Session1: Management and sustainable tourism development
Session 2: Financial and legal reforms in sustainable tourism
1. Prof. Dr. Dhori Kule, Tirana University, Albania
2. Prof.Dr.Sara Santoro, University “G.d’Annunzio” Chieti-Pescara,
3. Prof. Dr. Massimo Bianchi, Bologna University, Italy
4. Prof. Dr. Fausto De Salvo, Bologna University, Italy
5. Prof. Dr. Mahir Hoti, Shkodra University, Albania
6. Prof. Dr. Andrea Pieroni, University of Gastronomic Sciences, Italy
7. Prof. Dr. Andrea Kagermeier, University of Trier, Germany
8. Prof. Dr. Sulo Haderi, Tirana University, Albania
9. Prof. Dr. Fatmir Memaj, Tirana University, Albania
10. Prof. Dr. Liljana Elmazi,Tirana University, Albania
11. Prof. Dr. Vjollca Bakiu, Tirana University, Albania
12. Prof. As. Dr. Servete Gruda, Albanian Competition Institution
13. Prof. As. Dr. Kozeta Sevrani, Tirana University, Albania
14. Prof. As. Dr. Arjeta Troshani, Shkodra University, Albania
15. Prof. As. Dr. Drita Kruja, Shkodra University, Albania
16. Adriana Galvani, PhD, Bologna Univeristy, Italy
17. Dr. Armand Krasniqi, Prishtina University, Kosovo
18. Dr. Blerta Dragusha, Shkodra University, Albania
19. Dr. Albana Begani, Shkodra University, Albania
20. Dr. Brilanda Bushati, Shkodra University, Albania
21. Dr. Mirjam Dibra, Shkodra University, Albania
22. Ted Oelfke, MBA Sandhills College, USA
Prof. As. Dr. Arjeta Troshani - Dean of Economic Faculty, Shkodra
Dr. Brilanda Bushati - Tourism Department, Economic Faculty, Shkodra
Alkida Hasaj, MMK - Tourism Department, Economic Faculty, Shkodra
OPENING SPEECH ..................................................................................13
Session 1: “Management and Sustainable tourism development”
1. Prof. Dr.Massimo Bianchi, Laura Tampieri, Bologna University,
Master and Doctoral studies in Cultural Tourism. Problems and
perspectives in Western Balkans ...........................................................21
2. Prof. As.Dr. Arjeta Troshani, Shkodra University, Ted Oelfke, MBA
Sandhills College USA, Maintenance and Control of Public Use Land
in Albania’s Shkoder Lake and Velipoja Beach Areas ..........................39
3. Prof. Dr. Perikli Qiriazi, Msc.Blerta Avdia Geography, University
of Tirana Evaluation And Management Of Monuments of our Nature
4. Dr. Mirjam Dibra, Shkodra University, Ted Oelfke, MBA Sandhills
College USA, Integration of the Concept of Sustainable Tourism within
the Higher Education Curriculum: An Albanian Case Study ................62
5. Prof.as.Dr.Artan Hoxha, Dr.Sokol Mengjezi, Faculty of Law UT,
Extra contracting responsibility of tourist entrepreneur for damages
caused to health, security and property of client-An instrument of
importance for development of tourism industry ..................................90
6. Dr. Alketa Vangjeli, Faculty of Economy University “Aleksandër
Xhuvani”, Elbasan Problems And Prospects Of Sustainable Tourism
Development In Albania ......................................................................104
7. Matilda LIKAJ PhD Cand Faculty of Economics and
Administrative Sciences Epoka University Globalization dimensions
and Globalization of Culture: Development of Tourism in perspective of
Albanian Culture Case .........................................................................117
8. Dr. Ilir Kaduku, Agricultural University of Tirana, The Past, the
Present and the Future of the Albanian Tourism .................................132
9. Dr. Brilanda Bushati, Dr. Fatbardha Molla (Beqiri), Shkodra
University, Prof. Dr. Arjan Abazi, University of Tirana, IT in
tourism and reservation systems ..........................................................152
10. Msc. Shqiponja Nallbani, University of Prishtina, Peje, The role of
cross-border management and its impact on regional tourism
development in the areas of Accursed Mountains (UES) - The role of the
Kosovar institutions- ............................................................................165
11. Rovena TROPLINI MSc, Adela ÇAFULI MSc Tourism as a
responsibility for growing Albanian economy ..................................178
12. Msc. Blerim KOLA, Msc. Dorian KRISTIQI, University
Aleksander Moisiu Durres, The role of internet advertising to the
Companies in Albania ..........................................................................194
13. Gloria Harusha Msc, Arjeta Anamali Msc, Shkodra University,
Armela Anamali Msc, University Aleksander Moisiu Durres.
Community involvement in tourism development ..............................205
14. Dr. Andriela Vitić – ćetković Ass’t professor University of
Montenegro Kotor, Promotion of peace tourism and sustainable
development – West Balkans’s perspective .........................................217
15. Eglantina Hysa, Epoka University, Influence of Tourism Sector in
Albanian Gross Domestic Product .......................................................224
16. Bashkim Berberi, MPA. (Candidat Dr.), Kristal University, Tirana,
Ledjon Shahini MSC. (Candidat Dr.) “INSTAT”, Tirana,Tourism
development in Albania .......................................................................236
17. Prof. Dr. Jovan Stojanoski, Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality,
Ohrid, Macedonia,Klime Poposki, PhD, Insurance Supervision
Agency of Republic of Macedonia, Stevco Meceski, Msc, Faculty of
Tourism and Hospitality, Ohrid, Macedonia, Prof Dr. Liljana
Elmazi, University of Tirana, The Influence of Previous Visitation on
Customer’s Evaluation of a Tourism Destination ................................250
18. MSc. Rudina RAMAJ (Lipi), University Kristal, Prof. Dr. Fatmir
MEMAJ, University of Tirana, Tourist SME-s And Financial
Management Practices .........................................................................266
19. Prof. As. Servete Gruda, Competition Authority Albania, Pranvera
Beqiri, MSc, Prof. As. Albana Hashorva University of Tirana,
Impact of promotion on increasing the competitiveness of tourism in
Northern Albania .................................................................................277
20. Dr. Arjola DERGJINI, Dr. Albana BORIÇI (BEGANI), Dr. Ardita
BORIÇI, Shkodra University, Management Of Change In Shkodra
21. Alkida Hasa MMK, Candidate PhD, Shkodra University, Forcim
Kola, Candidate PhD,UAM Durres, Innovation Approach for the
Tourism Enterprise in Albania .............................................................307
22. Romina Dhora, PhD candidate, Shkodra University, Plarent Bala,
MA, The historical houses of the “Gjuhadol” street in Shkodra city. The
application of a multidisciplinary support system for tourism planning
and the development of sustainable cultural tourism ...........................321
23. Bujar Leskaj, PhD, Ilir ELMAZI, PhD student, University of
Tirana, Adoption of customer relation management in travel industry.
the barriers and perspectives from its implementation. the case of
24. Mersida Bala, PhD candidate, Shkodra University, Marsel Fregjaj,
Msc, Models of sustainable tourism development. The management
organization of Razma destination ......................................................343
25. Brunilda Liçaj, Candidate PhD, Fatbardha Kadiu, Candidate PhD,
UAM Durres, Local System Of Touristic Offer (Lsto) ......................353
26. Helga Vukaj,PhD,University of Tirana, Evelina Bazini, PhD,
University of Vlora , Prof. Dr. Liljana Elmazi University of Tirana,
Influencing Consumer Behavior To Promote Sustainable Tourism In
Viewpoint Of Local Authority Perspective ……….…………………365
27. Fabjana MAKSUTAJ, MA, PhD. Candidate, Tirana University,
Faculty of Sociology.Prof.Dr. Vjollca BAKIU, Tirana University,
Faculty of Economy Tourist Behavior and Tourist Product Adaptation:
For a Sustainable Tourism Development .............................................378
28. Zhaneta Ndregjoni, Ph.D student, Mimoza Kalia, PhD student,
Economic Faculty, Tirana University, E- Marketing And ITCSupported Tourist Destination Management In Global Recession ......393
29. Oli Pero, Rozafa Alibali MMK,Economic Faculty Shkodra
University, Developing successful marketing strategies for heritage
attractions in Shkodra ..........................................................................406
30. MA. Albana Madhi, MSC.Marsida Ashiku (Ranxha), University of
Elbasan, Promotion and economic development of the Castle of
Elbasan, turning into a tourist destination ...........................................419
31. Dr.Ilirjan Lipi, University of Vlora “Ismail Qemali”, The Role Of
Education And Qualification Of Workforce For Sustainable
Development Of Albanian Tourism ....................................................432
32. MSc. Arbi Agalliu, Problems and challenges of tourism in Albania 443
33. Dorina Hoxha, Phd Candidate, Dr. Kristinka Jance, University of
Tirana, Criminal Law Protection on Cultural Heritage Tourism .......453
34. Dr. Florian Nepravishta, Polytechnic University of Tirana,
Preservation and restoration of the historical center of Shkodra an added
value for elite tourism ..........................................................................466
35. Dr.Ing. Shkëlqim GJEVORI, Ministry of Public of Works and
Transport, Dr. Gjergj SHQAU, University "Alexander Xhuvani"
Elbasan, Alternatives for the development of sustainable tourism
Shkodra case study ...............................................................................482
36. Lorenc KOÇIU MSc , Robert ÇELO MBA, Irena BOBOLI MSc,
“Eqrem Çabej” University, Gjirokastra The development of rural
areas through agro tourism (Gjirokastra region) ..................................494
37. M.sc. Irena BOBOLI, Doc. Msc. Drita LUZO, MBA. Robert Çelo,
University “Eqrem Çabej” Gjirokaster. Tourism Development In
Gjirokastra District ..............................................................................507
This year the topic of the conference that Economic Faculty of Shkodra
University has organized was about tourism because this has become a
prioritary sector of economic development of our country and especially for
the Northern Albania. During these last years there is a great interest shown
on the respect to culture and nature conservation and sustainable
development model has been launched as the best model for tourism
development in a global level. Tourism has been recognized as one of the
driving forces of Albania’s economy - providing jobs and income to
thousands of families. And travel and tourism affects all sectors of
Albania’s economy, stimulating the growth of small and medium-sized
enterprises in other sectors– creating more jobs and income along the way.
