Introduction to criminal justiceChapter objectives 1. Be able to discuss how crime is defined. 2. Define and discuss some of the different types of crime. 3. Be familiar with the methods used to measure crime. 4. Discuss the development of the nibrs program. 5. Be able to discuss the strengths and weakness of various measures of crime. 6. Recognize the trends in the crime rate. 7. Comment on the factors that influence crime rates. 8. Be familiar with trends in crime in other cultures. 9. Know the various crime patterns. 10. Understand the concept of the criminal career. Concept summary 2.1 Definition of crime Consensus view – the will of the majority shapes the law and defines crimes. – conflict view – the law is a tool of the ruling class. Agreement exists on the right and wrong. – crime is politically defined concept. Laws apply to all citizens equally. “ real crimes “ are not outlawed . the law is used to control the underclass. Interactionist view – social crusaders and moral entrepreneurs define crime. The definition of crime is subjective, reflecting contemporary values and morals. Criminal labels are life transforming events. Concept summary 2.2 data collection methods Uniform crime report ( ucr ) 1. Data is collected from records complied by police departments across the nation, which include crimes reported to police, and arrests. 2. Strengths of the ucr are that it measures homicides and arrests and that it is a consistent , national sample. 3. Weaknesses of the ucr are that it omits crimes not reported to police, omits most drug usage, and contains reporting errors. National crime victimization survey ( NCVS ) 1. Data is collected from a large national survey. 2. Strengths of the NCVS are that it includes crimes not reported to the police , uses careful sampling techniques and is yearly survey.
3. Weaknesses of the NCVS are that it relies on victim’s memory and honesty and that it omits substance abuse. Self-report surveys 1. Data is collected from local surveys. 2. Strengths of self-report surveys are that they include nonreported crimes and substance abuse and that offender’s personal information is included. 3. Weaknesses of self-report surveys are that they rely on the honest of offenders and that they omit offenders who refuse to or are unable to participate and who may be the most deviant. Chapter 2 key terms 1. Consensus view of crime pg.44 – the view that the great majority of citizens agree that certain behaviors must be outlawed or controlled, and that criminal law is designed to protect citizens from social harm. 2. Conflict view of crime pg.45 – the view that criminal law is created and enforced by those who hold political and economic power and is a tool used by the ruling class to control dissatisfied have-not members of society. 3. interactionist view of crime pg.iolencepg 45- the view that criminal law reflects the preferences and opinions of people who hold social power in the society and use their influences to impose their own values and moral code on the rest the population. 4. Moral entrepreneurs pg.45 – people who wage campaigns to control behaviors they view as immoral or wrong. 5. Crime pg.46 – a violation of social rules of conduct interpreted and expressed by a written criminal code created by people holding social and political power. Its content may be influenced by prevailing public sentiments historically developed moral beliefs and the need to protect public safety. 6. Expressive violence pg. 47 – violent behavior motivated by rage anger or frustration. 7. Instrumental violence pg.47- violent behavior that results from criminal activity designed to improve the financial status of the culprit such as shooting someone during a bank robbery. 8. Mass murderer pg.47 –type of multiple killer who kills many victims in a single violent outburst. 9. Spree killer pg.47 – type multiple killer who spreads the murderous outburst over a few days or weeks. 10. Hate crimes ( bias crimes ) pg.48 – criminal acts directed toward a particular person or members of a group because they share a discernible racial ethnic religious or gender characteristic.
11. Public order crimes pg 49 – behaviors that are illegal because they run counter to existing moral standards obscenity and prostitution are considered public order crimes.12. White-collar crime pg -51 – white-collar crimes involve the violation of rules of that control business enterprise they include employee pilferage bribery commodities law violations mail fraud computer fraud environmental law violation embezzlement internet scams extortion forgery insurance fraud price fixing and environmental pollution.13. Corporate crime pg. 51 - crime committed by a corporation or by individuals who control the corporation or other business entity for such purposes as illegally increasing market share avoiding taxes or thwarting competition.14. Uniform crime report ( ucr ) pg. 53 – the official crime data collected by the f.b.i from local police departments.15. Part 1 crimes pg. 54 – those crimes used by the f.b.i to gauge fluctuations in the overall volume and rate of crime. The offenses included were the violent crimes of murder and nonnegligent manslaughter forcible rape robbery and aggravated assault and the property crimes of burglary larceny motor vehicle theft and arson.16. Part 2 crimes pg. 54 – all other crimes reported to the f.b.i these are less serious crimes and misdemeanors excluding traffic violations.17. Cleared pg. 55 – an offense is cleared by arrest or solved when at least one person is arrested or charged with the commission of the offense and is turned over to the court for prosecution.18. National incident-based reporting system pg. 57 – a form of crime data collection created by the f.b.i requiring local police agencies to provide at least brief account of each incident and arrest within 22 crime patterns including the incident victim and offender information.19. National crime victimization survey pg. 58 – the nation’s primary source of information on criminal victimization. Each year data from a national sample measure the frequency characteristics and consequences of criminal victimization by such crimes as rape sexual assault robbery assault theft household burglary and motor vehicle theft.20. Self-report survey pg.59 – a research approach that questions large groups of subjects such as high school students about their own participation in delinquent or criminal acts.21. Instrumental crimes pg. 73 - criminal acts intended to improve the financial or social position of the criminal.22. Expressive crimes pg.73 – criminal acts that serve to vent rage anger or frustration.23. Liberal feminist theory pg. 76 – an ideology holding that woman suffer oppression discrimination and disadvantage as a result of their sex and calling for gender equality in pay opportunity child care and education.
24. Racial threat hypothesis pg. – 77 – the view that young minority males are subject to greater police control for example – formal arrest when their numbers increase within the population.25. Career criminals pg. 79 – persistent repeat offenders who organize their lifestyle around criminality.26. Chronic offenders pg. 79 –as defined by marvinwolfgang Robert figlio and Thorsten sellin delinquents arrested five or more times before the age of 18 who commit a disproportionate amount of all criminal offenses.27. Early onset pg. 81 – the principle or fact that kids who have been exposed to a variety of personal and social problems at an early age are the most risk to repeat offending.28. Three-stikes law pg. 81 – sentencing codes that require that an offender receive a life sentence after conviction for a third felony. Some states allow parole after a lengthy prison stay – for example 25 years.29. Truth –in-sentencing laws pg. 81 – laws requiring convicted felons to spend a significant portion of their sentence behind bars.