Shkodra University
“Luigj Gurakuqi”
Economic Faculty

Second International Conference
“Challenges of Sustainable Tourism D...
Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi”
Economic Faculty

Second International Conference
“Challenges of Sustainable Tourism D...
Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi”
Economic Faculty

Second International Conference
“Challenges of Sustainable
Tourism D...
Copyright ©2011 Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi”,
Economic Faculty

All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of...
CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS

Parallel Sessions
Session1: Management and sustainable tourism development
Session 2: Financial an...
Organizing Committee:
Prof. As. Dr. Arjeta Troshani - Dean of Economic Faculty, Shkodra
University
Dr. Brilanda Bushati - ...
CONTENT
PREFACE ..................................................................................................11
OPENI...
9. Dr. Brilanda Bushati, Dr. Fatbardha Molla (Beqiri), Shkodra
University, Prof. Dr. Arjan Abazi, University of Tirana, IT...
20. Dr. Arjola DERGJINI, Dr. Albana BORIÇI (BEGANI), Dr. Ardita
BORIÇI, Shkodra University, Management Of Change In Shkodr...
31. Dr.Ilirjan Lipi, University of Vlora “Ismail Qemali”, The Role Of
Education And Qualification Of Workforce For Sustain...
PREFACE
This year the topic of the conference that Economic Faculty of Shkodra
University has organized was about tourism ...
Among the last achievements of Economic Faculty was the participation as
partner in TEMPUS project 2011 – 2014 in collabor...
OPENING SPEECH
Prof. Dr. Sara Santoro
University “G.d’Annunzio” Chieti-Pescara, Italy
Dear Minister, Authorities, Rectors,...
update the present curricula of the Partners Countries, helping them
applying the Bologna Process.
As a concrete implement...
As a premise there are several problems and limitations to the
implementation of higher education courses in Balkan transi...
support this education offer every year or if a multiyear program changing
is needed in order to make this professional pr...
Heritage. For what concerns my University G. D’Annunzio of Chieti
Pescara, Grant Holder of the project and here represente...
18
SESSION 1:

MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE
TOURISM DEVELOPMENT

19
20
MASTER AND DOCTORAL STUDIES IN CULTURAL TOURISM.
PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES IN WESTERN BALKANS ∗.
Prof. Massimo Bianchi
Lau...
relevant tool of teaching to be adopted in Universities for the development
of entrepreneurial and managerial competencies...
Western Balkans. Tempus is implemented in close coordination with the
Erasmus Mundus programme which provides scholarships...
staff; - intra-country general meetings; preparation of the pilot doctoral program,
enrolling the first generation of doct...
world level, - changes in science and technology but notably the growing
importance of organisational and societal innovat...
topics concerns the role of local governments in the development of local
systems and in the improvement of their competit...
First of all, when we examine Masters, Doctorates and PhDs, we have to
consider that, although the increasing diffusion of...
teaching staff is motivated by their professional experience, so their
recruitment is not based on their educational degre...
and in supporting the research of the students and the dissemination of
results in international conferences and workshops...
-

Companies that can give some financial support to the doctoral students
and will enable students to do research;
State ...
The calculation of the costs related to the two courses managed by
University of Bologna (Fig.3), taken as examples for al...
Fig. 5 - The main determinants of the sustainability.
More cycles

Sholarship

Students fee
Financial and
academic
Sustain...
In Masters concerning Tourism this choice will be crossed with another
dimension that is the Economic or Technical One.
Fo...
focused on Less Specialized Skills with the content of the teaching more
oriented to management and economics while the pr...
Summarizing the main features: the duration of the start up was 4 days
involving 13 participants grouped in three business...
-

Limited resources available to fund Masters and Doctorates that,
owing to the scarce demand of this level of education ...
future to ensure the diffusion and implementation of Masters and Doctoral
Studies in Western Balkan Countries.
References
...
15 Maggio 2010 Almaty (Kazakhstan), pp. 3-9, Foundation of the First
President of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Tampieri L.,...
MAINTENANCE AND CONTROL OF PUBLIC USE LAND IN
ALBANIA’S SHKODER LAKE AND VELIPOJA BEACH AREAS
Prof.As.Dr.Arjeta Troshani
D...
Key words: Sanitary, Tourism Development, Destination Management,
Control, Taxes, and Strategy.

1.Background
1.1 Tourism ...
century, around it the rivers and the lake and the city in the middle of them.
& km from the city, there is another monume...
Shkodra for short holidays, because the condition for longer holidays is
missed.
There are other regions with touristic ch...
precise research plan, including even the adding investments that
complete the lack of infrastructure, to even satisfy the...
entrance of the beach is a terraced Belvedere - an ideal place for spending
the last hours of another unique day of the ho...
2.0 Why the Study? First, Professor Oelfke has made 14 trips to Albania
since 2005, 11 of those trips have been to Shkodra...
ways age was selected for analysis because it showed the greatest amount of
diversity in results. Fully 70% of the respond...
Respondents in below 45 were much more apt to use the public beach
compared to their older counterparts. Respondents to th...
Employment status of respondents:
Age
Business owner
Government official
Tourist
Student
Other

<18

18-30
7%
7%

>46

12%...
Which are the information means you use most with the regard to touristic
destination environment?
Age
Written media
Visua...
3.3 Conclusions: The majority of all respondents seek out touristic
destinations for the purpose of relaxation and recreat...
While placing a tax on visitors when they visit rent a hotel room is often
viewed in a very popular light in the United St...
E. The expansion of the “private” beach season from the current
June, July, August to include the months of May and Septem...
of public, exist in other parts of the world be it the French Riviera or nearby
Montenegro it is ultimately the Albanian p...
EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT
OF MONUMENTS OF NATURE TOURISM OUR
Prof. Dr. PERIKLI QIRIAZI
Msc. BLERTA AVDIA
Geography, Univer...
On this basis, the Protected Area is considered "land space, water resources,
withspecial values of biodiversity, natural ...
Natural wealth is preserved in generations should be managed for scientific,
ecological, cultural, curative, didactic, rel...
Tab.1 .Monuments of Natyres by counties, districts of Albania
Nr. Countrie

district

1. Berat

Qarku
Berat
Skrapar
Qarku
...
Albanian diverse nature and evolution of complex emergency, there are
many more still unknown to deserve this status, it i...
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Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
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Second international conference “challenges of sustainable tourism development” shkodër, 04 november 2011

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Second International Conference
“Challenges of Sustainable Tourism Development”
Shkodër, 04 November 2011

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Second international conference “challenges of sustainable tourism development” shkodër, 04 november 2011