According to the 2008 World Travel & Tourism Council report, Albania’s
travel and tourism economy directly and indirectly accounted for $1.8
billion, equivalent to almost 15 % of the Albania’s GDP, and employed
almost 150,000 jobs or 12% of the total employment. The public sector and
the private sector have helped attract foreign tourists with the completion of
the new international Rinas airport, with representation in international
travel fairs, with investment in a multi-media advertising campaign for
CNN, BBC and with the development of a state-of-the art website for the
National Tourism Agency—all important tools that contribute to placing
Albania on the map as an international tourism destination. In the strategy,
the principle of sustainable tourism development is stated as the guiding
principle to build the sector. In doing so, Albania has chosen a difficult path,
but the right one, that in the long-term will preserve Albania’s cultural
heritage, conserve natural resources, protect precious archeological and
historical monuments, and improve livelihoods.
That is way several papers of this international conference has presented the
eminent problem of environment protection and management, waste
management, global dimension of tourism development grouped at session
1. Meanwhile on the session 2 are presented papers with regard to financial
reforms, legal aspects of tourism, and applying new European standards on
certification and environment protection.
Among the last achievements of Economic Faculty was the participation as
partner in TEMPUS project 2011 – 2014 in collaboration with the main
grantholder of this project Chieti University “G.d’Annunzio” of Pescara,
Italy titled “Network for Post Graduate Masters in Cultural Heritage
and Tourism Management in Balkan Countries”. This project will aim
opening of a Master in Cultural Heritage creating in this way greater
qualification opportunities for the students of Economic Faculty adding
value to this year opened Masters in Finance, Accounting and BusinessAdministration and existing Master in Sustainable Tourism.
The titles of the two sessions of our second international tourism conference
have been as following:
Session1: Management and sustainable tourism development
Session 2: Financial and legal reforms in sustainable tourism
We hope that this conference will motivate Economic Faculty of Shkodra
University as one of the promoters of economic development of Northern
Albania and especially of the sustainable tourism development at this
Dean of Economic Faculty
Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi”
Prof. Dr. Sara Santoro
University “G.d’Annunzio” Chieti-Pescara, Italy
Dear Minister, Authorities, Rectors,
Dear guests and colleagues, ladies and gentlemen,
It’s my personal proud and pleasure today to speak, in the context of this
important International conference, organized by the Faculty of Economics
on the theme of Changing in development of sustainable; it also constitutes
the Opening Conference of a European Tempus IV (Four) Joint Project,
which I have the honor to present You as Grant Holder.
The CHTMBAL - Network for Post Graduate Masters in Cultural Heritage
and Tourism Management in Balkan Countries, is a Joint Project selected by
the European Agency over two thousand of the IV(Fourth) Tempus
application call, with an important grant of budget, classifying 59th over 560
You well know that the main objectives of the Tempus program are:
•to build up the capacity of higher education institutions in the partner
countries and the EU, in particular for international cooperation and
for a permanent modernization process, and to assist them in
opening themselves up to society at large;
•to enhance networking among higher education institutions and
research institutions across the Partner Countries and EU Member
•to enhance mutual understanding between peoples and cultures of the
EU and of the partner countries
More specifically, our Joint Project CHTMBAL, aims at enhancing the
cultural heritage management and sustainable tourism in Albania and
Kosovo. The main objective of this project is to create a university network
for Post Graduate Masters in Cultural Heritage and Tourism Management,
which will allow sharing knowledge, methods and tools between the
European Countries and the Partner Countries. Through the creation of an
interuniversity network the Scientific Committee will review, reform and
update the present curricula of the Partners Countries, helping them
applying the Bologna Process.
As a concrete implementation of this Network, the creation of two Pilot
Master Courses (one in Albania and one in Kosovo) is foreseen. The goal of
this Master is to create a group of young professionals well trained in this
field and to help them enter in the labor market; at the same time we will
work on teacher training to allow the project to self-sustain. The Master
Pilot will take place in the University of Shkoder and in the University of
Prizren, involving twenty students per university.
Albania and Kosovo are two countries rich in history, arts, ancient and
noble traditions, with wonderful seascapes, lakes and mountains. Until a few
years ago they were little known in Europe and this adds charm to their
discover. A brilliant advertisement, a few years ago, promoted tourism in
Albania defining it “the last secret land of Europe”. In the past these
countries played an important role in the history of Europe: since the Iron
Age, the princes of these areas enriched by metals, agriculture and breeding,
kept strong relationships with the Mediterranean world and that is
manifested by the treasures of their tombs. In the Roman and Byzantine Age
different emperors were born and walked in these lands, founded cities, built
roads, bridges, amphitheaters. Peoples of these lands formed for centuries
the heroic barrier of the Christian Europe toward the Turkish invasion.
Recently these countries have been an example of pacific cohabitation
between different religions and beliefs. All these cultural, historical,
landscape values form the fundament of national identities and at the same
time a new resource, in times of great people mobility, when travel becomes
the discovery of new places and ancient times, a chance to meet persons and
Actually the number of tourists is quickly increasing in Albania and
Kosovo; with that, the request for cultural and sustainable tourism is
increasing too. Sustainable tourism is the only solution to avoid the reckless
exploitation of the resources of these two countries; and there is no
sustainable tourism without the awareness, knowledge, fruition and
development of the cultural heritage.
The Master course implemented by the Project will focus on the key
concepts of cultural tourism and heritage management: resource definition,
destination planning, work instruments (Key Informant Interviews, Internet,
and surveys) and key institution involvement, providing all the resources
needed to reach the goal.
As a premise there are several problems and limitations to the
implementation of higher education courses in Balkan transition countries.
Specifically in Albania and Kosovo, the high education situation saw an
increasing number of private universities, many of them completely
unreliable, and many public universities which already existed but with
limited resources and committed to the effort of adjustment to the bologna
process and international standards (the north American one more than
European). The existing laws don’t clearly state the degree and that allowed
the private universities market to grow; these results in many people paying
consistent fees without really attending the courses. For these reasons, the
Albanian and Kosovo’s universities selected as partners of our project are
just state universities. But we see a restricted autonomy of these Universities
as it concerns the accreditation process. No coordination or dialog with
Ministerial structures to exchange information and to make more flexible
and up to dated the process of certification.
We see also several difficulties in the beneficiaries’ universities in
establishing a sustainable cycle of Master/Doctorate owing to limited
resources available to fund Masters and Doctorates and to the scarce
demand of this level from local private companies and stakeholders.
We see also a scarce level of students and also of professors due to a local
origin of most of them: many Eastern students come to Europe and USA to
obtain certificate to spent at home for more prestigious jobs or work
On the basis of this considerations, the Master course implemented by the
Project will be a professional master, and it will be a first level master, with
ninety 90 ECTS, 60 sixty of which recognizable in the university master of
science degree. The master of the project is focused on the key concepts of
cultural tourism and heritage management: resource definition, destination
planning, work instruments (Key Informant Interviews, Internet, and
surveys) and key institution involvement, providing all the resources needed
to reach the goal.
Actually, issues related on the real labor market receptivity of this
professional, both from enterprises and institutions, are still debated. So it
becomes crucial a meeting with them, and a proper evaluation of the
admitted number of students and on the type of Master (first level, second
level, PhD). There is also the need to understand if so little countries can
support this education offer every year or if a multiyear program changing
is needed in order to make this professional profiles useful.
The theoretical part of the courses will focus on three main fields:
humanities (history, archeology, anthropology, folklore, and human
geography), management (tourism-based market, event creation, economical
strategies for tourism, sustainable tourism development, marketing) and law
and administrative studies (Cultural heritage laws, tourism policies, cultural
policies, administration and organization guidelines). Also it will be paid
great attention not only on e-learning but also on the effective use of esources for tourism, cultural management and event creation (websites,
research engines, advertising on internet and so on.)
During the project many agreements with local institutions and enterprises
will be established, in order to create stages where the students can apply
what they have learnt and help them enter in the labor market. The project
will also provide teachers and administration training thanks to the
experience and the shared knowledge of the EU partners
Direct beneficiaries of the project are Universities, faculties, professors and
students from Albania and Kosovo. Professors will benefit from the
curriculum and syllabi which will give them the chance to upgrade their
teaching skills, implement new teaching methods and methodology and
prepare the handouts for the courses lecturing. The master students will
benefit from their study visit and established communication with highly
respective European educational institutions. This will provide them with
competencies and will increase their competitiveness on the labor market
with end result in contribution to the development of the economy in the
beneficiaries’ countries both in the institutions and enterprises of Albania
Along with the partnership with the universities of Shkoder and Prizren,
also the University of Durres will be involved in the project. The support
from the local institutions will be granted by the Cultural Monument
Institute of Albania (the state institution which manage the architectonical,
archaeological and artistic heritage of the Albanian Republic) and by the
World University Service of Kosovo (an NGO with the assignment of
higher education rebuilding in Kosovo). A solid scientific background is
guaranteed by the Institut Català d'Arqueologia Classica and the
Archaeology Department of Warsaw University, which has worked for
many years in excavation and development of the Balkan archaeological
Heritage. For what concerns my University G. D’Annunzio of Chieti
Pescara, Grant Holder of the project and here represented by the Dean of
Humanities on behalf of the Rector, has a long tradition of archeological and
historical studies on the balkan area and intensive relationships with the
Cultural Heritage institutions: as holder of the Italian Archaelogical Mission
in Durres, we have a ten years long collaboration for a better knowledge of
the history of the city through the implementation of urban management
tool, like the archaeological risk plan, the collaboration to urban plans,
technical and scientific support to development-led excavations, the study,
excavation and development of the roman amphitheater Many other Italian
universities are involved and more specifically: Alma Mater Bologna
University (Faculty of Economics – Rimini, renown for Tourism Economy),
SVIMAP, (Public Management Development Network) and “Leonardo da
Vinci" e-University for the e-learning platform.
Together with this partners and with the help and support of national and
local institutions and enterprises, we are certain that this project will result
in important outcomes for the development of methodological tools and for
the scientific and cultural growth of both local and european partners Thank
you for your kind attention. To everybody, you and us the best wishes for a
MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE
MASTER AND DOCTORAL STUDIES IN CULTURAL TOURISM.
PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES IN WESTERN BALKANS ∗.
Prof. Massimo Bianchi
University of Bologna
Forlì Faculty of Economics
The paper analyses and discusses the problems and perspectives in
preparing and managing didactical programs, methodologies and syllabi of
Cultural Tourism in Higher Education courses.
The Cultural Tourism is an interdisciplinary topic for Higher Education
courses and, although the interest connected to the priorities in Balkans
governmental policies and international projects, it could be a challenge for
Master and PhD programs.
The paper considers some projects managed by Bologna University in
Western Balkans with the aim of creating Master and Doctoral studies in the
Cultural Tourism sector underlining the structure and process aspects linked
to the teaching.
The analysis will point out the relevance of this sector in the University
system and in the international programmes by considering the didactical
offer (Master and PhD) realized on this topic in Western Balkans countries
and particularly in Albania, Macedonia and Kosovo.
