at Lebanese Libraries; Some libraries
are considering it so far.
One user can lend
one title at a time,
unless library has
several copies to
several users to
use the same
title at a time.
2010 EPUB 2.0.1
2007 EPUB 2.0 (close replica of print)
1999 Open eBook Publication Structure
MOBI, KF8, AZW and more…
“EPUB3 is an open standard that can be consumed on
multiple devices- computers, laptops, tablets,
dedicated e-readers, and smartphones-from multiple
vendors” (Polanka, 2013).
DRM is like a lock and key for digital content. The
media is locked, and you have to have the key to
unlock it. Imagine you purchased a DVD that works in
your home player; then your player breaks, you buy
another one, and your DVD will not play in it.
“It prevents legitimate customers from doing what
they want with their content while doing absolutely
nothing to the people who acquired the same content
illegally” (Griffey, 2010).
The most compelling reasons to bypass Digital Rights
Management is by purchasing eBooks hosted on the
“The preservation of e-books is especially difficult
because each e-book consists of several distinct
Content and formatting of the work itself
Software needed to access and use the file
Operating system needed to run the software,
Hardware compatible with the operating system”.
Gale Standing order for LAU is an example.
A pilot project of ILL of eBooks is currently in motion. It is a
collaboration between Texas Tech University, the University
of Hawaii at Manoa and the Greater Western Library Alliance
A software program (working with ILLiad) that allows
interlibrary loan of ebooks.
Currently working with .PDF documents only, with plans to
support other formats of electronic books and to develop a
stand-alone, web-based version of the system.
Sue Polanka identified three main vendor types:
Publishers: Direct price negotiation with no
intermediary. This process requires staff time, mainly
Aggregators: An Aggregator represents several
publishers, therefore will renegotiate with all publishers
any change in business models, or license terms.
Wholesalers: These are similar to aggregators because
they negotiate the licenses and track billing and
ordering (and shipping for print titles). But most do not
have an eBook interface, thus they sell access to eBooks
from multiple aggregators.
Royal Society of
Alexander Street Press
(social sciences and
EBL and ebrary
subsidiary of Ingram).
Titles to be shifted/purchased are selected by Concerned
Librarians with the approval of the University Librarian.
Content evaluation (excerpt/portion/one or two chapters
Trial via IP (preferably) sent to all@lau, or via username and
Licensing: Before ordering, the library negotiates the
license agreement and makes sure Perpetual
Access/Archival Rights clause is to the benefit of the
library; and the cost of online format is justifiable.
Ordering: Once ordered, and upon activation, the product
will be added to the Libraries website and an email to
all@lau will be sent to promote the newly added resource.
of DRM is a major
barrier to eBooks
• Addressing eBook
of IT units, librarians,
faculty, and students.
• Any resentment from
any stakeholder, may
slow down the
capabilities are not
• This should be
Understand your needs and goals:
Space: Library needs to assign more space to students
Meet Demand: Students are asking for more seats/PCs
Extend print access: Circulate the Reference collection
Specialized collection curation: Theses and
Define your values and expectations
Ownership vs. access: Having access to information is
more critical to users than owning the info.
Libraries & ROI?
What do you want to achieve? Our main goal is our
Set a budget and timeframe
Founded in 1999 by Kevin Sayar &
Variety of models, products, and
◦ Subscription (ebrary pioneered
this e-book model)
◦ Perpetual archive
◦ Patron-driven acquisition
◦ Short-term loans
◦ SaaS and DASH!