  1. 1. Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi” Economic Faculty Second International Conference “Challenges of Sustainable Tourism Development” Shkodër, 04 November 2011 1
  2. 2. Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi” Economic Faculty Second International Conference “Challenges of Sustainable Tourism Development” Shkodër, 04 November 2011 2
  3. 3. Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi” Economic Faculty Second International Conference “Challenges of Sustainable Tourism Development” Shkodër, 04 November 2011 SESSION 1 3
  4. 4. Copyright ©2011 Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi”, Economic Faculty All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of any part of this work beyond that permitted by author without permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Disclaimer: While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, contained in this publication, the Scientific Committee and Scientific Reviewers will not assume liability for writing and any use made of the proceedings and the presentations of the participating institutions concerning the legal status of any country, territory or area. “This project has been funded with Support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein." ISBN: 978-9928-4011-6-8 Botues: Universiteti i Shkodrës “Luigj Gurakuqi” 4
  5. 5. CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS Parallel Sessions Session1: Management and sustainable tourism development Session 2: Financial and legal reforms in sustainable tourism Scientific Committee 1. Prof. Dr. Dhori Kule, Tirana University, Albania 2. Prof.Dr.Sara Santoro, University “G.d’Annunzio” Chieti-Pescara, Italy 3. Prof. Dr. Massimo Bianchi, Bologna University, Italy 4. Prof. Dr. Fausto De Salvo, Bologna University, Italy 5. Prof. Dr. Mahir Hoti, Shkodra University, Albania 6. Prof. Dr. Andrea Pieroni, University of Gastronomic Sciences, Italy 7. Prof. Dr. Andrea Kagermeier, University of Trier, Germany 8. Prof. Dr. Sulo Haderi, Tirana University, Albania 9. Prof. Dr. Fatmir Memaj, Tirana University, Albania 10. Prof. Dr. Liljana Elmazi,Tirana University, Albania 11. Prof. Dr. Vjollca Bakiu, Tirana University, Albania 12. Prof. As. Dr. Servete Gruda, Albanian Competition Institution 13. Prof. As. Dr. Kozeta Sevrani, Tirana University, Albania 14. Prof. As. Dr. Arjeta Troshani, Shkodra University, Albania 15. Prof. As. Dr. Drita Kruja, Shkodra University, Albania 16. Adriana Galvani, PhD, Bologna Univeristy, Italy 17. Dr. Armand Krasniqi, Prishtina University, Kosovo 18. Dr. Blerta Dragusha, Shkodra University, Albania 19. Dr. Albana Begani, Shkodra University, Albania 20. Dr. Brilanda Bushati, Shkodra University, Albania 21. Dr. Mirjam Dibra, Shkodra University, Albania 22. Ted Oelfke, MBA Sandhills College, USA 5
  6. 6. Organizing Committee: Prof. As. Dr. Arjeta Troshani - Dean of Economic Faculty, Shkodra University Dr. Brilanda Bushati - Tourism Department, Economic Faculty, Shkodra University Alkida Hasaj, MMK - Tourism Department, Economic Faculty, Shkodra University 6
  7. 7. CONTENT PREFACE ..................................................................................................11 OPENING SPEECH ..................................................................................13 Session 1: “Management and Sustainable tourism development” 1. Prof. Dr.Massimo Bianchi, Laura Tampieri, Bologna University, Master and Doctoral studies in Cultural Tourism. Problems and perspectives in Western Balkans ...........................................................21 2. Prof. As.Dr. Arjeta Troshani, Shkodra University, Ted Oelfke, MBA Sandhills College USA, Maintenance and Control of Public Use Land in Albania’s Shkoder Lake and Velipoja Beach Areas ..........................39 3. Prof. Dr. Perikli Qiriazi, Msc.Blerta Avdia Geography, University of Tirana Evaluation And Management Of Monuments of our Nature Tourism ..................................................................................................54 4. Dr. Mirjam Dibra, Shkodra University, Ted Oelfke, MBA Sandhills College USA, Integration of the Concept of Sustainable Tourism within the Higher Education Curriculum: An Albanian Case Study ................62 5. Prof.as.Dr.Artan Hoxha, Dr.Sokol Mengjezi, Faculty of Law UT, Extra contracting responsibility of tourist entrepreneur for damages caused to health, security and property of client-An instrument of importance for development of tourism industry ..................................90 6. Dr. Alketa Vangjeli, Faculty of Economy University “Aleksandër Xhuvani”, Elbasan Problems And Prospects Of Sustainable Tourism Development In Albania ......................................................................104 7. Matilda LIKAJ PhD Cand Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences Epoka University Globalization dimensions and Globalization of Culture: Development of Tourism in perspective of Albanian Culture Case .........................................................................117 8. Dr. Ilir Kaduku, Agricultural University of Tirana, The Past, the Present and the Future of the Albanian Tourism .................................132 7
  8. 8. 9. Dr. Brilanda Bushati, Dr. Fatbardha Molla (Beqiri), Shkodra University, Prof. Dr. Arjan Abazi, University of Tirana, IT in tourism and reservation systems ..........................................................152 10. Msc. Shqiponja Nallbani, University of Prishtina, Peje, The role of cross-border management and its impact on regional tourism development in the areas of Accursed Mountains (UES) - The role of the Kosovar institutions- ............................................................................165 11. Rovena TROPLINI MSc, Adela ÇAFULI MSc Tourism as a responsibility for growing Albanian economy ..................................178 12. Msc. Blerim KOLA, Msc. Dorian KRISTIQI, University Aleksander Moisiu Durres, The role of internet advertising to the Companies in Albania ..........................................................................194 13. Gloria Harusha Msc, Arjeta Anamali Msc, Shkodra University, Armela Anamali Msc, University Aleksander Moisiu Durres. Community involvement in tourism development ..............................205 14. Dr. Andriela Vitić – ćetković Ass’t professor University of Montenegro Kotor, Promotion of peace tourism and sustainable development – West Balkans’s perspective .........................................217 15. Eglantina Hysa, Epoka University, Influence of Tourism Sector in Albanian Gross Domestic Product .......................................................224 16. Bashkim Berberi, MPA. (Candidat Dr.), Kristal University, Tirana, Ledjon Shahini MSC. (Candidat Dr.) “INSTAT”, Tirana,Tourism development in Albania .......................................................................236 17. Prof. Dr. Jovan Stojanoski, Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality, Ohrid, Macedonia,Klime Poposki, PhD, Insurance Supervision Agency of Republic of Macedonia, Stevco Meceski, Msc, Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality, Ohrid, Macedonia, Prof Dr. Liljana Elmazi, University of Tirana, The Influence of Previous Visitation on Customer’s Evaluation of a Tourism Destination ................................250 18. MSc. Rudina RAMAJ (Lipi), University Kristal, Prof. Dr. Fatmir MEMAJ, University of Tirana, Tourist SME-s And Financial Management Practices .........................................................................266 19. Prof. As. Servete Gruda, Competition Authority Albania, Pranvera Beqiri, MSc, Prof. As. Albana Hashorva University of Tirana, Impact of promotion on increasing the competitiveness of tourism in Northern Albania .................................................................................277 8
  9. 9. 20. Dr. Arjola DERGJINI, Dr. Albana BORIÇI (BEGANI), Dr. Ardita BORIÇI, Shkodra University, Management Of Change In Shkodra Hotels ...................................................................................................291 21. Alkida Hasa MMK, Candidate PhD, Shkodra University, Forcim Kola, Candidate PhD,UAM Durres, Innovation Approach for the Tourism Enterprise in Albania .............................................................307 22. Romina Dhora, PhD candidate, Shkodra University, Plarent Bala, MA, The historical houses of the “Gjuhadol” street in Shkodra city. The application of a multidisciplinary support system for tourism planning and the development of sustainable cultural tourism ...........................321 23. Bujar Leskaj, PhD, Ilir ELMAZI, PhD student, University of Tirana, Adoption of customer relation management in travel industry. the barriers and perspectives from its implementation. the case of Albania .................................................................................................328 24. Mersida Bala, PhD candidate, Shkodra University, Marsel Fregjaj, Msc, Models of sustainable tourism development. The management organization of Razma destination ......................................................343 25. Brunilda Liçaj, Candidate PhD, Fatbardha Kadiu, Candidate PhD, UAM Durres, Local System Of Touristic Offer (Lsto) ......................353 26. Helga Vukaj,PhD,University of Tirana, Evelina Bazini, PhD, University of Vlora , Prof. Dr. Liljana Elmazi University of Tirana, Influencing Consumer Behavior To Promote Sustainable Tourism In Viewpoint Of Local Authority Perspective ……….…………………365 27. Fabjana MAKSUTAJ, MA, PhD. Candidate, Tirana University, Faculty of Sociology.Prof.Dr. Vjollca BAKIU, Tirana University, Faculty of Economy Tourist Behavior and Tourist Product Adaptation: For a Sustainable Tourism Development .............................................378 28. Zhaneta Ndregjoni, Ph.D student, Mimoza Kalia, PhD student, Economic Faculty, Tirana University, E- Marketing And ITCSupported Tourist Destination Management In Global Recession ......393 29. Oli Pero, Rozafa Alibali MMK,Economic Faculty Shkodra University, Developing successful marketing strategies for heritage attractions in Shkodra ..........................................................................406 30. MA. Albana Madhi, MSC.Marsida Ashiku (Ranxha), University of Elbasan, Promotion and economic development of the Castle of Elbasan, turning into a tourist destination ...........................................419 9
  10. 10. 31. Dr.Ilirjan Lipi, University of Vlora “Ismail Qemali”, The Role Of Education And Qualification Of Workforce For Sustainable Development Of Albanian Tourism ....................................................432 32. MSc. Arbi Agalliu, Problems and challenges of tourism in Albania 443 33. Dorina Hoxha, Phd Candidate, Dr. Kristinka Jance, University of Tirana, Criminal Law Protection on Cultural Heritage Tourism .......453 34. Dr. Florian Nepravishta, Polytechnic University of Tirana, Preservation and restoration of the historical center of Shkodra an added value for elite tourism ..........................................................................466 35. Dr.Ing. Shkëlqim GJEVORI, Ministry of Public of Works and Transport, Dr. Gjergj SHQAU, University "Alexander Xhuvani" Elbasan, Alternatives for the development of sustainable tourism Shkodra case study ...............................................................................482 36. Lorenc KOÇIU MSc , Robert ÇELO MBA, Irena BOBOLI MSc, “Eqrem Çabej” University, Gjirokastra The development of rural areas through agro tourism (Gjirokastra region) ..................................494 37. M.sc. Irena BOBOLI, Doc. Msc. Drita LUZO, MBA. Robert Çelo, University “Eqrem Çabej” Gjirokaster. Tourism Development In Gjirokastra District ..............................................................................507 10
  11. 11. PREFACE This year the topic of the conference that Economic Faculty of Shkodra University has organized was about tourism because this has become a prioritary sector of economic development of our country and especially for the Northern Albania. During these last years there is a great interest shown on the respect to culture and nature conservation and sustainable development model has been launched as the best model for tourism development in a global level. Tourism has been recognized as one of the driving forces of Albania’s economy - providing jobs and income to thousands of families. And travel and tourism affects all sectors of Albania’s economy, stimulating the growth of small and medium-sized enterprises in other sectors– creating more jobs and income along the way. According to the 2008 World Travel & Tourism Council report, Albania’s travel and tourism economy directly and indirectly accounted for $1.8 billion, equivalent to almost 15 % of the Albania’s GDP, and employed almost 150,000 jobs or 12% of the total employment. The public sector and the private sector have helped attract foreign tourists with the completion of the new international Rinas airport, with representation in international travel fairs, with investment in a multi-media advertising campaign for CNN, BBC and with the development of a state-of-the art website for the National Tourism Agency—all important tools that contribute to placing Albania on the map as an international tourism destination. In the strategy, the principle of sustainable tourism development is stated as the guiding principle to build the sector. In doing so, Albania has chosen a difficult path, but the right one, that in the long-term will preserve Albania’s cultural heritage, conserve natural resources, protect precious archeological and historical monuments, and improve livelihoods. That is way several papers of this international conference has presented the eminent problem of environment protection and management, waste management, global dimension of tourism development grouped at session 1. Meanwhile on the session 2 are presented papers with regard to financial reforms, legal aspects of tourism, and applying new European standards on certification and environment protection. 11