Moreover the results are connected to the description of detailed programs,
methodologies and syllabi of teaching at University level in the Cultural
Tourism field. Another topic refers to the involvement of local systems and
small businesses for implementing the Cultural Tourism offer in the
To this purpose a particular focus is set on the distance learning, and
particularly on the Simulimpresa methodology, that could be considered as a
Although this paper is the result of a joint collaboration, paragraphs 2 and 4 are attributed
to M. Bianchi, par. 1, 3 and 5 to L. Tampieri.
relevant tool of teaching to be adopted in Universities for the development
of entrepreneurial and managerial competencies, mainly those linked to
Key words: Cultural Tourism, TEMPUS, Master, PhD, Simulimpresa
1. The TEMPUS programme for Master courses and PhD programme
The paper wants to highlight the problems and perspectives linked to the
didactical programs, methodologies and syllabus in Master courses and PhD
programs on Cultural Tourism by considering the experiences of Bologna
University in two TEMPUS projects: DOCSMES “Regional Joint Doctoral
Programme in Entrepreneurship and SME Management for Western Balkan
Countries” and CHTMBAL “Network for Post Graduate Masters in Cultural
Heritage and Tourism Management in Balkan Countries” (Fig.1).
Both initiatives aim to enforce the Reform of Higher Education with
particular focus on the structure and the process of didactical programmes
implementation through also distance learning methodologies such as the
enterprise simulation called “Simulimpresa”. Simulipresa represents an
innovative didactical tool based on the learning by doing principle in which
the participants create in a classroom a virtual enterprise developing
managerial competencies mainly linked to business management (Tampieri
The Reform of Higher Education through International University
Cooperation is a well recognized priority in many national and international
programmes such as the Tempus 1 managed by the European Commission
(Bianchi, Tampieri 2011). This is the longest-standing EU initiative that has
a strong focus on institutional cooperation. Since its inception in 1990,
University cooperation under the Tempus programme has contributed
successfully to enforce the sustainable University partnerships as well as to
enhance mutual understanding between academic worlds of the European
Union and the Western Balkans.
The Tempus programme contributes to the creation of an area of
cooperation in the field of higher education involving European Union and
Western Balkans. Tempus is implemented in close coordination with the
Erasmus Mundus programme which provides scholarships to third country
students allowing them to participate in top-level master courses and
doctorate programmes inside EU (Tampieri 2009).
Fig.1 – The profile of DOCSMES and CHTMBAL.
University of Bologna
Dardania University, Agency for promotion
of entrepreneurship of the RM, Macedonian
Chambers of Commerce, Seavus dooel
Skopje, Konfederata e Industrive te
University St. Kliment Ohridski Bitola,
Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona,
University of Tirana, University of Nice –
Sophia Antipolis, Agricultural University of
Tirana, South East European University
15/10/2010 – 14/10/2013
Development and implementation of a joint
doctoral programme in Entrepreneurship
and SME Management in order to complete
the three cycled HE system in accordance
with Bologna Process and key EHEA/ERA
-Developing the structure, curriculum and
modalities of the Doctoral Programme in
Entrepreneurship and SME Management
harmonized with EU standards; - Enhancing
the exchanging of experience and best
practices with EU partner universities,
through mobility of academic and
administrative staff and doctoral students; Developing new teaching methodologies
including Distance Learning tools; Enforcing stakeholders’ involvement in
both curriculum development and research
activities; - Establishing Standards in
Doctoral studies and Providing Quality
assurance; - Improving capacities of the
Western Balkans countries' Universities; Pilot Programme implementation; Sustainability; - Dissemination.
- Kick-off meeting, developing the first
phase-curriculum courses; enforcing the
stakeholders involvement in curricula
development and realization; developing
syllabi; developing new teaching methods,
doctoral dissertation phase; trainining on
distance learning mode; training of
supervisors; - Training of administrative
University “G.d’Annunzio” Chieti-Pescara
University of Durres, Institut Català
monumenteve te kultures “Gani Strazimiri”,
Antiquity of Southeastern Europe Res. Centre,
University of Warsaw, University Luigj
University Service Kosova, University of
Prizren, Università Telematica “Leonardo da
Vinci”, Bologna University
15/10/2011 – 14/10/2014
Development of a Network for Post Graduate
Masters in Cultural Heritage and Tourism
in the Balkan Countries;
Creation of two pilot master courses in
- Creation of a interuniversity network for an
educational system oriented to the development
of proficiencies for the cultural heritage
management, events creation and sustainable
tourism; - Review and reform of PC curricula
Normalization of PC curricula to the Bologna
Process and ECTS; - Sharing and improving
the EU experience through mobility and
teacher training; - Involvement of key
institutions and enterprises; -Development of
new teaching methods; -Development of
modules for MSc degrees; - Start-up and
implementation of pilot Msc degrees in
Cultural Heritage and Tourism Management; Establishment of Quality standards;
Dissemination of the results and sustainability
of the project
establishment: Creation of the Scientific
Committee, Evaluation Committee and Project
Management Board (PMB); - Reporting and
budgeting; - Regular PMB meetings; - Review
of the Partner curricula to the Bologna Process
and of policies on cultural heritage and cultural
management; - Meeting with local key
staff; - intra-country general meetings; preparation of the pilot doctoral program,
enrolling the first generation of doctoral
students; starting the first semester
courses/lectures, seminars and workshops;
starting the second semester lectures,
seminars and workshops; Mobility of
students; the third and fourth semester pilot research work and doctoral thesis
proposal; - purchasing and applying the IT
equipment and software related to the
programme; - Conferences and workshops;
Web site designing and updating; Teaching
methods and distance learning mode
dissemination; International Conference for
the dissemination of final results; - Ceating
quality control standards and processes in
line with EU relevant standards; quality
control implementation; creation of quality
control body related to the doctoral
programme; Monitoring the quality
procedures implementation; - Establishment
of the Communication Body; Supporting the
research activities by business
-Developing and structuring doctoral
programme in Entrepreneurship and SME
Management as a third cycle programme in
- Doctoral programme implementation; Dissemination; - Management of the
Project; -Quality Control and Monitoring; Exploitation and Sustainability
institutions and enterprises for the definition of
a professional profile; - Development of the
syllabi; Development of the new teaching
methods (distance learning); -Training courses
and visits (mobility) of teachers and
administrators for the preparation of MSc
curricula; -Creation of agreements with local
institutions and enterprises and stages database;
-Training on distance learning modes; Preparation of the pilot program; - Starting of
the 1st semester courses/lectures; - Starting of
the 2nd semester courses/lectures; -Mobility of
students; - 3rd /4th semester accomplishment; Improving
infrastructure; Evaluation of modules and new
teaching methods at the end of the master pilot;
- Creation of
intelligent platform to
Interuniversity Network; - Development of
intelligent tutoring system and student
knowledge assessment system; - Conferences
and Workshops; Website; - Publications; Creation of quality control standards; Quality control implementations; - Monitoring
the quality procedures implementation;
Recommendations;- Agreements with local
institutions and enterprises; -Sustainability
establishment; - Reporting; - Regular Project
Management Board meetings; - Review and
update of curricula and policies; -Agreements
with local enterprises and institutions; -Teacher
training; - Training on distance learning modes;
preparation of the Pilot Master Programme; Starting of 1st / 2nd semester of lessons; Mobility of students; - The 3th and 4th semester
accomplishing; - Improving the program
facilities infrastructures; -Development of the
Intelligent Interuniversity Network; - Creation
of an Intelligent Interuniversity Network; Development of intelligent tutoring system;
designing and updating; Creating Quality
implementation; Scientific Committee and
Peer-Review Team Meetings; Monitoring the
Exploitation and sustainability; Tutoring of
implementation of the courses; Agreements
with local institutions and enterprises
These projects face the emerging challenges in Western Balkans: - dramatic
demographic changes (number of people potentially having access to higher
education, age structure, migration flows), - increasing global competition,
leading to a considerable shift in the distribution of the economic power at
world level, - changes in science and technology but notably the growing
importance of organisational and societal innovation rather than purely
technological innovation and - challenges of societies in transition (social
cohesion, human rights, etc.).
The Higher education institutions are the key actors in such programme
needed for the successful transition to a knowledge-based economy and
society and for the training of a new generation of leaders. In EU the
modernisation of higher education has been acknowledged as a core
condition for the success of the Lisbon Strategy and more recently the
Europe 2020 strategy which aim at restructuring the economic and social
systems within EU.
At the same time, Western Balkans Universities have expressed interest in
the harmonisation of their higher education systems, inspired by the
developments made in this respect within Europe. The Tempus programme
has supported Western Balkans Universities in reforming their higher
education systems in line with the principles of the "Bologna process"
(Tampieri 2010) which aims at creating a "European Area for Higher
Education" and is becoming a common reference point for both EU Member
States and Western Balkans.
2. The accreditation process
“The western society is a society of organizations” quoted Amitai Etzioni
(1964) in his Modernn Ortganizations referring to The Organization Society
(Presthus 1962). He told us that the western countries, in this time opposite
to the Eastern Soviet Blosk, has a particular feature in conflict with a
totalitary approach that simplifies the society in an authoritative and unified
perspective. After the collapse of this regime, in the international arena the
category of Transition Countries, that tried to apply a democratic way of
life, emerged. The political and governance revolution undertaken by those
countries appears today easier comparing the evolution of the societal
texture of the society that, till now, showed many problems of development.
There are almost three topics that characterized this boundaries of the
democratization: the diffusion of small business, till now limited by the
scarce culture of entrepreneurship, self achievement and personal initiative
that affect transition countries and particularly western Balkans. The second
topics concerns the role of local governments in the development of local
systems and in the improvement of their competitive attraction. The last one
refers to the system appointed to produce innovation, scientific perspectives
and high professional preparation; in few words, new generations in
condition to be masters for the future society.
The western society, in despite of the present crisis, connected to the
complexity of the society structure that reached a dimension that needs a
higher level of dynamic control, could be understood only in a perspective
of process and of networking. It means that, particularly in the management
of Masters and Doctorate, the network and the process are the basis.
Without those premises, the applying of Master and Doctorate Models
maintains the characteristic of a bureaucratic tool with a poor motivation
connected to the supply of a title to new generation and a formal recognition
of a learning that didn’t exist or only partially exists.
Fig. 2 – Basic framework of High Education Courses in Italian Universities.
120 ECTS/2 years
60 ECTS/1 year
minimum 3 years
60 ECTS/1 year
Secondary Higher School
180 ECTS/3 years
The problem of the establishment of Masters and Doctorates in Western
Balkans Universities could be summarized in those structural problems that
would be overcome but only with a clear perspective and a strong
motivation to apply a correct methodology.