2011 became a ProQuest business
• Company founded in 1997 by Australian
• EBL launched in 2004
• Variety of models, products, and services
• Perpetual Access
• Non-linear Lending Model (EBL
pioneered this e-book model)
• Demand-driven Acqusition (EBL
pioneered this model)
• Short-term loans (EBL pioneered
• May 2013 became a ProQuest business
Choice ∙ Experience ∙ Integration
Innovation ∙ Value ∙ Support
• Other ILS
• PQ platform
• Other Discovery
[PA] Perpetual Archive
84% of titles have multiple
Extended Access™ for
Multiple simultaneous access
at or near hardback price
Affordable base, unlimited multi-user
access and continued growth
Subscriptions based on specific
industries, engineering disciplines,
business skills, and corporate
Just in time, not just in case
Sophisticated profiling tools
Flexible Short-term Loans (STL)
aids in collection
shows the greatest ROI
ISBNs – Cleaning, Matching, Reporting
Benefits – No duplicates, Space Saving, Collection
Development, Strategic Acquisition (Sub, DDA, Purchase,
NLL), Discounts, High Use
Several Lebanese academic libraries started the
purchase of eBooks, No official statistics yet.
Lack of financial means is influencing libraries not to
invest in eBooks.
Librarians may want to see how others are dealing
with eBooks, eBooks readers, platforms etc. before going live.
LAU Libraries were pioneersin circulating
eBooks readers/Tablets among students in academic
libraries in Lebanon.
Conversion of print book (p-book) to e-book started
in 2000 with Encyclopaedia Britannica …ongoing process
2010-2011 # of eBooks: 121,553
2011-2012 # of eBooks: 137,208
2012-2013 # of eBooks: 182,126
Ebrary and SAFARI are entered as one entry in OPAC;
Springer is added at the title level.
Libraries need to expect and
embrace change with all its
challenges and opportunities.
Implementing eBooks successfully
is challenge #1in this decade.
Carreiro, E. (2010). Electronic books: How digital devices and supplementary new technologies are
changing the face of the publishing industry. Publishing Research Quarterly, 26(4), 219-235.
Retrieved March 1, 2014, from http://www.springerlink.com/content/815l71g801370q2u/
E-book. Merriam-Webster.com. Merriam-Webster, n.d. Retrieved March 16, 2014, from
Esposito, J. (2012). The Faculty’s Role in Patron-driven Acquisitions, The Scholarly Kitchen.
Retrieved February 28, 2014, from http://scholarlykitchen.sspnet.org/2012/02/08/the-
Griffey, J. (2010). Electronic book readers. Library Technology Reports, 46(3), 7-19, 2. Retrieved
February 10, 2014, from http://search.proquest.com/docview/202709359?accountid=27870
Kelley, M., Fialkoff, F., & Miller, R. (2011). The ebook opportunity. Library Journal, 136(19), 36-n/a.
Retrieved February 20, 2014, from
Li, C., Poe, F., Potter, M., Quigley, B., & Wilson, J. (2011, May). UC Libraries Academic e-Book Usage
Survey. Retrieved March 2, 2014, from
Miller, R. (2011). Dramatic growth. Library Journal, 136(17), 32-32. Retrieved February 11, 2014,
Nelson, M. R. (2008). E-books in higher education: Nearing the end of the era of hype? Educause
Review, 43(2). Retrieved March 24, 2014, from http://www.educause.edu/ero/article/e-
Polanka, S., (Ed.). (c2011). No shelf required: E-books in libraries. Chicago: American Library
Polanka, S. (2013). What Librarians Need to Know About EPUB3. Online Searcher, 70-72.
Polanka, S. (2011). Purchasing E-books in libraries: A maze of opportunities and challenges. Library
Technology Reports, 47(8), 4-7, 58. Retrieved February 17, 2014, from
Price, J. S. (2011). Patron driven acquisition of publisher-hosted content: Bypassing DRM. Retrieved
March 1, 2012, from
Rapp, D. (2011). Digital Book World Panels Tackle Libraries. Library Journal, 136(4),16. Retrieved
March 1, 2012, from http://www.libraryjournal.com/lj/ljinprint/currentissue/889052-
Walters, W. H. (2013). E-books in Academic Libraries: Challenges for Acquisition and
Collection Management. Portal: Libraries and the Academy, 13(2). 187–211.
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