  12. 12. Among the last achievements of Economic Faculty was the participation as partner in TEMPUS project 2011 – 2014 in collaboration with the main grantholder of this project Chieti University “G.d’Annunzio” of Pescara, Italy titled “Network for Post Graduate Masters in Cultural Heritage and Tourism Management in Balkan Countries”. This project will aim opening of a Master in Cultural Heritage creating in this way greater qualification opportunities for the students of Economic Faculty adding value to this year opened Masters in Finance, Accounting and BusinessAdministration and existing Master in Sustainable Tourism. The titles of the two sessions of our second international tourism conference have been as following: Session1: Management and sustainable tourism development Session 2: Financial and legal reforms in sustainable tourism We hope that this conference will motivate Economic Faculty of Shkodra University as one of the promoters of economic development of Northern Albania and especially of the sustainable tourism development at this region. Prof.As.Dr.Arjeta Troshani Dean of Economic Faculty Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi” 12
  13. 13. OPENING SPEECH Prof. Dr. Sara Santoro University “G.d’Annunzio” Chieti-Pescara, Italy Dear Minister, Authorities, Rectors, Dear guests and colleagues, ladies and gentlemen, It’s my personal proud and pleasure today to speak, in the context of this important International conference, organized by the Faculty of Economics on the theme of Changing in development of sustainable; it also constitutes the Opening Conference of a European Tempus IV (Four) Joint Project, which I have the honor to present You as Grant Holder. The CHTMBAL - Network for Post Graduate Masters in Cultural Heritage and Tourism Management in Balkan Countries, is a Joint Project selected by the European Agency over two thousand of the IV(Fourth) Tempus application call, with an important grant of budget, classifying 59th over 560 approved projects. You well know that the main objectives of the Tempus program are: •to build up the capacity of higher education institutions in the partner countries and the EU, in particular for international cooperation and for a permanent modernization process, and to assist them in opening themselves up to society at large; •to enhance networking among higher education institutions and research institutions across the Partner Countries and EU Member States. •to enhance mutual understanding between peoples and cultures of the EU and of the partner countries More specifically, our Joint Project CHTMBAL, aims at enhancing the cultural heritage management and sustainable tourism in Albania and Kosovo. The main objective of this project is to create a university network for Post Graduate Masters in Cultural Heritage and Tourism Management, which will allow sharing knowledge, methods and tools between the European Countries and the Partner Countries. Through the creation of an interuniversity network the Scientific Committee will review, reform and 13
  14. 14. update the present curricula of the Partners Countries, helping them applying the Bologna Process. As a concrete implementation of this Network, the creation of two Pilot Master Courses (one in Albania and one in Kosovo) is foreseen. The goal of this Master is to create a group of young professionals well trained in this field and to help them enter in the labor market; at the same time we will work on teacher training to allow the project to self-sustain. The Master Pilot will take place in the University of Shkoder and in the University of Prizren, involving twenty students per university. Albania and Kosovo are two countries rich in history, arts, ancient and noble traditions, with wonderful seascapes, lakes and mountains. Until a few years ago they were little known in Europe and this adds charm to their discover. A brilliant advertisement, a few years ago, promoted tourism in Albania defining it “the last secret land of Europe”. In the past these countries played an important role in the history of Europe: since the Iron Age, the princes of these areas enriched by metals, agriculture and breeding, kept strong relationships with the Mediterranean world and that is manifested by the treasures of their tombs. In the Roman and Byzantine Age different emperors were born and walked in these lands, founded cities, built roads, bridges, amphitheaters. Peoples of these lands formed for centuries the heroic barrier of the Christian Europe toward the Turkish invasion. Recently these countries have been an example of pacific cohabitation between different religions and beliefs. All these cultural, historical, landscape values form the fundament of national identities and at the same time a new resource, in times of great people mobility, when travel becomes the discovery of new places and ancient times, a chance to meet persons and cultures Actually the number of tourists is quickly increasing in Albania and Kosovo; with that, the request for cultural and sustainable tourism is increasing too. Sustainable tourism is the only solution to avoid the reckless exploitation of the resources of these two countries; and there is no sustainable tourism without the awareness, knowledge, fruition and development of the cultural heritage. The Master course implemented by the Project will focus on the key concepts of cultural tourism and heritage management: resource definition, destination planning, work instruments (Key Informant Interviews, Internet, and surveys) and key institution involvement, providing all the resources needed to reach the goal. 14
  15. 15. As a premise there are several problems and limitations to the implementation of higher education courses in Balkan transition countries. Specifically in Albania and Kosovo, the high education situation saw an increasing number of private universities, many of them completely unreliable, and many public universities which already existed but with limited resources and committed to the effort of adjustment to the bologna process and international standards (the north American one more than European). The existing laws don’t clearly state the degree and that allowed the private universities market to grow; these results in many people paying consistent fees without really attending the courses. For these reasons, the Albanian and Kosovo’s universities selected as partners of our project are just state universities. But we see a restricted autonomy of these Universities as it concerns the accreditation process. No coordination or dialog with Ministerial structures to exchange information and to make more flexible and up to dated the process of certification. We see also several difficulties in the beneficiaries’ universities in establishing a sustainable cycle of Master/Doctorate owing to limited resources available to fund Masters and Doctorates and to the scarce demand of this level from local private companies and stakeholders. We see also a scarce level of students and also of professors due to a local origin of most of them: many Eastern students come to Europe and USA to obtain certificate to spent at home for more prestigious jobs or work positions. On the basis of this considerations, the Master course implemented by the Project will be a professional master, and it will be a first level master, with ninety 90 ECTS, 60 sixty of which recognizable in the university master of science degree. The master of the project is focused on the key concepts of cultural tourism and heritage management: resource definition, destination planning, work instruments (Key Informant Interviews, Internet, and surveys) and key institution involvement, providing all the resources needed to reach the goal. Actually, issues related on the real labor market receptivity of this professional, both from enterprises and institutions, are still debated. So it becomes crucial a meeting with them, and a proper evaluation of the admitted number of students and on the type of Master (first level, second level, PhD). There is also the need to understand if so little countries can 15
  16. 16. support this education offer every year or if a multiyear program changing is needed in order to make this professional profiles useful. The theoretical part of the courses will focus on three main fields: humanities (history, archeology, anthropology, folklore, and human geography), management (tourism-based market, event creation, economical strategies for tourism, sustainable tourism development, marketing) and law and administrative studies (Cultural heritage laws, tourism policies, cultural policies, administration and organization guidelines). Also it will be paid great attention not only on e-learning but also on the effective use of esources for tourism, cultural management and event creation (websites, research engines, advertising on internet and so on.) During the project many agreements with local institutions and enterprises will be established, in order to create stages where the students can apply what they have learnt and help them enter in the labor market. The project will also provide teachers and administration training thanks to the experience and the shared knowledge of the EU partners Direct beneficiaries of the project are Universities, faculties, professors and students from Albania and Kosovo. Professors will benefit from the curriculum and syllabi which will give them the chance to upgrade their teaching skills, implement new teaching methods and methodology and prepare the handouts for the courses lecturing. The master students will benefit from their study visit and established communication with highly respective European educational institutions. This will provide them with competencies and will increase their competitiveness on the labor market with end result in contribution to the development of the economy in the beneficiaries’ countries both in the institutions and enterprises of Albania and Kosovo. Along with the partnership with the universities of Shkoder and Prizren, also the University of Durres will be involved in the project. The support from the local institutions will be granted by the Cultural Monument Institute of Albania (the state institution which manage the architectonical, archaeological and artistic heritage of the Albanian Republic) and by the World University Service of Kosovo (an NGO with the assignment of higher education rebuilding in Kosovo). A solid scientific background is guaranteed by the Institut Català d'Arqueologia Classica and the Archaeology Department of Warsaw University, which has worked for many years in excavation and development of the Balkan archaeological 16
  17. 17. Heritage. For what concerns my University G. D’Annunzio of Chieti Pescara, Grant Holder of the project and here represented by the Dean of Humanities on behalf of the Rector, has a long tradition of archeological and historical studies on the balkan area and intensive relationships with the Cultural Heritage institutions: as holder of the Italian Archaelogical Mission in Durres, we have a ten years long collaboration for a better knowledge of the history of the city through the implementation of urban management tool, like the archaeological risk plan, the collaboration to urban plans, technical and scientific support to development-led excavations, the study, excavation and development of the roman amphitheater Many other Italian universities are involved and more specifically: Alma Mater Bologna University (Faculty of Economics – Rimini, renown for Tourism Economy), SVIMAP, (Public Management Development Network) and “Leonardo da Vinci" e-University for the e-learning platform. Together with this partners and with the help and support of national and local institutions and enterprises, we are certain that this project will result in important outcomes for the development of methodological tools and for the scientific and cultural growth of both local and european partners Thank you for your kind attention. To everybody, you and us the best wishes for a good job. 17
  18. 18. 18
  19. 19. SESSION 1: MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT 19
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  21. 21. MASTER AND DOCTORAL STUDIES IN CULTURAL TOURISM. PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES IN WESTERN BALKANS ∗. Prof. Massimo Bianchi Laura Tampieri University of Bologna Forlì Faculty of Economics Abstract The paper analyses and discusses the problems and perspectives in preparing and managing didactical programs, methodologies and syllabi of Cultural Tourism in Higher Education courses. The Cultural Tourism is an interdisciplinary topic for Higher Education courses and, although the interest connected to the priorities in Balkans governmental policies and international projects, it could be a challenge for Master and PhD programs. The paper considers some projects managed by Bologna University in Western Balkans with the aim of creating Master and Doctoral studies in the Cultural Tourism sector underlining the structure and process aspects linked to the teaching. The analysis will point out the relevance of this sector in the University system and in the international programmes by considering the didactical offer (Master and PhD) realized on this topic in Western Balkans countries and particularly in Albania, Macedonia and Kosovo. Moreover the results are connected to the description of detailed programs, methodologies and syllabi of teaching at University level in the Cultural Tourism field. Another topic refers to the involvement of local systems and small businesses for implementing the Cultural Tourism offer in the international market. To this purpose a particular focus is set on the distance learning, and particularly on the Simulimpresa methodology, that could be considered as a ∗ Although this paper is the result of a joint collaboration, paragraphs 2 and 4 are attributed to M. Bianchi, par. 1, 3 and 5 to L. Tampieri. 21