First of all, when we examine Masters, Doctorates and PhDs, we have to
consider that, although the increasing diffusion of those courses of studies,
quite frequently they have a wide variety of definitions. Furthermore, some
of them didn’t correspond to a correct definition of their identity owing to
commercial or easy practices. To this purpose we want to clarify the
framework within we are moving.
The Bologna Process, with its distinctions between the first three years of
graduation and the two following ones of specialized master (called Laurea
Magistralis) with the doctorate and post doctorate studies, is applied in
Italian Universities with a path (Fig. 2).
As it’s easy to see the Master Level could be considered as a parallel
educational perspective, mainly related to professional purposes quietly free
from the structure of courses recognized to obtain the graduation
(Undergraduate degree) or the Laurea magistralis (Specialized degree –
Called also Master Degree) according to the legal value attributed to them in
For the creation of a 1st or 2nd Level Master, the proposal is submitted to the
Academic Authorities of Universities, a process that isn’t applied to no
institutional courses managed by non academic organizations as Local
Government, Non Profit Organizations, Associations or Private Companies.
For instance, in district of Rimini – famous in the world - and particularly
in Eastern Countries, for its attitude in Tourism and Leasure Activities, the
main Masters funded by Emilia Romagna Region move freely on different
and specialized subjects as it happens with the:
- Master in Congress Tourism
- Master in New Hospitality Management
- Master Executive in Web Marketing for Tourism Enterprise
- Master Executive in Meeting Planning and Event Organization
- Master Executive in Hotel Management
Each of them, in respective fields, contains Modules on different topics as:
Project Management, Management of Logistics and Congress Services,
Marketing and Event Promotion, Quality Management and Corporate
The teaching is mainly oriented to practical and applied knowledge and the
teaching staff is composed mainly by professionals or sector operators that
couldn’t have necessarily an academic degree. Their participation in the
teaching staff is motivated by their professional experience, so their
recruitment is not based on their educational degree.
The final official result is a Diploma that could be considered to enrich the
CV of participants and could have a relevance for the search of an
Master managed by Universities, distinguished in First and Second Level,
accordingly with the framework of Fig. 2, has a legal value and is
programmed within the academic structure of official courses with Credits
recognized in the ECTS. Some of the modules, if the participant will
participate, in the future, to the Degree process, are recognized in the
In University Master, normally, the accreditation process is submitted to the
Council of the Faculty that promotes the master and to the Department
competent as it concerns the Scientific Content. Once obtained this
approval, the Academic Senate will authorize the Master.
Main condition, besides the studies program is the responsibility of the
Master that has to be in charge to a Full Professor of the Promoter
University authorized to this purpose. Moreover, for each Master Subjects,
distinguished on the basis of the Academic Scientific Group established by
the Ministry for the Recruitment process of Researchers and Professors, is
requested a responsible Full Professor appointed in the University that
manages the Project.
As it concerns Doctorate problems, these are similar although in European
and particularly in Italian Universities the Doctorate is mainly oriented to
Research targets and will be defined PHD only after an Accreditation
Process which considers the participation in the Teaching Staff of Foreign
Professors and Researchers as an essential condition.
3. The sustainability of Master and PhD
The exploitation of the sustainability in the project activities implementation
is one of the key element evaluated by the European Commission for
delivering grants and also a condition needed for the maintenance and
development of project benefits and results.
The sustainability is ensured through a wide variety of tools: the creation of
an incentives system for academic and administrative staff of project
consortium units, the involvement of stakeholders in curricula development
and in supporting the research of the students and the dissemination of
results in international conferences and workshops.
Moreover in many cases, to ensure the sustainability, mainly from the
organizational perspective, the management of Masters and PhD is assigned
to public entities as Scientific-Didactical Pole 2, to consortia managed by
private law among public entities as Ser. In. Ar 3 and other consortia among
University and Foundations, as Alma Graduate School 4, that are able to
ensure more flexibility, autonomy and possibilities to gather external
financial resources from sponsors (Bianchi 1999a,b).
Considering the case of PhD implementation in Macedonia, the
development of the sustainability took into consideration the following
academic, institutional and socioeconomic factors:
- doctoral program in entrepreneurship can have, as a background,
developed second cycle (master programme) in entrepreneurship which
already exists in most of project consortium Universities. In such way
some of the courses can be run parallel for the master and doctoral
- available and experienced local academic staff for the new cycles
implementation of the doctoral programme;
- established network between the world of business and Universities that
can be recognized as a relevant basis for further cooperation in order to
gain common benefits;
- distance learning methodology, as an innovative way of teaching, can
enable joint programmes to be accomplished minimizing the costs of
- establishment of the Communication Body consisted of the
representatives from the both sides (universities and business
- diffusion of the PhD Programme in other Universities that can decide to
organize their PhDs with the continuity of professors and students
From the financial perspective alternative sources, rather than TEMPUS,
can refer to:
Companies that can give some financial support to the doctoral students
and will enable students to do research;
Universities scholarship for the involvement of the students in teaching
Self-financing of the students.
A particular focus is set on the detailed budget of the doctoral programme of
three years in Macedonia, built on the basis of the following items:
1) Courses of the didactical frame
2) Printing & publishing
5) Students mobility
Fig.3 – An hypothesis of general budget frame for a doctoral programme
of working rate 5
The Role of SMEs in
2) Printing and
5) Students mobility
It is per day and is indicated by the European Commission guidelines.
The calculation of the costs related to the two courses managed by
University of Bologna (Fig.3), taken as examples for all the other courses of
the doctoral programme, can be summarized as follows: 1) [C] = [A] * [B]
and 2) [F]= [C] + [D] + [E].
As it regards the item 2,3,4 and 5, the cost per year on the basis of the three
years programme respectively is: 4000 Euro (12000/3), 8000 Euro
(24000/3), 2000 Euro (6000/3) and 15000 Euro (45000/3).
To cover the mentioned cost items, the financial sources, summarized in
Fig.4, highlight that about the 90% is covered by TEMPUS, 5 % by self –
cofinancing and 5 % by other resources as companies and other
Fig.4 – The financing frame.
2) Printing and
5) Students mobility
Fig. 5 - The main determinants of the sustainability.
Agreements between business community
Master and PhD managed by autonomous
bodies generated by Universities
In other terms, the main determinants of the sustainability, as indicated in
Fig.4, can refer to the institution of more cycles, the delivering of
scholarship for the best students, the determination of an adequate
enrolment fee, the usage of co-financing, other financial resources from
other companies in the sense of sponsorships and the involvement of
autonomous bodies generated by Universities for the Master and PhD
4. Syllabi and Teachers Profile
Each University Master has a Scientific Committee generally composed by
representatives of Faculties or Departments that with their Full Professors
are responsible of the Master Scientific Group. The Scientific Committee is
in charge to approve the Program and the Syllabi.
To this purpose is essential to decide about the Master Orientation as in
Scientific or in Professional.
In Masters concerning Tourism this choice will be crossed with another
dimension that is the Economic or Technical One.
For example, as it concerns Managerial Subjects, there is one criterion
connected to the Management itself in its different degrees or specializations
as: Governance, Strategy, Programming, Resource Management, Logistics
etc. with the structure of a Tourism Organization with main functions as
Service Units of : Location, Restoration, Welcome and Reception, Room
Services, Administration, Room Make Up, Laundry, Supply and purchasing.
In each of those organizational area, particularly as it concerns Master with
Professional Orientation, the technology used and its knowledge are strictly
linked to organizational and economic problems. In many Masters in
Tourism the knowledge of Local Systems and Cultural Heritage together
with Museums and Cultural Institution Management is a teaching subject
that gives to the learning the necessary coverage of applied activities.
The relationship with the environment is essential for the Master adequacy
to requested professionalism. In Fig. 6 we show some main determinants of
the Master Syllabi Profile.
Fig. 6 - The impact of environmental structures on Master and Doctoral
It means that, according to this hypothesis, if the local system is based, in
the particular sector of Tourism, on Small Enterprises, the interest would be
focused on Less Specialized Skills with the content of the teaching more
oriented to management and economics while the prevailing diffusion of big
business will encourage more specialized skills and the use of technology.
5. The implementation of Distance Learning in Master and PhD courses
One of the operative usage of distance learning methodology is the
enterprise simulation defined by the European Commission – Directorate
Enterprises (2004) as a best practice to promote attitudes and managerial
competencies in the education field. A simulated enterprise is a centre of
vocational learning that runs like a "real" business silhouetting a "real"
firm's business procedures, products and services.
The simulated enterprise is undertaken by students that insert this program
in their business studies and they create, in a classroom and under the
supervision of teachers/tutors, a virtual enterprise, trading virtual products
and services in a simulated business environment. In this money is fictitious
while the business decisions, activities and documentations are strictly
linked to the real business world (Moore 2004).
The “Simulimpresa” methodology 6 is based on the learning by doing
principle allowing participants to acquire transversal skills enforcing their
individual peculiarities. Therefore they learn a job by doing the related
activities and duties (Gualdi 2001).
Another feature is the management by objectives as each participant
acquires competencies related to a specific role in the enterprise carrying out
duties and tasks planned for each single organizational position and on the
basis of the assigned targets provided at the beginning of each simulation
In the cultural sector a relevant start up experience of simulation refers to
Elbasan Renaissance Tour (ERT) in the Professional Education Centre
(CFP) of Elbasan within the project “Start up of professional education in
Elbasan area with particular regard for weak categories (Albania, 20072009, Project Emilia-Romagna Region Law 24 June 2002, n. 12)”.
This case has been analyzed in previous researches (Tampieri 2011b)
underling the structure and process aspects of the experimentation.
Summarizing the main features: the duration of the start up was 4 days
involving 13 participants grouped in three business areas: Marketing, front
office and administration / accounting.
This simulated agency operates in the cultural tourism sector as the mission
is to promote the historical, cultural and traditional value of Elbasan region
and Albania. The services are: - Organization of events, travelling and
cultural/touristic tour with specific regard to Elbasan region; - Promotion of
cultural and historic value of Albania and Elbasan region; - Tourist guide
assisted by professional staff; - Enhancement of collaboration with other
agencies that work in the same sector in Elbasan region and - Interpretation
The participants, working in team, realized the following targets/ activities: Definition of the enterprise, typology and mission; - Creation of the
organizational structure, register of presence, GANTT of activities; Definition of budget; - Creation of enterprise mail; -Individuation of logo; Design of depliant (in Italian and English) and catalogue; - Organization of
a pilot cultural tourism tour in Albania.
Through this experience, the participants acquired practical knowledge
about how a real enterprise operates. The general results would be the
development of new entrepreneurial initiatives with an international view.
Thus the Simulimpresa implementation in Master and PhD courses would
be a very relevant tool by which participants can apply, in a practical way,
the knowledge acquired during their studies reaching an advanced level of
6. Conclusions: the Master and Doctorate in Western Balkans
In the two mentioned projects, having the purpose of creating a Doctorate
Decree in Western Balkans, the main issues to be considered, on the basis of
previous experiences in transition countries are :
Too restricted autonomy of Universities as it concerns the
Difficulties in establishing a sustainable cycle of Master/Doctorate
owing to the scarce demand of this level from companies.
Limited resources available to fund Masters and Doctorates that,
owing to the scarce demand of this level of education and the
essential local origin of participants ( it’s difficult to have partners
from Western Countries while many Eastern students come to
Europe and USA ) with the purpose of obtaining a certificate to
spent at home for prestigious jobs or work positions.
Traditional methodology of approach to studies and final thesis that
foster general subjects and wide fields of research to restricted and
specialized ones and prefer theoretical and historical dissertations
(also in managerial subjects) to case studies.
Scientific support to dissertations mainly oriented to local quotations
with limited citations and references to international Authors and
mainstreams in discussion in the international arena.
Limited knowledge of foreign languages and particular of English
one, as the basis of managerial teaching. This it refers not only to
students but also to local teachers that prefer to use their own
language. This is a serious limit to the internationalization of the
knowledge and to the quality assurance and international chartering
of Masters and Doctorates.
Limited or not existent involvement of the local system
(stakeholders) in the Management and Funding.
No coordination or dialogue with Ministerial structures to exchange
information and to make more flexible and up to dated the process of
One useful tool to overcome some of those limits is that the Master and the
Doctorate would be managed by a Consortium of Universities or with
Universities as major partners. This will allow to reach a critic mass of
resources, financial, scientific and organizational. It will also foster the
involvement of extra university partners like private companies that could
ensure resources and relevant inputs as it concerns actual needs of
employers in the particular aspects of professional profiles.
The partnership of foreign Universities to the consortium, although
difficulties of a Double or Joint Master of PHD to coordinate different rules
and Ministerial constraints, could be a path that has to be explored in the
future to ensure the diffusion and implementation of Masters and Doctoral
Studies in Western Balkan Countries.
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projects. The case of 2005 - 2010 Tempus submissions, in Albertini S.,
Bergami M., D’Atri A., De Marco M., De Vita P., Ferrara M., Rossignoli C,
Salvemini S., Generazioni e Ri Generazioni nei processi organizzativi.
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Organization of Big Universities, to international conference “T.Q.M. for
Higher Education Institutions”, Università di Verona, Université ToulonVar Verona, 30-31 August 1999
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L’esperienza dell’ Ateneo Bolognese” Sinergie, CUEIM, Verona, n. 48,
Gennaio-Aprile 1999, pp. 219-229.
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European Commission – Directorate Enterprises (2004), Contribuire a
creare una cultura imprenditoriale, Bruxelles: Commissione europea, 1- 56.
Gualdi, D. (2001). L’impresa simulata. Varese: Paravia Bruno Mondadori.
Moore A. (2004) The Challenge of the Practice Firm: Simulating a Business
Environment in the UAE Fourth European GIS Education Seminar, Villach,
Austria 02nd- 05th September 2004.
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up of fashion sector: the cases ETNI, KK Personal Robe and NFP, in D’Atri
A., Ferrara M., George J.F., Spagnoletti P (eds), Information Technology
and Innovation trends in organizations, Physica-Verlag, Springer (pp. 523530).
Tampieri L., (2011b) The enterprise simulation in small business start up.
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of Kazakhstan. Advisory of Young Scientist University of International
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President of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
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University of Bologna", in Symposium Proceedings - Third International
Symposium on the development of public administration in Southeast
Europe. Public Administration in the context of financial crisis and
economic slowdown. P. Pevcin, S. Setnikar Cankar, University of Ljubljana,
Faculty of Administration 18 - 19 June 2009, pp. 1-14.
MAINTENANCE AND CONTROL OF PUBLIC USE LAND IN
ALBANIA’S SHKODER LAKE AND VELIPOJA BEACH AREAS
Dean of Economic Faculty Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi”
Ted Oelfke MS, FMP, CHE, CFE
Professor and Department Chair of Hospitality and Culinary Arts
Sandhills Community College, NC, USA
The paper will focus on the control of refuse and use of two prime touristic
locations in Northern Albania Shkoder Lake and the Velipoja beach area.
Currently conditions are not only terrible to look at the conditions could
lead to serious sanitation issues and contamination of surrounding soil and
water supplies. As conditions deteriorate during the summer months the
impression of foreign travelers of Albania and indeed Albanians themselves
is negatively impacted. Additionally, local residents will resent the very
tourists that support the local economy as they witness their pristine
recreational areas laid to waste. This paper will attempt to find methods of
clean-up and maintenance and for the payment that are acceptable to local
residents, businessmen, government officials and tourists alike. Further this
paper will determine the attitudes of various groups towards volunteerism as
a means of maintaining public property. Finally, the paper will explore the
desires of tourists, businessmen and tourists regarding any restrictions that
should be placed on beach use. For instance should motor vehicles and glass
bottles be allowed on the beach. Surveys of tourists, local businessmen,
governmental officials and residents will be conducted in order to reach
conclusions and recommendations on the uses and maintenance and
Albanian’s attitude toward volunteerism as a means of maintaining the areas
of Velapoja Beach, and the public area bordering Shkodra Lake. If the
surveys indicate a preference to provide the service through taxing of
tourists staying in hotels or eating in restaurants further studies will be
conducted to develop recommendations for implementation of such a tax.
Key words: Sanitary, Tourism Development, Destination Management,
Control, Taxes, and Strategy.
1.1 Tourism in the city of Shkodra
The city is connected with the other cities and Europe with railways and
motor transport. The foreign visitors, passing from the AlbanianYugoslavian border at the customs of Hanna i Hotit, will reach Shkodra
soon after 35 km, and 117 km after leaving Tirana. The seaside beach
(Velipoja) is 32 km far. This sandy beach (14 km long) is almost pristine.
The very fine and sand along with the warm water are curative for a lot of
diseases (esp.rheumatism). Just nearby the beach, there is a hunting spot
full of wild animals and fowls. West side of Shkodra Lake, 6 km from the
city, at the bottom of Tarabosh mountain, it is situated Shiroka picturesque
village, known not only for the beach, but also for the good and curative
climate that heals asthma and different allergies, and it has a good impact on
children growth. The Lake of Shkodra and the River of Buna are very
suitable to exercise water sports, especially rowing.
If the visitor likes mountain-climbing, speleology or skiing, he must be
directed to the picturesque village of Razma (41 km ), and if he would like
to add to these sports that of trout fishing or enjoying the characteristic noise
and freshness of the waterfalls, he should go right in the middle of Alps, to
the attracted village of Thethi (76 km). It is surrounded by peaks higher
than 2000 m, with the slopes covered with eternal forests. This village is
not the unique to enjoy this natural privilege. Nearby, there are a lot of
other rival villages like Vermoshi (110 km), Lepusha (90 km), Boga (54
km), Black Field, Vukli etc.
The city offers even institutions which acquaint you with its history and
various traditions. There are 90 cultural monuments. Next to the main hotel
“Rozafa”, there is the City Museum, and just a few meters further, there is
“Migjeni” Theater. One can visit even museum houses which recall
important events, dedicated to famous personalities of the city. You can
satisfy the curiosity, for the old history of the city, going to visit the city
castle “Rozafa” and its museum. From the castle, you can see at the bottom
of the hill, the castle is situated, the Lead Mosque, a monument of the XVIII
century, around it the rivers and the lake and the city in the middle of them.
& km from the city, there is another monument belonging to the XVIII
century, the Bridge of Mesi, built completely with stone arches 132 m long.
At the top of it, you can view the crystal waters of Kiri River and the trout
shoals moving against the flow
Shkodra is the very place where the Albanian hospitality is proverbial.
Once, one could find, embroidery, in the guest’s room of the houses of
Shkodra which read: “Welcome dear guests !”
Today Shkodra echoes back to the guests this greeting...!
1.2. The conditions of developing tourism in the city
The God has donated to Shkodra of lot of rich picturesque resources,
beginning with the seaside (14 km length), the picturesque lake (and nice
villages like Shiroka, Zogaj,the side of the Water etc.), the rivers that
surround the city in three parts ( and the city itself is a typical touristic
centre, where a good investment to serve to the touristic can be set up ),
along with the gorgeous Alps hiding tens of picturesque villages with
healthy climate (as Thethi, Razma, Boga etc. ) that attract the visitor and
invite him to enjoy these relaxing and curative beauties.
The seaside of Velipoja is a marvelous beauty of the Albanian nature,
where you can find at the same time the sea, the river, the beach, the
forest, the mountain and the marsh, with a clean and pristine sand, clear
water, the hunting spot 694.5 ha and the Viluni bay 900 ha. The visitor
can swim at the same time in the river and the sea, can pass the time
playing at the sports ground that can be set up, exercise water sports, can
walk on foot or by horse at the beautiful nature, can hunt for wild pigs or
rabbits, fox and jackal, goose and wild duck etc. Thus, it is a natural real
beauty that would bring a good profit to the one that invests as soon as
Another picturesque place is the side of the lake that is included in the
road from Buna Bridge - Shiroka - Zogaj. The optimal climatic
conditions, the curative characteristics of the nature, the warm water,
Taraboshi Mountain, the fishing etc. make this region be known for nice
touristic peculiarities. This region is frequented by the inhabitants of
Shkodra for short holidays, because the condition for longer holidays is
There are other regions with touristic characteristics as Thethi, Razma,
Vermoshi-Lepushe-Qafa e Bordolecit, but owning a different peculiarity
from that of Velipoja and Shiroka. You can notice here the best
characteristics of the highland Albanian nature. The forests full of pine
and beech trees, the lawns and summer pastures, the fresh temperature in
summer and snow in winter, the good mountains panorama and
characteristic caves, the wild beasts and medicinal plants, the proper
places for the excursions and the possibility for the skiing places, give to
these regions the required values searched by the Albanian and foreign
The tourism is a powerful resource for the development of a country and
a resource for profits as well. There are a lot of cities and even states that
manage to live perfectly only with this activity. We can mention only
Ulqin that is only 15 km far from Velipoja, has been developed through
tourism, nevertheless it misses the beauties of Velipoja. Now it has
reached high living standards.
But it is obvious that the development according to the modern level of
life of the infrastructure determines the intensive well-being of tourism,
apart from the precious values of the tourism the district possesses.