  22. 22. relevant tool of teaching to be adopted in Universities for the development of entrepreneurial and managerial competencies, mainly those linked to small business. Key words: Cultural Tourism, TEMPUS, Master, PhD, Simulimpresa 1. The TEMPUS programme for Master courses and PhD programme development The paper wants to highlight the problems and perspectives linked to the didactical programs, methodologies and syllabus in Master courses and PhD programs on Cultural Tourism by considering the experiences of Bologna University in two TEMPUS projects: DOCSMES “Regional Joint Doctoral Programme in Entrepreneurship and SME Management for Western Balkan Countries” and CHTMBAL “Network for Post Graduate Masters in Cultural Heritage and Tourism Management in Balkan Countries” (Fig.1). Both initiatives aim to enforce the Reform of Higher Education with particular focus on the structure and the process of didactical programmes implementation through also distance learning methodologies such as the enterprise simulation called “Simulimpresa”. Simulipresa represents an innovative didactical tool based on the learning by doing principle in which the participants create in a classroom a virtual enterprise developing managerial competencies mainly linked to business management (Tampieri 2011a). The Reform of Higher Education through International University Cooperation is a well recognized priority in many national and international programmes such as the Tempus 1 managed by the European Commission (Bianchi, Tampieri 2011). This is the longest-standing EU initiative that has a strong focus on institutional cooperation. Since its inception in 1990, University cooperation under the Tempus programme has contributed successfully to enforce the sustainable University partnerships as well as to enhance mutual understanding between academic worlds of the European Union and the Western Balkans. The Tempus programme contributes to the creation of an area of cooperation in the field of higher education involving European Union and 1 http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/tempus/programme/about_tempus_en.php 22
  23. 23. Western Balkans. Tempus is implemented in close coordination with the Erasmus Mundus programme which provides scholarships to third country students allowing them to participate in top-level master courses and doctorate programmes inside EU (Tampieri 2009). Fig.1 – The profile of DOCSMES and CHTMBAL. Applicant Consortium Partner Duration EU Grant Wider Objectives Specific Project Objectives: Activities: DOCSMES University of Bologna Dardania University, Agency for promotion of entrepreneurship of the RM, Macedonian Chambers of Commerce, Seavus dooel Skopje, Konfederata e Industrive te Shqiperise-Albanian Confederation, University St. Kliment Ohridski Bitola, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, University of Tirana, University of Nice – Sophia Antipolis, Agricultural University of Tirana, South East European University 15/10/2010 – 14/10/2013 762.549,00 Euro Development and implementation of a joint doctoral programme in Entrepreneurship and SME Management in order to complete the three cycled HE system in accordance with Bologna Process and key EHEA/ERA goals. -Developing the structure, curriculum and modalities of the Doctoral Programme in Entrepreneurship and SME Management harmonized with EU standards; - Enhancing the exchanging of experience and best practices with EU partner universities, through mobility of academic and administrative staff and doctoral students; Developing new teaching methodologies including Distance Learning tools; Enforcing stakeholders’ involvement in both curriculum development and research activities; - Establishing Standards in Doctoral studies and Providing Quality assurance; - Improving capacities of the Western Balkans countries' Universities; Pilot Programme implementation; Sustainability; - Dissemination. - Kick-off meeting, developing the first phase-curriculum courses; enforcing the stakeholders involvement in curricula development and realization; developing syllabi; developing new teaching methods, doctoral dissertation phase; trainining on distance learning mode; training of supervisors; - Training of administrative 23 CHTMBAL University “G.d’Annunzio” Chieti-Pescara University of Durres, Institut Català D’Arqueologia Classica, Instituti I monumenteve te kultures “Gani Strazimiri”, Antiquity of Southeastern Europe Res. Centre, University of Warsaw, University Luigj Gurakuqi”, SVIMAP Network, World University Service Kosova, University of Prizren, Università Telematica “Leonardo da Vinci”, Bologna University 15/10/2011 – 14/10/2014 706.843,37 Euro Development of a Network for Post Graduate Masters in Cultural Heritage and Tourism Management in the Balkan Countries; Creation of two pilot master courses in Partners Countries - Creation of a interuniversity network for an educational system oriented to the development of proficiencies for the cultural heritage management, events creation and sustainable tourism; - Review and reform of PC curricula Normalization of PC curricula to the Bologna Process and ECTS; - Sharing and improving the EU experience through mobility and teacher training; - Involvement of key institutions and enterprises; -Development of new teaching methods; -Development of modules for MSc degrees; - Start-up and implementation of pilot Msc degrees in Cultural Heritage and Tourism Management; Establishment of Quality standards; Dissemination of the results and sustainability of the project -Kick-off meeting; Project teams establishment: Creation of the Scientific Committee, Evaluation Committee and Project Management Board (PMB); - Reporting and budgeting; - Regular PMB meetings; - Review of the Partner curricula to the Bologna Process and of policies on cultural heritage and cultural management; - Meeting with local key
  24. 24. staff; - intra-country general meetings; preparation of the pilot doctoral program, enrolling the first generation of doctoral students; starting the first semester courses/lectures, seminars and workshops; starting the second semester lectures, seminars and workshops; Mobility of students; the third and fourth semester pilot research work and doctoral thesis proposal; - purchasing and applying the IT equipment and software related to the programme; - Conferences and workshops; Web site designing and updating; Teaching methods and distance learning mode dissemination; International Conference for the dissemination of final results; - Ceating quality control standards and processes in line with EU relevant standards; quality control implementation; creation of quality control body related to the doctoral programme; Monitoring the quality procedures implementation; - Establishment of the Communication Body; Supporting the research activities by business Output -Developing and structuring doctoral programme in Entrepreneurship and SME Management as a third cycle programme in English; - Doctoral programme implementation; Dissemination; - Management of the Project; -Quality Control and Monitoring; Exploitation and Sustainability institutions and enterprises for the definition of a professional profile; - Development of the syllabi; Development of the new teaching methods (distance learning); -Training courses and visits (mobility) of teachers and administrators for the preparation of MSc curricula; -Creation of agreements with local institutions and enterprises and stages database; -Training on distance learning modes; Preparation of the pilot program; - Starting of the 1st semester courses/lectures; - Starting of the 2nd semester courses/lectures; -Mobility of students; - 3rd /4th semester accomplishment; Improving the programme facilities infrastructure; Evaluation of modules and new teaching methods at the end of the master pilot; - Creation of intelligent platform to Interuniversity Network; - Development of intelligent tutoring system and student knowledge assessment system; - Conferences and Workshops; Website; - Publications; Creation of quality control standards; Quality control implementations; - Monitoring the quality procedures implementation; Recommendations;- Agreements with local institutions and enterprises; -Sustainability -Kick-off meeting; Project teams establishment; - Reporting; - Regular Project Management Board meetings; - Review and update of curricula and policies; -Agreements with local enterprises and institutions; -Teacher training; - Training on distance learning modes; preparation of the Pilot Master Programme; Starting of 1st / 2nd semester of lessons; Mobility of students; - The 3th and 4th semester accomplishing; - Improving the program facilities infrastructures; -Development of the Intelligent Interuniversity Network; - Creation of an Intelligent Interuniversity Network; Development of intelligent tutoring system; Conferences and Workshops; Website designing and updating; Creating Quality Control Standards; Quality control implementation; Scientific Committee and Peer-Review Team Meetings; Monitoring the quality procedures implementation; Exploitation and sustainability; Tutoring of implementation of the courses; Agreements with local institutions and enterprises These projects face the emerging challenges in Western Balkans: - dramatic demographic changes (number of people potentially having access to higher education, age structure, migration flows), - increasing global competition, leading to a considerable shift in the distribution of the economic power at 24
  25. 25. world level, - changes in science and technology but notably the growing importance of organisational and societal innovation rather than purely technological innovation and - challenges of societies in transition (social cohesion, human rights, etc.). The Higher education institutions are the key actors in such programme needed for the successful transition to a knowledge-based economy and society and for the training of a new generation of leaders. In EU the modernisation of higher education has been acknowledged as a core condition for the success of the Lisbon Strategy and more recently the Europe 2020 strategy which aim at restructuring the economic and social systems within EU. At the same time, Western Balkans Universities have expressed interest in the harmonisation of their higher education systems, inspired by the developments made in this respect within Europe. The Tempus programme has supported Western Balkans Universities in reforming their higher education systems in line with the principles of the "Bologna process" (Tampieri 2010) which aims at creating a "European Area for Higher Education" and is becoming a common reference point for both EU Member States and Western Balkans. 2. The accreditation process “The western society is a society of organizations” quoted Amitai Etzioni (1964) in his Modernn Ortganizations referring to The Organization Society (Presthus 1962). He told us that the western countries, in this time opposite to the Eastern Soviet Blosk, has a particular feature in conflict with a totalitary approach that simplifies the society in an authoritative and unified perspective. After the collapse of this regime, in the international arena the category of Transition Countries, that tried to apply a democratic way of life, emerged. The political and governance revolution undertaken by those countries appears today easier comparing the evolution of the societal texture of the society that, till now, showed many problems of development. There are almost three topics that characterized this boundaries of the democratization: the diffusion of small business, till now limited by the scarce culture of entrepreneurship, self achievement and personal initiative that affect transition countries and particularly western Balkans. The second 25
  26. 26. topics concerns the role of local governments in the development of local systems and in the improvement of their competitive attraction. The last one refers to the system appointed to produce innovation, scientific perspectives and high professional preparation; in few words, new generations in condition to be masters for the future society. The western society, in despite of the present crisis, connected to the complexity of the society structure that reached a dimension that needs a higher level of dynamic control, could be understood only in a perspective of process and of networking. It means that, particularly in the management of Masters and Doctorate, the network and the process are the basis. Without those premises, the applying of Master and Doctorate Models maintains the characteristic of a bureaucratic tool with a poor motivation connected to the supply of a title to new generation and a formal recognition of a learning that didn’t exist or only partially exists. Fig. 2 – Basic framework of High Education Courses in Italian Universities. Master’s Degree 2nd cycle 120 ECTS/2 years MASTER 1st level 60 ECTS/1 year Ph. D 3rd cycle minimum 3 years MASTER 2nd level 60 ECTS/1 year DEGREE Secondary Higher School Bachelor’s Degree 1st cycle 180 ECTS/3 years The problem of the establishment of Masters and Doctorates in Western Balkans Universities could be summarized in those structural problems that would be overcome but only with a clear perspective and a strong motivation to apply a correct methodology. 26
  27. 27. First of all, when we examine Masters, Doctorates and PhDs, we have to consider that, although the increasing diffusion of those courses of studies, quite frequently they have a wide variety of definitions. Furthermore, some of them didn’t correspond to a correct definition of their identity owing to commercial or easy practices. To this purpose we want to clarify the framework within we are moving. The Bologna Process, with its distinctions between the first three years of graduation and the two following ones of specialized master (called Laurea Magistralis) with the doctorate and post doctorate studies, is applied in Italian Universities with a path (Fig. 2). As it’s easy to see the Master Level could be considered as a parallel educational perspective, mainly related to professional purposes quietly free from the structure of courses recognized to obtain the graduation (Undergraduate degree) or the Laurea magistralis (Specialized degree – Called also Master Degree) according to the legal value attributed to them in Italy. For the creation of a 1st or 2nd Level Master, the proposal is submitted to the Academic Authorities of Universities, a process that isn’t applied to no institutional courses managed by non academic organizations as Local Government, Non Profit Organizations, Associations or Private Companies. For instance, in district of Rimini – famous in the world - and particularly in Eastern Countries, for its attitude in Tourism and Leasure Activities, the main Masters funded by Emilia Romagna Region move freely on different and specialized subjects as it happens with the: - Master in Congress Tourism - Master in New Hospitality Management - Master Executive in Web Marketing for Tourism Enterprise - Master Executive in Meeting Planning and Event Organization - Master Executive in Hotel Management Each of them, in respective fields, contains Modules on different topics as: Project Management, Management of Logistics and Congress Services, Marketing and Event Promotion, Quality Management and Corporate Responsibility. The teaching is mainly oriented to practical and applied knowledge and the teaching staff is composed mainly by professionals or sector operators that couldn’t have necessarily an academic degree. Their participation in the 27
  28. 28. teaching staff is motivated by their professional experience, so their recruitment is not based on their educational degree. The final official result is a Diploma that could be considered to enrich the CV of participants and could have a relevance for the search of an employment. Master managed by Universities, distinguished in First and Second Level, accordingly with the framework of Fig. 2, has a legal value and is programmed within the academic structure of official courses with Credits recognized in the ECTS. Some of the modules, if the participant will participate, in the future, to the Degree process, are recognized in the official curricula. In University Master, normally, the accreditation process is submitted to the Council of the Faculty that promotes the master and to the Department competent as it concerns the Scientific Content. Once obtained this approval, the Academic Senate will authorize the Master. Main condition, besides the studies program is the responsibility of the Master that has to be in charge to a Full Professor of the Promoter University authorized to this purpose. Moreover, for each Master Subjects, distinguished on the basis of the Academic Scientific Group established by the Ministry for the Recruitment process of Researchers and Professors, is requested a responsible Full Professor appointed in the University that manages the Project. As it concerns Doctorate problems, these are similar although in European and particularly in Italian Universities the Doctorate is mainly oriented to Research targets and will be defined PHD only after an Accreditation Process which considers the participation in the Teaching Staff of Foreign Professors and Researchers as an essential condition. 3. The sustainability of Master and PhD The exploitation of the sustainability in the project activities implementation is one of the key element evaluated by the European Commission for delivering grants and also a condition needed for the maintenance and development of project benefits and results. The sustainability is ensured through a wide variety of tools: the creation of an incentives system for academic and administrative staff of project consortium units, the involvement of stakeholders in curricula development 28
  29. 29. and in supporting the research of the students and the dissemination of results in international conferences and workshops. Moreover in many cases, to ensure the sustainability, mainly from the organizational perspective, the management of Masters and PhD is assigned to public entities as Scientific-Didactical Pole 2, to consortia managed by private law among public entities as Ser. In. Ar 3 and other consortia among University and Foundations, as Alma Graduate School 4, that are able to ensure more flexibility, autonomy and possibilities to gather external financial resources from sponsors (Bianchi 1999a,b). Considering the case of PhD implementation in Macedonia, the development of the sustainability took into consideration the following academic, institutional and socioeconomic factors: - doctoral program in entrepreneurship can have, as a background, developed second cycle (master programme) in entrepreneurship which already exists in most of project consortium Universities. In such way some of the courses can be run parallel for the master and doctoral students; - available and experienced local academic staff for the new cycles implementation of the doctoral programme; - established network between the world of business and Universities that can be recognized as a relevant basis for further cooperation in order to gain common benefits; - distance learning methodology, as an innovative way of teaching, can enable joint programmes to be accomplished minimizing the costs of stay; - establishment of the Communication Body consisted of the representatives from the both sides (universities and business community) - diffusion of the PhD Programme in other Universities that can decide to organize their PhDs with the continuity of professors and students mobility. From the financial perspective alternative sources, rather than TEMPUS, can refer to: 2 http://www.poloforli.unibo.it/ http://serinar.criad.unibo.it/ 4 http://www.almaweb.unibo.it/it/almags/home.plp 3 29
  30. 30. - Companies that can give some financial support to the doctoral students and will enable students to do research; State scholarship; Universities scholarship for the involvement of the students in teaching activities; Self-financing of the students. A particular focus is set on the detailed budget of the doctoral programme of three years in Macedonia, built on the basis of the following items: 1) Courses of the didactical frame 2) Printing & publishing 3) Management 4) Research 5) Students mobility Fig.3 – An hypothesis of general budget frame for a doctoral programme implementation. Category Organization 1) Courses Travel Costs Professor Lecturer Name & Surname Number Salary of working rate 5 days (€) [A] [B] Total Staff Costs (€) Costs of Stay Total (€) (€) (€) [D] [E] [F] [C] University of Bologna Entrepreneurship and SME Management xxxxx 20 332 6640 600 2000 9240 University of Bologna The Role of SMEs in Networks and Clusters xxxxx 15 332 4980 600 1000 6580 …………… ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. ……………… … 2) Printing and publishing 1.000 3) Management 24000 4) Research 45000 TOTAL 5 6000 5) Students mobility 162000 It is per day and is indicated by the European Commission guidelines. 30
  31. 31. The calculation of the costs related to the two courses managed by University of Bologna (Fig.3), taken as examples for all the other courses of the doctoral programme, can be summarized as follows: 1) [C] = [A] * [B] and 2) [F]= [C] + [D] + [E]. As it regards the item 2,3,4 and 5, the cost per year on the basis of the three years programme respectively is: 4000 Euro (12000/3), 8000 Euro (24000/3), 2000 Euro (6000/3) and 15000 Euro (45000/3). To cover the mentioned cost items, the financial sources, summarized in Fig.4, highlight that about the 90% is covered by TEMPUS, 5 % by self – cofinancing and 5 % by other resources as companies and other organizations. Fig.4 – The financing frame. Total Covered by TEMPUS Self cofinancing Other resources [Companies] TOTAL 1) Courses 75000 70000 3000 2000 75000 2) Printing and publishing 12000 12000 3) Management 24000 21000 4) Research 6000 5) Students mobility 45000 43000 2000 162000 146000 8000 8000 162000 0,90 0,05 0,05 1,00 Cost items TOTAL 12000 3000 24000 6000 % 31 6000 45000
  32. 32. Fig. 5 - The main determinants of the sustainability. More cycles Sholarship Students fee Financial and academic Sustainability Co-financing Sponsorship Agreements between business community and university Master and PhD managed by autonomous bodies generated by Universities In other terms, the main determinants of the sustainability, as indicated in Fig.4, can refer to the institution of more cycles, the delivering of scholarship for the best students, the determination of an adequate enrolment fee, the usage of co-financing, other financial resources from other companies in the sense of sponsorships and the involvement of autonomous bodies generated by Universities for the Master and PhD management. 4. Syllabi and Teachers Profile Each University Master has a Scientific Committee generally composed by representatives of Faculties or Departments that with their Full Professors are responsible of the Master Scientific Group. The Scientific Committee is in charge to approve the Program and the Syllabi. To this purpose is essential to decide about the Master Orientation as in Scientific or in Professional. 32
  33. 33. In Masters concerning Tourism this choice will be crossed with another dimension that is the Economic or Technical One. For example, as it concerns Managerial Subjects, there is one criterion connected to the Management itself in its different degrees or specializations as: Governance, Strategy, Programming, Resource Management, Logistics etc. with the structure of a Tourism Organization with main functions as Service Units of : Location, Restoration, Welcome and Reception, Room Services, Administration, Room Make Up, Laundry, Supply and purchasing. In each of those organizational area, particularly as it concerns Master with Professional Orientation, the technology used and its knowledge are strictly linked to organizational and economic problems. In many Masters in Tourism the knowledge of Local Systems and Cultural Heritage together with Museums and Cultural Institution Management is a teaching subject that gives to the learning the necessary coverage of applied activities. The relationship with the environment is essential for the Master adequacy to requested professionalism. In Fig. 6 we show some main determinants of the Master Syllabi Profile. Fig. 6 - The impact of environmental structures on Master and Doctoral Orientations. Small Enterprises Big enterprises Science and Technics Management and economics Less Specialize d Skills More specialized skills It means that, according to this hypothesis, if the local system is based, in the particular sector of Tourism, on Small Enterprises, the interest would be 33
  34. 34. focused on Less Specialized Skills with the content of the teaching more oriented to management and economics while the prevailing diffusion of big business will encourage more specialized skills and the use of technology. 5. The implementation of Distance Learning in Master and PhD courses One of the operative usage of distance learning methodology is the enterprise simulation defined by the European Commission – Directorate Enterprises (2004) as a best practice to promote attitudes and managerial competencies in the education field. A simulated enterprise is a centre of vocational learning that runs like a "real" business silhouetting a "real" firm's business procedures, products and services. The simulated enterprise is undertaken by students that insert this program in their business studies and they create, in a classroom and under the supervision of teachers/tutors, a virtual enterprise, trading virtual products and services in a simulated business environment. In this money is fictitious while the business decisions, activities and documentations are strictly linked to the real business world (Moore 2004). The “Simulimpresa” methodology 6 is based on the learning by doing principle allowing participants to acquire transversal skills enforcing their individual peculiarities. Therefore they learn a job by doing the related activities and duties (Gualdi 2001). Another feature is the management by objectives as each participant acquires competencies related to a specific role in the enterprise carrying out duties and tasks planned for each single organizational position and on the basis of the assigned targets provided at the beginning of each simulation session. In the cultural sector a relevant start up experience of simulation refers to Elbasan Renaissance Tour (ERT) in the Professional Education Centre (CFP) of Elbasan within the project “Start up of professional education in Elbasan area with particular regard for weak categories (Albania, 20072009, Project Emilia-Romagna Region Law 24 June 2002, n. 12)”. This case has been analyzed in previous researches (Tampieri 2011b) underling the structure and process aspects of the experimentation. 6 http://www.simulimpresa.com 34
  35. 35. Summarizing the main features: the duration of the start up was 4 days involving 13 participants grouped in three business areas: Marketing, front office and administration / accounting. This simulated agency operates in the cultural tourism sector as the mission is to promote the historical, cultural and traditional value of Elbasan region and Albania. The services are: - Organization of events, travelling and cultural/touristic tour with specific regard to Elbasan region; - Promotion of cultural and historic value of Albania and Elbasan region; - Tourist guide assisted by professional staff; - Enhancement of collaboration with other agencies that work in the same sector in Elbasan region and - Interpretation services. The participants, working in team, realized the following targets/ activities: Definition of the enterprise, typology and mission; - Creation of the organizational structure, register of presence, GANTT of activities; Definition of budget; - Creation of enterprise mail; -Individuation of logo; Design of depliant (in Italian and English) and catalogue; - Organization of a pilot cultural tourism tour in Albania. Through this experience, the participants acquired practical knowledge about how a real enterprise operates. The general results would be the development of new entrepreneurial initiatives with an international view. Thus the Simulimpresa implementation in Master and PhD courses would be a very relevant tool by which participants can apply, in a practical way, the knowledge acquired during their studies reaching an advanced level of learning. 6. Conclusions: the Master and Doctorate in Western Balkans In the two mentioned projects, having the purpose of creating a Doctorate Decree in Western Balkans, the main issues to be considered, on the basis of previous experiences in transition countries are : - Too restricted autonomy of Universities as it concerns the accreditation process. - Difficulties in establishing a sustainable cycle of Master/Doctorate owing to the scarce demand of this level from companies. 35