Considering every thing it is necessary to do something to make efficient
these riches, the help of the foreign investors has got great and
undeniable value. This help will bring a lot of profits that will be a kind
of mirror of the investment done.
The investments are various and enormous.
They include the
construction of the new streets and the mending of the existing ones,
setting of the different buildings in conformity with the relief, building of
the electric stations and water providing ones, setting up of the post
office and telephone services according to the demands of the number of
visitors that will frequent these places. Parallel with all the judicial high
institutions and different organizations (Albanian State, European Bank,
World Bank and different other financial institutions) that in a very near
future will enter in these investments, native or foreign investors should
not let this opportunity pass by. Even with modest investments in this
direction the investor will reach good profits. The application of a
precise research plan, including even the adding investments that
complete the lack of infrastructure, to even satisfy the interests of the
visitors and tourists, will present a very favorable chance to get a lot of
profits. It would be better not to delay and act before the others will start
this activity in wide scale.
1.3. International experience
I think that the city of Shkodra has many similar natural characteristics
with Ulcinj which is in Montenegro along the sea side (Adriatic Sea). As
a matter of this fact I think that developed tourism in Ulcinj could be a
good example for situation in Shkodra to proceed. Here I would like to
present some characteristics and information’s about Ulcinj.
Ulcinj a small town in the very south of the Yugoslav Adriatic coast,
known in former times as a pirate stronghold, offers special pleasures to
antiquarians thanks to it´s numerous well preserved cultural and
historical monuments in the old part of the town. There is an extremely
mild climate, beautiful sand beaches, the longest in Yugoslavia, make it a
very popular and attractive holiday resort. A famous souvenir and
antique market is especially interesting for guest from the entire world.
The impressive number of 217 sunny days annually enables a very long
bathing season - from April to November.
In the immediate vicinity of the picturesque of old town, in a pine forest
over the rocks below which the sea foams, is located an “A” class hotel
“GALEB”. Looking towards the sun and the endless blue water-front
“Galeb” is the place where everything is submitted to your resting and
enjoying. Hotel “Galeb” carries it`s “A” class mark with pride. Besides
beautifully arranged rooms, luxurious apartments with great terraces
viewing the sea and the old town, as well as 5 luxuriously equipped villas
in apartment type, with 60 beds, it offers numerous sports and
recreational facilities to it`s guests. In addition there are several salons
and social activities rooms, indoor swimming pools, table tennis hall,
bowling, a modern discotheque, trimming hall and a medical surgery.
The hotel complex provides tennis courts while the own beach is well
equipped with chatters and parasols as well as other water-sports
equipment : wind-surfing, sandolines, water skis, sailing boats and small
motor boats suitable for taking off to underwater fishing. Next to the
entrance of the beach is a terraced Belvedere - an ideal place for spending
the last hours of another unique day of the holiday to the sounds of folk
and dancing music, resting your eyes on the silhouettes of the old town.
1.4. Special rights and incentives for tourism
Foreign investors in tourism in the Priority Tourism Zones shall enjoy the
following rights (for full details refer to the Law on Tourism
to freely import funds in foreign exchange needed to cover investment
and operating costs, and to export funds in foreign exchange to pay
interest and principal of loans, as well as the dividends;
to keep an account in foreign exchange and operate it to pay the interest
and principal of loans as well as the export of dividends;
to transfer abroad: amounts arising from total or partial selling of the
investment as well as shares, bonds and other securities; net profits,
determined in accordance with current tax laws; license fees and royalties
payable to persons ordinarily resident outside Albania; and earnings of
to offset losses incurred in the first five years against profits in the
following five years;
to employ foreign nationals for the performance of specialized tasks,
provided they train a number of Albanians in the tourism business (at
least one-third of staff in the first three years, at least one-fifth in the
following two years).
They shall also enjoy the following tax exemptions and holidays:
• from tax on dividends and interest on loans paid to a financial institution;
• for three years from customs and excise duties on goods and merchandise
imported solely for the investment, provided they are not available in
Albania at the same quality, quantity and price;
• from profit tax for five years from the end of the development period;
profit tax is payable at 50 per cent of the full rate(which is 30 per cent)
during the following five years, but this will be reduced by 40 per cent if
the profit is reinvested in Albania.
2.0 Why the Study? First, Professor Oelfke has made 14 trips to Albania
since 2005, 11 of those trips have been to Shkodra and surrounding regions
additionally he has made three trips to Velipoja Beach and has firsthand
knowledge of the maintenance/garbage problems facing local residents,
businesses, regional tourists and international tourists alike. Without
addressing garbage issues Shkodra and Velipoja beach could easily face the
problems similar to Naples Italy as reported by the BBC in 2007. “The US
embassy in Rome has warned American tourists that they may face health
risks if they travel to Naples, because of the city's rubbish crisis. The US
embassy warns that fires lit by local citizens to try and get rid of the rubbish
may give off toxic fumes.” Or worse yet the the March 2009 Reuters report:
“ Maione's Hotel Vesuvio — where a room overlooking the Bay of Naples
costs 220 euros ($345) in low season — closed one of its two restaurants,
the renowned Caruso, as business dried up. The hotel expects occupancy of
no more than 30 per cent this year compared with 50 per cent in 2007 and a
far cry from the fat years around 2002 when some 80 per cent of its rooms
were full.” Secondly, Dr. Troshani not only owns property at Velipoja she
found herself in the unenviable position of asking first time visitors to
Albania not to go to Velipoja because of “Garbages” and the embarrassment
associated with the request.
2.1 Hypothesis: A single source of funding to clean and maintain lands
open to the public does not exist that meets the needs desires of all
stakeholders: local residents, tourists, business owners, and governmental
3.1 Research design: Because this paper seeks to identify the methods for
public use land clean-up and maintenance preferred by residents a
Zoomerang Questionnaire was developed to collect data from various
demographic groups from the region. The survey is attachment A.
3.2 Survey Results: First and foremost when asked what they disliked
about Velipoja beach over 50% of the respondents cited garbage/sanitary
conditions. To be sure Velipoja is popular with over 40% or respondents
visiting 10 or more times a year. While the results were filtered a variety of
ways age was selected for analysis because it showed the greatest amount of
diversity in results. Fully 70% of the respondents fell into the 18-30 year-old
age category so they would be considering their preferences for several
years to come the age groups of the respondents were as follows:
Not surprisingly respondents under 31 utilized the beach more often than
those over 31 which helps to explain other survey results.
When asked “How often do you visit Velipoja beach” the various age
groups responded as follows:
Results of the survey (90%) clearly indicate that the preference for
responsibility to maintain public lands should remain at the local or regional
When asked who should be responsible for maintenance the various age
groups responded as follows:
Respondents in below 45 were much more apt to use the public beach
compared to their older counterparts. Respondents to the survey were asked
“When visiting Velipoja Beach, which areas do you use”?
How should the clean-up and maintenance of public areas be paid for?
Income distribution of respondents.
< 300 Euro-month
Employment status of respondents:
NOTE: Among those indicating other are included: professors, bankers,
Peace Corps Volunteer, NGO representative, travel agents, unemployed,
researcher, and cashier
Education level of respondents:
NOTE: 95% of the respondents are college graduates
What percentage of Velipoja beach should be reserved for public use:
Which are your main motivation when you visit a touristic destination?
Health and sport
Relax and recreation 100% 83%
NOTE: Respondents were allowed to select more than one as their main
motivation the reason for the totals adding up to over 100%
Which are the information means you use most with the regard to touristic
Note: Respondents were allowed to select more than one source of
On two separate occasions the authors Dr. Troshani and Professor Oelfke
sought to organize volunteer groups to augment local officials in combating
growing garbage problems at Velipoja beach and Lake Shkodra. The group
who volunteered (25 at Velipoja) fewer than 10 for Lake Shkodra consisted
entirely of existing students at Shkodra University no businessmen,
government officials or other university representatives volunteered. The
questionnaire contained two questions concerning volunteerism with the
The first question “How likely are you to volunteer to perform any type of
Would not volunteer
The second question “How likely are you to organize volunteers to perform
any type of community service”
Would not organize
3.3 Conclusions: The majority of all respondents seek out touristic
destinations for the purpose of relaxation and recreation and receive their
information from visual sources 51% and the internet61% of the time. A
visit to the English website www.velipojaguide.com/lng-anglisht.php
depicts a beautiful “clean” beach free from garbage and trash. I should
mention here that the website needs someone to edit the English
“Velibojaofferes holiday makers the ability to have funin a seaside line
with very clean water and very rich sand, but it is not all it is rich with
natural unique values in which are Plazhi madh 14 km long and 200 meters
wide,with rich and clean sand. The residents call it “”the sand of well
doing””for its virtue of cure. The beach generates every year of its up
bringing of the waves,. Making the percentage if sale very high, the beach is
surrounded by forest with pine trees and other type of wood,. With yellow
bushes, water plant valleys, denes etc.” Unfortunately, to over promise and
under deliver is not a good practice in the tourism industry.
The consensus of the respondents is that responsibility for the maintenance
of public use lands should remain at the local or regional governmental
level. Not surprisingly as respondent’s income levels rose and their use of
private beach areas increased their support for any type of income tax to pay
for the maintenance for public use lands diminished as did their desire to
have areas reserved for public use. The largest # of respondents (18-30) year
olds and those most likely to use public beaches support the use of income
taxes 43% of the time and an admission fee 23% of the time. The next
largest group (31-45) year olds supported an admission fee 39% of the time
and income taxes 25% of the time. All age groups supported (over 12%) all
various means to pay for clean-up and maintenance with one exception that
those over 46 years old did not support an admission fee. To rely on income
tax alone would result in a significant burden on people making less than
300 euro per month and cause resentment toward tourists from neighboring
regions and countries who would not be subject to the tax.
The survey asked two questions where respondents were asked what they
liked most and least about Velipoja beach. As previously stated garbage was
the number one dislike followed by the infrastructure (roads, public
bathrooms, sanitary facilities) and by overcrowding. For the things
respondents liked most the sand and the sea were most often mentioned only
one respondent mentioned the hospitality and one person the “clean
environment” Clearly the sea and the sand need to be protected from
garbage and pollution if Velepoja beach is to remain a tourist destination.
While placing a tax on visitors when they visit rent a hotel room is often
viewed in a very popular light in the United States because the burden for
payment is placed entirely on people renting rooms this method of payment
did not appear so popular with the respondents. Fortunately none of the age
groups supported this method of paying for maintenance and clean-up more
than 25%. This indicates that while some of the burden for clean-up and
maintenance should rest with people renting rooms however local residents
appear prepared to “pay their fair share”.