  36. 36. - Limited resources available to fund Masters and Doctorates that, owing to the scarce demand of this level of education and the essential local origin of participants ( it’s difficult to have partners from Western Countries while many Eastern students come to Europe and USA ) with the purpose of obtaining a certificate to spent at home for prestigious jobs or work positions. - Traditional methodology of approach to studies and final thesis that foster general subjects and wide fields of research to restricted and specialized ones and prefer theoretical and historical dissertations (also in managerial subjects) to case studies. - Scientific support to dissertations mainly oriented to local quotations with limited citations and references to international Authors and mainstreams in discussion in the international arena. - Limited knowledge of foreign languages and particular of English one, as the basis of managerial teaching. This it refers not only to students but also to local teachers that prefer to use their own language. This is a serious limit to the internationalization of the knowledge and to the quality assurance and international chartering of Masters and Doctorates. - Limited or not existent involvement of the local system (stakeholders) in the Management and Funding. - No coordination or dialogue with Ministerial structures to exchange information and to make more flexible and up to dated the process of certification. One useful tool to overcome some of those limits is that the Master and the Doctorate would be managed by a Consortium of Universities or with Universities as major partners. This will allow to reach a critic mass of resources, financial, scientific and organizational. It will also foster the involvement of extra university partners like private companies that could ensure resources and relevant inputs as it concerns actual needs of employers in the particular aspects of professional profiles. The partnership of foreign Universities to the consortium, although difficulties of a Double or Joint Master of PHD to coordinate different rules and Ministerial constraints, could be a path that has to be explored in the 36
  37. 37. future to ensure the diffusion and implementation of Masters and Doctoral Studies in Western Balkan Countries. References Bianchi M., Tampieri L., (2011) Performance determinants in international projects. The case of 2005 - 2010 Tempus submissions, in Albertini S., Bergami M., D’Atri A., De Marco M., De Vita P., Ferrara M., Rossignoli C, Salvemini S., Generazioni e Ri Generazioni nei processi organizzativi. Conference Proceedings. Bianchi M., (1999a) Multi Campus Model and Quality Approach in the Organization of Big Universities, to international conference “T.Q.M. for Higher Education Institutions”, Università di Verona, Université ToulonVar Verona, 30-31 August 1999 Bianchi M., (1999b) “L’università multicampus: Un modello possibile ? L’esperienza dell’ Ateneo Bolognese” Sinergie, CUEIM, Verona, n. 48, Gennaio-Aprile 1999, pp. 219-229. Etzioni A., (1964) Modern Organizations, Prentice Hall New Jersey European Commission – Directorate Enterprises (2004), Contribuire a creare una cultura imprenditoriale, Bruxelles: Commissione europea, 1- 56. Gualdi, D. (2001). L’impresa simulata. Varese: Paravia Bruno Mondadori. Moore A. (2004) The Challenge of the Practice Firm: Simulating a Business Environment in the UAE Fourth European GIS Education Seminar, Villach, Austria 02nd- 05th September 2004. Presthus R., (1962) The Organizational Society, Knopf, New York Tampieri L., (2011a) Second Life and enterprise simulation in SME’s start up of fashion sector: the cases ETNI, KK Personal Robe and NFP, in D’Atri A., Ferrara M., George J.F., Spagnoletti P (eds), Information Technology and Innovation trends in organizations, Physica-Verlag, Springer (pp. 523530). Tampieri L., (2011b) The enterprise simulation in small business start up. The case of cooperation projects between Italy and Albania. 3^ Workshop I processi innovativi nelle piccole imprese. La sfida altre la crisi. Urbino 1617 Settembre 2011. Tampieri L., (2010) The Bologna process: problems and perspectives of realization, Proocedings of Foundation of the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Advisory of Young Scientist University of International Business “Young People in the Science 2010” 3rd International Forum. 1437
  38. 38. 15 Maggio 2010 Almaty (Kazakhstan), pp. 3-9, Foundation of the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Tampieri L., (2009) The international project management for the Reform of Higher Education in transition countries. Some experiences from the University of Bologna", in Symposium Proceedings - Third International Symposium on the development of public administration in Southeast Europe. Public Administration in the context of financial crisis and economic slowdown. P. Pevcin, S. Setnikar Cankar, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Administration 18 - 19 June 2009, pp. 1-14. 38
  39. 39. MAINTENANCE AND CONTROL OF PUBLIC USE LAND IN ALBANIA’S SHKODER LAKE AND VELIPOJA BEACH AREAS Prof.As.Dr.Arjeta Troshani Dean of Economic Faculty Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi” Ted Oelfke MS, FMP, CHE, CFE Professor and Department Chair of Hospitality and Culinary Arts Sandhills Community College, NC, USA Abstract The paper will focus on the control of refuse and use of two prime touristic locations in Northern Albania Shkoder Lake and the Velipoja beach area. Currently conditions are not only terrible to look at the conditions could lead to serious sanitation issues and contamination of surrounding soil and water supplies. As conditions deteriorate during the summer months the impression of foreign travelers of Albania and indeed Albanians themselves is negatively impacted. Additionally, local residents will resent the very tourists that support the local economy as they witness their pristine recreational areas laid to waste. This paper will attempt to find methods of clean-up and maintenance and for the payment that are acceptable to local residents, businessmen, government officials and tourists alike. Further this paper will determine the attitudes of various groups towards volunteerism as a means of maintaining public property. Finally, the paper will explore the desires of tourists, businessmen and tourists regarding any restrictions that should be placed on beach use. For instance should motor vehicles and glass bottles be allowed on the beach. Surveys of tourists, local businessmen, governmental officials and residents will be conducted in order to reach conclusions and recommendations on the uses and maintenance and Albanian’s attitude toward volunteerism as a means of maintaining the areas of Velapoja Beach, and the public area bordering Shkodra Lake. If the surveys indicate a preference to provide the service through taxing of tourists staying in hotels or eating in restaurants further studies will be conducted to develop recommendations for implementation of such a tax. 39
  40. 40. Key words: Sanitary, Tourism Development, Destination Management, Control, Taxes, and Strategy. 1.Background 1.1 Tourism in the city of Shkodra The city is connected with the other cities and Europe with railways and motor transport. The foreign visitors, passing from the AlbanianYugoslavian border at the customs of Hanna i Hotit, will reach Shkodra soon after 35 km, and 117 km after leaving Tirana. The seaside beach (Velipoja) is 32 km far. This sandy beach (14 km long) is almost pristine. The very fine and sand along with the warm water are curative for a lot of diseases (esp.rheumatism). Just nearby the beach, there is a hunting spot full of wild animals and fowls. West side of Shkodra Lake, 6 km from the city, at the bottom of Tarabosh mountain, it is situated Shiroka picturesque village, known not only for the beach, but also for the good and curative climate that heals asthma and different allergies, and it has a good impact on children growth. The Lake of Shkodra and the River of Buna are very suitable to exercise water sports, especially rowing. If the visitor likes mountain-climbing, speleology or skiing, he must be directed to the picturesque village of Razma (41 km ), and if he would like to add to these sports that of trout fishing or enjoying the characteristic noise and freshness of the waterfalls, he should go right in the middle of Alps, to the attracted village of Thethi (76 km). It is surrounded by peaks higher than 2000 m, with the slopes covered with eternal forests. This village is not the unique to enjoy this natural privilege. Nearby, there are a lot of other rival villages like Vermoshi (110 km), Lepusha (90 km), Boga (54 km), Black Field, Vukli etc. The city offers even institutions which acquaint you with its history and various traditions. There are 90 cultural monuments. Next to the main hotel “Rozafa”, there is the City Museum, and just a few meters further, there is “Migjeni” Theater. One can visit even museum houses which recall important events, dedicated to famous personalities of the city. You can satisfy the curiosity, for the old history of the city, going to visit the city castle “Rozafa” and its museum. From the castle, you can see at the bottom of the hill, the castle is situated, the Lead Mosque, a monument of the XVIII 40
  41. 41. century, around it the rivers and the lake and the city in the middle of them. & km from the city, there is another monument belonging to the XVIII century, the Bridge of Mesi, built completely with stone arches 132 m long. At the top of it, you can view the crystal waters of Kiri River and the trout shoals moving against the flow Shkodra is the very place where the Albanian hospitality is proverbial. Once, one could find, embroidery, in the guest’s room of the houses of Shkodra which read: “Welcome dear guests !” Today Shkodra echoes back to the guests this greeting...! 1.2. The conditions of developing tourism in the city The God has donated to Shkodra of lot of rich picturesque resources, beginning with the seaside (14 km length), the picturesque lake (and nice villages like Shiroka, Zogaj,the side of the Water etc.), the rivers that surround the city in three parts ( and the city itself is a typical touristic centre, where a good investment to serve to the touristic can be set up ), along with the gorgeous Alps hiding tens of picturesque villages with healthy climate (as Thethi, Razma, Boga etc. ) that attract the visitor and invite him to enjoy these relaxing and curative beauties. The seaside of Velipoja is a marvelous beauty of the Albanian nature, where you can find at the same time the sea, the river, the beach, the forest, the mountain and the marsh, with a clean and pristine sand, clear water, the hunting spot 694.5 ha and the Viluni bay 900 ha. The visitor can swim at the same time in the river and the sea, can pass the time playing at the sports ground that can be set up, exercise water sports, can walk on foot or by horse at the beautiful nature, can hunt for wild pigs or rabbits, fox and jackal, goose and wild duck etc. Thus, it is a natural real beauty that would bring a good profit to the one that invests as soon as possible. Another picturesque place is the side of the lake that is included in the road from Buna Bridge - Shiroka - Zogaj. The optimal climatic conditions, the curative characteristics of the nature, the warm water, Taraboshi Mountain, the fishing etc. make this region be known for nice touristic peculiarities. This region is frequented by the inhabitants of 41
  42. 42. Shkodra for short holidays, because the condition for longer holidays is missed. There are other regions with touristic characteristics as Thethi, Razma, Vermoshi-Lepushe-Qafa e Bordolecit, but owning a different peculiarity from that of Velipoja and Shiroka. You can notice here the best characteristics of the highland Albanian nature. The forests full of pine and beech trees, the lawns and summer pastures, the fresh temperature in summer and snow in winter, the good mountains panorama and characteristic caves, the wild beasts and medicinal plants, the proper places for the excursions and the possibility for the skiing places, give to these regions the required values searched by the Albanian and foreign visitors. The tourism is a powerful resource for the development of a country and a resource for profits as well. There are a lot of cities and even states that manage to live perfectly only with this activity. We can mention only Ulqin that is only 15 km far from Velipoja, has been developed through tourism, nevertheless it misses the beauties of Velipoja. Now it has reached high living standards. But it is obvious that the development according to the modern level of life of the infrastructure determines the intensive well-being of tourism, apart from the precious values of the tourism the district possesses. Considering every thing it is necessary to do something to make efficient these riches, the help of the foreign investors has got great and undeniable value. This help will bring a lot of profits that will be a kind of mirror of the investment done. The investments are various and enormous. They include the construction of the new streets and the mending of the existing ones, setting of the different buildings in conformity with the relief, building of the electric stations and water providing ones, setting up of the post office and telephone services according to the demands of the number of visitors that will frequent these places. Parallel with all the judicial high institutions and different organizations (Albanian State, European Bank, World Bank and different other financial institutions) that in a very near future will enter in these investments, native or foreign investors should not let this opportunity pass by. Even with modest investments in this direction the investor will reach good profits. The application of a 42
  43. 43. precise research plan, including even the adding investments that complete the lack of infrastructure, to even satisfy the interests of the visitors and tourists, will present a very favorable chance to get a lot of profits. It would be better not to delay and act before the others will start this activity in wide scale. 1.3. International experience I think that the city of Shkodra has many similar natural characteristics with Ulcinj which is in Montenegro along the sea side (Adriatic Sea). As a matter of this fact I think that developed tourism in Ulcinj could be a good example for situation in Shkodra to proceed. Here I would like to present some characteristics and information’s about Ulcinj. Ulcinj a small town in the very south of the Yugoslav Adriatic coast, known in former times as a pirate stronghold, offers special pleasures to antiquarians thanks to it´s numerous well preserved cultural and historical monuments in the old part of the town. There is an extremely mild climate, beautiful sand beaches, the longest in Yugoslavia, make it a very popular and attractive holiday resort. A famous souvenir and antique market is especially interesting for guest from the entire world. The impressive number of 217 sunny days annually enables a very long bathing season - from April to November. In the immediate vicinity of the picturesque of old town, in a pine forest over the rocks below which the sea foams, is located an “A” class hotel “GALEB”. Looking towards the sun and the endless blue water-front “Galeb” is the place where everything is submitted to your resting and enjoying. Hotel “Galeb” carries it`s “A” class mark with pride. Besides beautifully arranged rooms, luxurious apartments with great terraces viewing the sea and the old town, as well as 5 luxuriously equipped villas in apartment type, with 60 beds, it offers numerous sports and recreational facilities to it`s guests. In addition there are several salons and social activities rooms, indoor swimming pools, table tennis hall, bowling, a modern discotheque, trimming hall and a medical surgery. The hotel complex provides tennis courts while the own beach is well equipped with chatters and parasols as well as other water-sports equipment : wind-surfing, sandolines, water skis, sailing boats and small motor boats suitable for taking off to underwater fishing. Next to the 43
  44. 44. entrance of the beach is a terraced Belvedere - an ideal place for spending the last hours of another unique day of the holiday to the sounds of folk and dancing music, resting your eyes on the silhouettes of the old town. 1.4. Special rights and incentives for tourism • • • • • Foreign investors in tourism in the Priority Tourism Zones shall enjoy the following rights (for full details refer to the Law on Tourism Development): to freely import funds in foreign exchange needed to cover investment and operating costs, and to export funds in foreign exchange to pay interest and principal of loans, as well as the dividends; to keep an account in foreign exchange and operate it to pay the interest and principal of loans as well as the export of dividends; to transfer abroad: amounts arising from total or partial selling of the investment as well as shares, bonds and other securities; net profits, determined in accordance with current tax laws; license fees and royalties payable to persons ordinarily resident outside Albania; and earnings of foreign nationals; to offset losses incurred in the first five years against profits in the following five years; to employ foreign nationals for the performance of specialized tasks, provided they train a number of Albanians in the tourism business (at least one-third of staff in the first three years, at least one-fifth in the following two years). They shall also enjoy the following tax exemptions and holidays: • from tax on dividends and interest on loans paid to a financial institution; • for three years from customs and excise duties on goods and merchandise imported solely for the investment, provided they are not available in Albania at the same quality, quantity and price; • from profit tax for five years from the end of the development period; profit tax is payable at 50 per cent of the full rate(which is 30 per cent) during the following five years, but this will be reduced by 40 per cent if the profit is reinvested in Albania. 44
  45. 45. 2.0 Why the Study? First, Professor Oelfke has made 14 trips to Albania since 2005, 11 of those trips have been to Shkodra and surrounding regions additionally he has made three trips to Velipoja Beach and has firsthand knowledge of the maintenance/garbage problems facing local residents, businesses, regional tourists and international tourists alike. Without addressing garbage issues Shkodra and Velipoja beach could easily face the problems similar to Naples Italy as reported by the BBC in 2007. “The US embassy in Rome has warned American tourists that they may face health risks if they travel to Naples, because of the city's rubbish crisis. The US embassy warns that fires lit by local citizens to try and get rid of the rubbish may give off toxic fumes.” Or worse yet the the March 2009 Reuters report: “ Maione's Hotel Vesuvio — where a room overlooking the Bay of Naples costs 220 euros ($345) in low season — closed one of its two restaurants, the renowned Caruso, as business dried up. The hotel expects occupancy of no more than 30 per cent this year compared with 50 per cent in 2007 and a far cry from the fat years around 2002 when some 80 per cent of its rooms were full.” Secondly, Dr. Troshani not only owns property at Velipoja she found herself in the unenviable position of asking first time visitors to Albania not to go to Velipoja because of “Garbages” and the embarrassment associated with the request. 2.1 Hypothesis: A single source of funding to clean and maintain lands open to the public does not exist that meets the needs desires of all stakeholders: local residents, tourists, business owners, and governmental officials. 3.1 Research design: Because this paper seeks to identify the methods for public use land clean-up and maintenance preferred by residents a Zoomerang Questionnaire was developed to collect data from various demographic groups from the region. The survey is attachment A. 3.2 Survey Results: First and foremost when asked what they disliked about Velipoja beach over 50% of the respondents cited garbage/sanitary conditions. To be sure Velipoja is popular with over 40% or respondents visiting 10 or more times a year. While the results were filtered a variety of 45
  46. 46. ways age was selected for analysis because it showed the greatest amount of diversity in results. Fully 70% of the respondents fell into the 18-30 year-old age category so they would be considering their preferences for several years to come the age groups of the respondents were as follows: Under 18 18-30 31-45 46-Over 2% 70% 19% 9% Not surprisingly respondents under 31 utilized the beach more often than those over 31 which helps to explain other survey results. When asked “How often do you visit Velipoja beach” the various age groups responded as follows: Age <18 18-30 31-45 >46 ALL <2 times 20% 25% 75% 26% a year 2-9 37% 62% 25% 40% 10-19 17% 0% 0% 12% > 20 100% 27% 12% 0% 23% Results of the survey (90%) clearly indicate that the preference for responsibility to maintain public lands should remain at the local or regional level. When asked who should be responsible for maintenance the various age groups responded as follows: Age <18 18-30 31-45 >46 ALL Local Gvt. Regional Gvt. National Gvt. Private Citizens 70% 100% 75% 50% 67% 20% 25% 25% 23% 7% 0% 25% 7% 3% 0% 0% 2% 46
  47. 47. Respondents in below 45 were much more apt to use the public beach compared to their older counterparts. Respondents to the survey were asked “When visiting Velipoja Beach, which areas do you use”? Age Always private Always public Public 50% Public 50% <18 18-30 31-45 >46 ALL 27% 38% 50% 30% 30% 38% 25% 30% < 17% 12% 0% 14% > 100% 27% 12% 25% 26% How should the clean-up and maintenance of public areas be paid for? Age <18 18-30 31-45 >46 ALL Admission fee 23% 39% 0% 23% Hotel tax 13% 12% 25% 14% Business licensing 13% 12% 25% 14% fee Income taxes 100% 47% 25% 25% 42% Other 3% 12% 25% 7% Income distribution of respondents. Age <18 18-30 < 300 Euro-month 100% 53% 31-45 12% 300-499 Euro-month 30% 38% 500-699 Euro-month 7% 12% >46 700-900 Euro-month >1000 Euro-month 28% 25% 12% 10% 47 25% ALL 42% 9% 2% 75% 19%
  48. 48. Employment status of respondents: Age Business owner Government official Tourist Student Other <18 18-30 7% 7% >46 12% 25% ALL 5% 9% 3% 47% 37% 100% 31-45 12% 75% 5% 33% 49% 75% NOTE: Among those indicating other are included: professors, bankers, Peace Corps Volunteer, NGO representative, travel agents, unemployed, researcher, and cashier Education level of respondents: Age Primary only Secondary only Some college Bachelor degree Masters degree PHD <18 18-30 31-45 100% 7% 14% 40% 7% 12% 25% 62% >46 ALL 100% 5% 35% 35% 26% NOTE: 95% of the respondents are college graduates What percentage of Velipoja beach should be reserved for public use: Age 100% 75% 50% 25% < 25% <18 100% 18-30 3% 53% 40% 3% 31-45 38% 38% 25% >46 75% 25% ALL 9% 44% 37% 9% Which are your main motivation when you visit a touristic destination? Age <18 18-30 31-45 >46 ALL Health and sport 27% 12% 50% 26% Relax and recreation 100% 83% 88% 75% 84% Clean environment 7% 25% 50% 14% Cultural traditions 13% 14% NOTE: Respondents were allowed to select more than one as their main motivation the reason for the totals adding up to over 100% 48
  49. 49. Which are the information means you use most with the regard to touristic destination environment? Age Written media Visual media Internet Relatives Science books <18 100% 100% 18-30 10% 60% 60% 23% 3% 31-45 >46 25% 50% 38% ALL 7% 51% 60% 23% 2% 25% 75% Note: Respondents were allowed to select more than one source of information: On two separate occasions the authors Dr. Troshani and Professor Oelfke sought to organize volunteer groups to augment local officials in combating growing garbage problems at Velipoja beach and Lake Shkodra. The group who volunteered (25 at Velipoja) fewer than 10 for Lake Shkodra consisted entirely of existing students at Shkodra University no businessmen, government officials or other university representatives volunteered. The questionnaire contained two questions concerning volunteerism with the following results. The first question “How likely are you to volunteer to perform any type of community service” Age Very likely Somewhat unlikely Very unlikely Would not volunteer Don’t know <18 100% 18-30 60% 27% 31-45 62% 25% 12% >46 25% 25% 25% 25% 13% ALL 53% 28% 5% 2% 12% The second question “How likely are you to organize volunteers to perform any type of community service” Age Very likely Somewhat unlikely Very unlikely Would not organize volunteers Don’t know <18 18-30 60% 27% 31-45 62% 25% 12% >46 25% 25% 50% 13% ALL 58% 26% 2% 5% 9% 49
  50. 50. 3.3 Conclusions: The majority of all respondents seek out touristic destinations for the purpose of relaxation and recreation and receive their information from visual sources 51% and the internet61% of the time. A visit to the English website www.velipojaguide.com/lng-anglisht.php depicts a beautiful “clean” beach free from garbage and trash. I should mention here that the website needs someone to edit the English “Velibojaofferes holiday makers the ability to have funin a seaside line with very clean water and very rich sand, but it is not all it is rich with natural unique values in which are Plazhi madh 14 km long and 200 meters wide,with rich and clean sand. The residents call it “”the sand of well doing””for its virtue of cure. The beach generates every year of its up bringing of the waves,. Making the percentage if sale very high, the beach is surrounded by forest with pine trees and other type of wood,. With yellow bushes, water plant valleys, denes etc.” Unfortunately, to over promise and under deliver is not a good practice in the tourism industry. The consensus of the respondents is that responsibility for the maintenance of public use lands should remain at the local or regional governmental level. Not surprisingly as respondent’s income levels rose and their use of private beach areas increased their support for any type of income tax to pay for the maintenance for public use lands diminished as did their desire to have areas reserved for public use. The largest # of respondents (18-30) year olds and those most likely to use public beaches support the use of income taxes 43% of the time and an admission fee 23% of the time. The next largest group (31-45) year olds supported an admission fee 39% of the time and income taxes 25% of the time. All age groups supported (over 12%) all various means to pay for clean-up and maintenance with one exception that those over 46 years old did not support an admission fee. To rely on income tax alone would result in a significant burden on people making less than 300 euro per month and cause resentment toward tourists from neighboring regions and countries who would not be subject to the tax. The survey asked two questions where respondents were asked what they liked most and least about Velipoja beach. As previously stated garbage was the number one dislike followed by the infrastructure (roads, public bathrooms, sanitary facilities) and by overcrowding. For the things respondents liked most the sand and the sea were most often mentioned only one respondent mentioned the hospitality and one person the “clean environment” Clearly the sea and the sand need to be protected from garbage and pollution if Velepoja beach is to remain a tourist destination. 50