Taxing businesses was viewed in much the same light as taxing hotel guests
while viewed as appropriate by 14% of the respondents that leaves 86%
who believe that another means should be used to collect revenue to
maintain land for public use.
In summary as stated in the hypothesis the means by which needed funds for
the use of maintenance are collected can be a vexing issue facing. However,
if the people with differing ideas can reach a consensus and use a variety of
methods no one group need bear the entire burden for this complex issue.
1. A citizen led business/citizen/government task force should be formed
to study the following:
A. The imposition of an economic impact fee on all new construction
in the village of Velipoja. This process is widely used in the
United States when improvements to infrastructure will be
needed as a result of the construction.
B. The feasibility of charging a modest admission fee to Velipoja
beach not to exceed 10 euro for a season (the amount currently
charged to “private beaches” per year per meter). Or 1 euro for a
two day pass.
C. The imposition of a modest hotel room tax and/or a tax on local
D. The study on the feasibility of using an income tax to provide
some funding to preserve the national treasure know as Velipoja
Beach. I will mention here that this could increase problems of
E. The expansion of the “private” beach season from the current
June, July, August to include the months of May and September
where “private” beach leases must maintain sanitation standards.
2. Local and Regional governments take any steps necessary to ensure at
least 50% of the “prime” Velipoja beach areas remain public.
3. The University of Shkodra and other Private Universities should
consider the use of a Community Service Learning Component for
students having difficulty obtaining employment in their field of
study. For instance a Tourism student would organize volunteers or
proof read the velipoja guide web site for grammatical errors, or
even assist restaurants with their translation of their menus to
4. The authors of this paper should continue to collaborate to continue
what they have started!
3. Dr. Arjeta Troshani “Touristic Destination Development”
December 2009) published in Albanian economic magazine named
Economies in Transition
5.1 Author Ted Oelfke’s personal perspective. Having traveled
throughout the world for nearly 40 years I have never been to a more
hospitable place with warmer more gracious people than I have found in
Albania. I marvel at the progress that I have witnessed with regard to
infrastructure since I first travel to Albania in 2005. On my first trip to
Albania my fellow travelers were amazed at the beauty of the country,
warmth of the people, rich history, and unfortunately, the amount of
uncollected garbage to be found throughout. I personally could have cried
the first time I visited Velipoja beach in 2008. I will never forget that early
May afternoon I knew I was visiting one of Albania’s treasures but for the
garbage seen. I am also aware that the solution must come from the people
of Albania when it comes to public lands, taxation, business fees etc. only
Albanian’s have their history, culture, political background, and attitudes
from which to draw. While models for the maintenance, use, and clean-up
of public, exist in other parts of the world be it the French Riviera or nearby
Montenegro it is ultimately the Albanian people who must come to a
consensus. In preparing this report I googled “Naples Italy Garbage” there
were 991,000 returns fortunately, a search for “Velipoja Beach Garbage”
did not yield the same results. I wish the people of Albania much luck in the
future as they continue to make improvements and stand ready to assist in
any way I can.
EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT
OF MONUMENTS OF NATURE TOURISM OUR
Prof. Dr. PERIKLI QIRIAZI
Msc. BLERTA AVDIA
Geography, University of Tirana
"We abuse them by nature, because we see it as a commodity that belongs
to us,as we shall see nature as a commodity to which we belong, then we
can begin to love and respect it"
1.1Understanding the natural heritage and nature monuments
Natural heritage is unique and special value of biotic and abiotic
environment andtransmitted to generations. It consists of all objects around
us, habitat, specialecosystems, tw values rare, unique, relict, edemike or
vulnerable to disappearing.
These special values are preserved and protected by laws applicable to
naturalheritage, but by special laws. Human activity consists in
evdiendimin, assessmentand managemen. The value of natural heritage
could have national significance and is considered as a National Natural
Heritage, protected as natural heritage and protected byinternational rules
"International Convention on Cultural and Natural Heritage”
Protected areas do not have the same value and are not equally populated.
For a better management of their values and are classified in different
categories ofprotection, to which the character of human activity. Accepted
classification systemin our country is under the IUCN (The World Center
of Nature conservation Union). This system consists of 6 categories: a)
Strict Natural Reserves Scientific, b)National Parks, c) Nature Monuments,
d) Managed Natural Reserve, e) Landscapeand Marine Protected Land, f)
Protected Area of Managed Resources.
On this basis, the Protected Area is considered "land space, water resources,
withspecial values of biodiversity, natural resources and cultural landscape,
protected by law special rules limiting the presence and human activity and
management with scientific methods."
A special place in this article shall pay a third category of protected areas
Nature Monuments is a living facility and not living with one or more of
outstanding scientific value, ecological, cultural, historical, aesthetic,
didactic, religious, a habitat of a rare, threatened or of special value
important scientific area to 50 hectares.
natyre monuments enjoy the protection of the first category according to
which are forbidden: the alienation of values for any purpose economic
exploitation, work or changing character veprimatri monument or the flow
Nature monuments and offer unique value to our nature irreversible: the
source of information for the various sciences, scientific information
resource, cultural resource for people of different professions and the natyës
passionate, didactic resource for pupils, students, valuable resource
ecological information. Some monunente nature are closely related to the
spiritual world to convey the traditions and customs of the local population,
with the sides of which visitors understand and enjoy their values. In a we of
the taste of the beauty of the canyon are the highest or Valbona, the waters
of a well known or Sotira, Thethi, carst landscapes (Arrni of carst or black
cave). Beets, trees in the center of the village or town are turned into
symbols of their identity for residents. These have played important role in
establishing and developing center city, village, under the shadow of their
conversations were held, meetings, assemblies, where decisions are
Strange form of Landmark Nature has often drawn attention to the man who
in the inability to explain scientifically the effect they have worn on natural,
turning to religious objects such as cave Kruje Sarisatllekut the Muslim
faith, caves Mokra Llongës Orthodox faith, the cave of St. Anthony in the
Catholic faith Lac.
Objects assume the status of Nature Monuments thanks to the unique values
that are, are only creature of nature, habiatat / objects of this specific area
(50 ha), be without injured by man or other natural factors or by chance
Natural wealth is preserved in generations should be managed for scientific,
ecological, cultural, curative, didactic, religious on one side and
simultaneously help in achieving Sustainable Development. Using the mass
of natural resources, ensuring their continuity, disaster prevention,
strengthening spiritual connections to nature monuments population to help
achieve this goal. Sustainable develop capital requires a harmony between
economic policies, social and environmental, on the other hand local
community plays an important role as a leading actor in the decision making
process for designing and implementing management programs, integrated
management of Natural Monuments.
In the study of values and management of natural heritage has occupied a
leading place, and science and geography, in the identification, evaluation
and preparation of management plans in general and Natural Heritage
monuments of nature in particular.
In terms of today's global trend is observed ecotourism development.
Tourists are looking for educational experiences tw culture, history, and
local nature. To be consistent with global trends, we need to develop
strategy and policy development in line with this trend. The first work to be
done is to identify, study, scientific assessment and management of
monuments of nature, the value of their advertising to become part of the
tourist market, increasing competitiveness. Ecotourism, green tourism, and
rural landscape today are the global trend of tourist movement where we
have to adapt.
1.2. The distribution, status and problems encountered in Nature
Albania incredibly diverse nature extremely complex and evolution of relief
is very rich in nature monuments. Nature Monuments numbered 697, of
which: gjeomonumente 291 or 41.6%; biomonumente 308 or 44.8%;
hidromonumente 98 ose 14.
Nature monuments have an unequal distribution by region which is the
following statement on concretizing followingstatement on concretizing.
Albanian diverse nature and evolution of complex emergency, there are
many more still unknown to deserve this status, it is the duty of scholars,
experts and environmentalists to natyrws our country to take, the initiative is
the recognition of study content for the panjohuar detailed values of nature,
according to the law you propose for the status they deserve. State of Nature
Monuments their mass destruction after 1990 and especially the concept of
narrow specialists and scholars troubled nature in Albania. With this
concern citizen they began work on the study, appreciation and application
of today's concept of Natural Monuments by IUCN.
Important step in recognizing the protection of marks studying Monuments
of Nature "Nature Monuments - cadastre, protection and preservation of
their" precise definition of the concepts of Nature Monuments and
expansion in the involvement in the status of objects of nature alive and not
alive , sensitization of public opinion for their values. Played a significant
contribution and support institutional and legal framework for protected
areas where differentiated according to the nature and genesis (Geological Sites,
Hidrological SITES, Biological Sites). Were published a major study mumber for Nature
Monuments to put them in the service of process, educational, cultural,
patriotic, ecological and service to the tourism development. Our country
has a wealth of natural, diverse, which may well become an important part
of the tourism sector, but it requires a perfect up to the ideal management of
Despite the achievements of the nature monuments remain many problems
of scientific nature, the legislative institution. State of the monuments of
nature in our country faces a problem that should not avoid, but rather to say
that you evidenting stop:
- Licensing private firms use of raw materials, hurting and alienating their
- Denatured nature of Monuments of Nature as a result of use without
scientific criteria and respect the laws on human activities as sources of
Glina (Gjirokaster), sources in the district Devoll Pogrit
- Illegal constructions on the beach chaotic Gen
- Lack of appropriate infrastructure and orientation symbols
- Their lack of Tourist Guide, the lack of information from the local
All these problems are the result of political deficiencies, strategies for
preservation and protection of monuments of our nature. Lack of
cooperation on a national, regional and local, required a full integration of
veprimatrive government in this regard in cooperation and strong support to
the local population.
3. Rating tourism and tourism management of natural monuments
Albania is a country rich in natural resources and has about 12.58% of area
protected area. Albania has large number of Monuments to Nature,
classified according to their importance in Geological Sites, Hidrological
SITES, Biological Sites, with an unequal distribution, but with great value.
Nature monuments are considered as a strong point for the development of
tourist movement and promoting various kinds of tourism: ecotourism,
tourism landscape, religious, avanturier, etc. What I noticed is that the
development of Tourism in Protected Areas basis have become part of
tourist movement spontaneously. More than the benefits from the presence
of tourist movements in these areas have created problems.
Lack of tourist infrastructure, unskilled workers, lower taxes or lack of
taking them has led to a need arises to their management.
To manage the input comprises three main elements (that our country has
majority and the concrete case of Mature Monumenets offering unique area
with unique values, educational, scientific, cultural, etc..) Bilateral relations
(coordination of national government programs, regional, local, where an
important role to play and the local population as a key patner), outputs
(benefits which will come from a better management of the tourist offer will
serve the local community and tourist standard maintenance).