  51. 51. While placing a tax on visitors when they visit rent a hotel room is often viewed in a very popular light in the United States because the burden for payment is placed entirely on people renting rooms this method of payment did not appear so popular with the respondents. Fortunately none of the age groups supported this method of paying for maintenance and clean-up more than 25%. This indicates that while some of the burden for clean-up and maintenance should rest with people renting rooms however local residents appear prepared to “pay their fair share”. Taxing businesses was viewed in much the same light as taxing hotel guests while viewed as appropriate by 14% of the respondents that leaves 86% who believe that another means should be used to collect revenue to maintain land for public use. In summary as stated in the hypothesis the means by which needed funds for the use of maintenance are collected can be a vexing issue facing. However, if the people with differing ideas can reach a consensus and use a variety of methods no one group need bear the entire burden for this complex issue. 4.0 Recommendations: 1. A citizen led business/citizen/government task force should be formed to study the following: A. The imposition of an economic impact fee on all new construction in the village of Velipoja. This process is widely used in the United States when improvements to infrastructure will be needed as a result of the construction. B. The feasibility of charging a modest admission fee to Velipoja beach not to exceed 10 euro for a season (the amount currently charged to “private beaches” per year per meter). Or 1 euro for a two day pass. C. The imposition of a modest hotel room tax and/or a tax on local restaurant sales. D. The study on the feasibility of using an income tax to provide some funding to preserve the national treasure know as Velipoja Beach. I will mention here that this could increase problems of “black” employment. 51
  52. 52. E. The expansion of the “private” beach season from the current June, July, August to include the months of May and September where “private” beach leases must maintain sanitation standards. 2. Local and Regional governments take any steps necessary to ensure at least 50% of the “prime” Velipoja beach areas remain public. 3. The University of Shkodra and other Private Universities should consider the use of a Community Service Learning Component for students having difficulty obtaining employment in their field of study. For instance a Tourism student would organize volunteers or proof read the velipoja guide web site for grammatical errors, or even assist restaurants with their translation of their menus to English. 4. The authors of this paper should continue to collaborate to continue what they have started! 5.0 References: 1. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6287228.stm 2. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/mar/07/italy.foodanddrink 3. Dr. Arjeta Troshani “Touristic Destination Development” (4 December 2009) published in Albanian economic magazine named Economies in Transition 5.1 Author Ted Oelfke’s personal perspective. Having traveled throughout the world for nearly 40 years I have never been to a more hospitable place with warmer more gracious people than I have found in Albania. I marvel at the progress that I have witnessed with regard to infrastructure since I first travel to Albania in 2005. On my first trip to Albania my fellow travelers were amazed at the beauty of the country, warmth of the people, rich history, and unfortunately, the amount of uncollected garbage to be found throughout. I personally could have cried the first time I visited Velipoja beach in 2008. I will never forget that early May afternoon I knew I was visiting one of Albania’s treasures but for the garbage seen. I am also aware that the solution must come from the people of Albania when it comes to public lands, taxation, business fees etc. only Albanian’s have their history, culture, political background, and attitudes from which to draw. While models for the maintenance, use, and clean-up 52
  53. 53. of public, exist in other parts of the world be it the French Riviera or nearby Montenegro it is ultimately the Albanian people who must come to a consensus. In preparing this report I googled “Naples Italy Garbage” there were 991,000 returns fortunately, a search for “Velipoja Beach Garbage” did not yield the same results. I wish the people of Albania much luck in the future as they continue to make improvements and stand ready to assist in any way I can. 53
  54. 54. EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT OF MONUMENTS OF NATURE TOURISM OUR Prof. Dr. PERIKLI QIRIAZI Msc. BLERTA AVDIA Geography, University of Tirana Tirana, Albania "We abuse them by nature, because we see it as a commodity that belongs to us,as we shall see nature as a commodity to which we belong, then we can begin to love and respect it" Aldo Leopold 1.1Understanding the natural heritage and nature monuments Natural heritage is unique and special value of biotic and abiotic environment andtransmitted to generations. It consists of all objects around us, habitat, specialecosystems, tw values rare, unique, relict, edemike or vulnerable to disappearing. These special values are preserved and protected by laws applicable to naturalheritage, but by special laws. Human activity consists in evdiendimin, assessmentand managemen. The value of natural heritage could have national significance and is considered as a National Natural Heritage, protected as natural heritage and protected byinternational rules "International Convention on Cultural and Natural Heritage” Protected areas do not have the same value and are not equally populated. For a better management of their values and are classified in different categories ofprotection, to which the character of human activity. Accepted classification systemin our country is under the IUCN (The World Center of Nature conservation Union). This system consists of 6 categories: a) Strict Natural Reserves Scientific, b)National Parks, c) Nature Monuments, d) Managed Natural Reserve, e) Landscapeand Marine Protected Land, f) Protected Area of Managed Resources. 54
  55. 55. On this basis, the Protected Area is considered "land space, water resources, withspecial values of biodiversity, natural resources and cultural landscape, protected by law special rules limiting the presence and human activity and management with scientific methods." A special place in this article shall pay a third category of protected areas Natural Landmark. Nature Monuments is a living facility and not living with one or more of outstanding scientific value, ecological, cultural, historical, aesthetic, didactic, religious, a habitat of a rare, threatened or of special value important scientific area to 50 hectares. natyre monuments enjoy the protection of the first category according to which are forbidden: the alienation of values for any purpose economic exploitation, work or changing character veprimatri monument or the flow of evolution. Nature monuments and offer unique value to our nature irreversible: the source of information for the various sciences, scientific information resource, cultural resource for people of different professions and the natyës passionate, didactic resource for pupils, students, valuable resource ecological information. Some monunente nature are closely related to the spiritual world to convey the traditions and customs of the local population, with the sides of which visitors understand and enjoy their values. In a we of the taste of the beauty of the canyon are the highest or Valbona, the waters of a well known or Sotira, Thethi, carst landscapes (Arrni of carst or black cave). Beets, trees in the center of the village or town are turned into symbols of their identity for residents. These have played important role in establishing and developing center city, village, under the shadow of their conversations were held, meetings, assemblies, where decisions are rwndwsishme. Strange form of Landmark Nature has often drawn attention to the man who in the inability to explain scientifically the effect they have worn on natural, turning to religious objects such as cave Kruje Sarisatllekut the Muslim faith, caves Mokra Llongës Orthodox faith, the cave of St. Anthony in the Catholic faith Lac. Objects assume the status of Nature Monuments thanks to the unique values that are, are only creature of nature, habiatat / objects of this specific area (50 ha), be without injured by man or other natural factors or by chance rejuvenation. 55
  56. 56. Natural wealth is preserved in generations should be managed for scientific, ecological, cultural, curative, didactic, religious on one side and simultaneously help in achieving Sustainable Development. Using the mass of natural resources, ensuring their continuity, disaster prevention, strengthening spiritual connections to nature monuments population to help achieve this goal. Sustainable develop capital requires a harmony between economic policies, social and environmental, on the other hand local community plays an important role as a leading actor in the decision making process for designing and implementing management programs, integrated management of Natural Monuments. In the study of values and management of natural heritage has occupied a leading place, and science and geography, in the identification, evaluation and preparation of management plans in general and Natural Heritage monuments of nature in particular. In terms of today's global trend is observed ecotourism development. Tourists are looking for educational experiences tw culture, history, and local nature. To be consistent with global trends, we need to develop strategy and policy development in line with this trend. The first work to be done is to identify, study, scientific assessment and management of monuments of nature, the value of their advertising to become part of the tourist market, increasing competitiveness. Ecotourism, green tourism, and rural landscape today are the global trend of tourist movement where we have to adapt. 1.2. The distribution, status and problems encountered in Nature Monuments Albania incredibly diverse nature extremely complex and evolution of relief is very rich in nature monuments. Nature Monuments numbered 697, of which: gjeomonumente 291 or 41.6%; biomonumente 308 or 44.8%; hidromonumente 98 ose 14. Nature monuments have an unequal distribution by region which is the following statement on concretizing followingstatement on concretizing. 56
  57. 57. Tab.1 .Monuments of Natyres by counties, districts of Albania Nr. Countrie district 1. Berat Qarku Berat Skrapar Qarku Diber Mat Bulqize Qarku Durres Kruje Qarku Elbasan Gramsh Librazhd Peqin Qarku Fier 2. Diber 3. Durres 4. Elbasan 5. Fier Hidrological SITES 1 1 19 12 2 5 1 1 14 3 5 6 3 1 2 9 4 2 3 Biological Sites Total Lushnje Qarku Gjirokaster Tepelene Permet Geological Sites 16 1 15 29 17 7 5 7 4 3 20 3 7 9 1 8 2 2 4 42 13 16 3 21 7 14 37 11 19 7 7 2 5 36 13 7 11 5 20 2 10 8 48 25 10 13 38 8 30 85 40 28 17 15 6 9 70 19 19 26 6 31 4 13 14 99 42 28 29 Qarku Korce Kolonje Devolle Pogradec 28 8 7 3 10 7 2 3 2 41 17 14 5 5 76 27 24 8 17 16 5 2 9 16 5 6 4 31 11 10 10 4 3 1 32 20 4 8 697 52 16 9 27 32 11 12 9 90 41 32 17 23 13 10 86 50 19 19 Mallakaster 6. Gjirokaster 7. Korce 8. Kukes Qarku 22 14 Kukes 7 4 Has 4 3 Tropoje 11 7 9. Lezhe Qarku 13 4 Lezhe 4 2 Kurbin 5 1 Mirdite 4 1 10. Shkoder Qarku 47 12 Shkoder 23 7 Mal. Madhe 18 4 Puke 6 1 11. Tirane Qarku 17 2 Tirane 10 Kavaje 7 2 12. Vlorw Qarku 42 12 Vlore 25 3 Sarande 10 5 Delvine 7 4 Vendi 291 98 308 Source: P. Qiriazi, S. Sala "Natural Monuments in Albania" pg.19 57
  58. 58. Albanian diverse nature and evolution of complex emergency, there are many more still unknown to deserve this status, it is the duty of scholars, experts and environmentalists to natyrws our country to take, the initiative is the recognition of study content for the panjohuar detailed values of nature, according to the law you propose for the status they deserve. State of Nature Monuments their mass destruction after 1990 and especially the concept of narrow specialists and scholars troubled nature in Albania. With this concern citizen they began work on the study, appreciation and application of today's concept of Natural Monuments by IUCN. Important step in recognizing the protection of marks studying Monuments of Nature "Nature Monuments - cadastre, protection and preservation of their" precise definition of the concepts of Nature Monuments and expansion in the involvement in the status of objects of nature alive and not alive , sensitization of public opinion for their values. Played a significant contribution and support institutional and legal framework for protected areas where differentiated according to the nature and genesis (Geological Sites, Hidrological SITES, Biological Sites). Were published a major study mumber for Nature Monuments to put them in the service of process, educational, cultural, patriotic, ecological and service to the tourism development. Our country has a wealth of natural, diverse, which may well become an important part of the tourism sector, but it requires a perfect up to the ideal management of this property. Despite the achievements of the nature monuments remain many problems of scientific nature, the legislative institution. State of the monuments of nature in our country faces a problem that should not avoid, but rather to say that you evidenting stop: - Licensing private firms use of raw materials, hurting and alienating their values Skrapar - Denatured nature of Monuments of Nature as a result of use without scientific criteria and respect the laws on human activities as sources of Glina (Gjirokaster), sources in the district Devoll Pogrit - Illegal constructions on the beach chaotic Gen - Lack of appropriate infrastructure and orientation symbols - Their lack of Tourist Guide, the lack of information from the local population All these problems are the result of political deficiencies, strategies for preservation and protection of monuments of our nature. Lack of 58