In Nature Monuments management requires a scientific management, which
consists of planning, organizing, motivating tourist movement. Since tourist
movement is not spontaneous and unorganized denatyrizimin often leads to
values such as monuments of nature. Osumi canyon, black caves frequented
by tourists spontaneously; Nature monuments become part of the tour
guides should be managed. Management of Natural Monument is a complex
process that includes: analysis of physical-geographical, ecological, social,
economic, her and her surroundings, preparation of management plans,
continuous monitoring of the situation and results of management values,
correction of preparing new management plans.
Management plans are made for 5-10 year term, depending on location and
usage, the degree of damage and continuously reviewed according to time.
Execution of the management plan addresses the administration of the
Protected Area and its implementing decisions taken by the management
community, composition, functions and duties of which are determined by
VKM. Management plan should be a communication tool for the
understanding and support of central institutional, government, public, and
private owners of the business, NGO. This ensures cooperation between all
stakeholders, political support and financial resources.
If all the above will be the possibility to develop various kinds of naturebased tourism and sustainable manner. Ecotourism occupies a leading place,
but the tourist route known tastes and habits and traditions of culture,
tradition recognizes the villages (Theth Shishtavec,) and their landscape (the
waterfall Thehthit, Shishtavec plateau, Stone Eagle, Stone Breakfast , Birch
and Shishtavec etc.), taste traditional dishes (Bozen Luma Flint Kukes,
Corben Gora) in clean air and pure water and pleasant to Glina, Kroi Spring
Red and white. Avanturier tourist can do and climbing in the mountains
which are located near these areas (Gjallica, Tomor, etc.).
Conclusions and recommendations
Our country has a wealth of diverse nature and which already enjoys the
status of the protected area. Classification were made by IUCN and relevant
studies, but there are still problems to manage. Nature monuments are part
of tourist itineraries and more spontaneous than profit while there was a
problem with their values. Therefore required:
- To inform the population,
- To make studies appropriate to make them part of tourist tours
- Organize the management plans for preserving, protecting and Nature
•Gjeografia Fizike e Shqipërisë (Physical Geography of Albania), 1990,
Vol. I. Tiranë
•Gjeografia Fizike e Shqipërisë (Physical Geography of Albania), 1991,
Vol. II. Tiranë
•Dragoti N., Dedej Z., Abeshi P., 2007. Zonat e mbrojtura të Shqipërisë
(Protected areas of Albania). Tiranë .
•Dida M., Dragoti N., Kromidha G., Fierza Gj., 2004. Zonat Natyrore të
Shqiperise. Parqet kombetare. Tiranë.
•Qiriazi P., Hoxha G., Kola B., 2007. Gjeografia 3, libër për shkollat e
•Qiriazi P., Bego F., 1999. Monumentet e Natyres te Shqiperise. Tirane.
•Qiriazi P., Sala S. 2006 “Monumentet e Natyrës së Shqipërisë” Tiranë
•Qiriazi P. 2009 “Problemte e Zonave të Mbrojtura dhe Roli i
menaxhimit të tyre në Trasformimin e hapsirës Gjeografike të
vendit tonë” studime Albonogjike, Nëntorë
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gjeografike Nr.9. Tirane
•Serjani A., Neziraj A., ë . A. P. ë imbledon, Onuzi K., Hallaçi H.,
Bushati S., 2003. Gjeomonumentet dhe Gjeoturizmi në Shqipë ri
(Geological Heritage and Geotourism in Albania). In both: Albanian
and English versions. Tirana.
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Shkodra Lake and Their intergration ëith Cultural Heritage. Shkodër.
INTEGRATION OF THE SUSTAINABLE
TOURISM CONCEPT WITHIN THE HIGHER EDUCATION
CURRICULUM: AN ALBANIAN CASE STUDY
Mirjam Dibra 7
Shkodra University "Luigj Gurakuqi", Albania
Ted Oelfke 8
Sandhills Community College of North Carolina, USA
Since the sustainable tourism development (STD) is a necessity of time, it is
without doubt the task of the academic staff to enable students to contribute
usefully to its development because many of these graduates will become
the managers of the future of tourism. In the conditions when Albania
appeals to become an important tourist destination in the tourist map of
Europe, the higher education for tourism is a critical partner in efforts for
achieving it through STD. So, STD is a key concept to be integrated in the
higher education in Albania.
This paper presents a case study from higher education for tourism in
Albania and has as:
Purpose- to explain the importance of the integration of sustainable tourism
(ST) concept in higher education and to examine and analyze the present
usage of this concept in higher education for tourism in Albania taking as a
case study the Science Master’s (MSc) program on “Sustainable Tourism
Management (STM)” in Shkodra University ‘Luigj Gurakuqi in order to
improve conceptualization of the ST within its curriculum; to improve
learning environment on STM and to promote the sustainability in tourism
of this country.
Dr. Mirjam Dibra, Tourism Department, Economic Faculty, Shkodra University “Luigj
Gurakuqi”, Albania (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Ted Oelfke, CFE, CHE, FMP, Chair of Hospitality and Culinary Arts, Sandhills
Community College of North Carolina, USA, (e-mail: email@example.com)
Methodology – The research is based in the Busby’s (2003) line of research,
making also some changes to fully clarify the purpose of the study. For
obtaining information, a self-completion structured questionnaire survey
delivered on-line all graduate students in 2010 and 2011 for MSc degree on
STM at Shkodra University.
Finding- It is argued here that the integration of sustainable development
within the tourism curriculum can constitute a valuable step in this
developmental process, which is in the interest of all parties: for the students
who, after their studies, will be equipped to enter the world of work and
contribute usefully to its development; for the tourism industry that needs a
workforce that can think beyond day-to-day issues and move it towards a
more sustainable future; as well as for the tourism educational sector itself
to play its critical role in change of tourism towards sustainability. But the
integration of the concept of sustainable development within programs of
study in higher education is not an easy task. Aspects of ST Development &
Management aren’t widely addressed in MSc degree program on STM in
Shkodra University, although the graduate students of this program have a
reasonable understanding of the concept ST.
Practical value- The paper is intended to serve building of ST industry in
Albania that provides jobs and economic growth while at the same time
practicing sustainable approaches to natural and cultural resource
Originality/value - The paper is addressed an issue previously untreated in
Albania, integration the STD in higher education. This paper is in the
support of the United Nations Decade 2005-2014 of Education for SD and
contributes to the literature for education on STD and to literature for
education on SD.
Key words: sustainable tourism, higher education, curriculum, Albania
Tourism is a new industry in Albania. Only after the years ’90-ties, with the
opening of Albania to the world, politics of Albanian government
determined tourism as a priority industry in development of country. The
principal objective of these politics is the development of sustainable
tourism, which protects and develops the cultural and natural heritage of
Albania and also recognizes the importance of an attractive environment, as
a precondition for a successful tourism (MTKRS, 2003, 2007). Tourism
programs in the higher education in Albania was developed as a response to
governmental politics for priority to tourism development; the impressive
growth of the tourism industry during the last 20 years; the perceived
employment needs of this growing economic sector and was given added
impetus by student demand who saw future employment opportunities. But,
following two decades of strong and sustained tourism growth, reality tells
that Albanian tourism is facing a challenging future. This increase in
tourism is leaded by the interests of short-term profits, without paying
proper attention to maintaining the quality of tourist resources. The result of
all this, the attractive value of tourist resources of Albania has begun to fall.
In the context of economic, environmental and social developments in
Albania, it is important that Albanian tourism continues to protect the
resource on which it so fundamentally relies and ensure sustainable future
growth and development. This tells that ST cannot be achieved unless
sustainability principles to be embedded into tourism planning and policy.
The situation created in Albania between the acceptance as a concept of
development of sustainable tourism by governmental level and delay of its
application, indicates and promotes for further research.
For the STD, higher education is critical partner. Since the STD is a
necessity of time, it is vital to provide the tourism managers of tomorrow
with a clear understanding of principles of STD and with the ability to give
creative and innovative solutions for the STD. So, it is surely the task of the
academic staff to enable students to contribute usefully to its development.
Integration of Sustainable Tourism concept into tourism programs in the
higher education is too necessary since many of these graduates will become
the managers of the future of tourism.
The concept of the SD has become almost universally accepted as a
desirable and politically appropriate approach to tourism development
(Sharpley, 2003). It is an apparently simple concept, referring to a
combination of the environmental, economic and socio-cultural aspects of
the industry and ensuring a suitable balance between these three dimensions
to guarantee long-term sustainability. However, for the concept of the SD,
many authors and organizations have developed numerous definitions and
descriptions. The main appeal of sustainability in all these is situated in the
strong belief of mutual care for the world preventing unwanted effects of
development, and in responsibility towards future generations protecting
and improving the opportunities for the future. However, while
sustainability is appropriate and creditable in principle, variety of definitions
and the uses of the concept of sustainability appear to be too vague to
provide an adequate basis on which to build a generally shared perception of
sustainable development (Butler, 1998). Besides, the concept of the SD is
complex and scope of its application in tourism is very broad. In tourism
education, sustainability is related with a wide range of disciplines,
including aspects of economics, sociology anthropology, and environmental
science, as well as business and/or management. In addressing the SD,
different levels of analysis are used, for example from global to the
destination level, or from household to individual level (Butler, 1998). The
relative weight and importance of the subjects related to SD is hardly
objectively determinable and depends on the values and ideologies of
various stakeholders (Hall, 1998). So, a clear elaboration of the
sustainability concept in study courses or programs for tourism is difficult.
This promotes for further research to examine and assess the current place
of sustainable to ST aspects in the higher education curriculum.
But, while the topic of sustainability over two decade has inspired in
worldwide the creation of the journals of the Sustainable Tourism, the
publication of many research articles and monographs that link the words
sustainable and tourism together, there are little research on the integration
of STD concept in tourism studies at the higher education. While in
Albania, there is no discussions and empirical research on the latter which
constitutes a potential for research.
So, in order to promote sustainability and improve on its conceptualization
within tourism curriculum, a better understanding of the present usage of the
concept in higher education for tourism is necessary. This paper presents a
case study from higher education for tourism in Albania. Just, focus of this
paper is to review and analyze the curriculum Master of Science (MSc)
degree program on “Sustainable Tourism Management” (STM) in Shkodra
University ‘Luigj Gurakuqi”, in order to light the nature of its current
curriculum, and to provide an overview of the current place of ST issues in
this program, to identify current gaps of this curriculum and learning
environment on STM which need to be addressed. Results of a survey for
this of graduated students in MSc degree on STM of this university are
presented in an attempt to obtain student perceptions of the importance of
integration of the sustainability in tourism education and usage of the STD
concept in the their curriculum of higher education. Also, problems faced by
students in the teaching of study program on STM, which need to be
addressed, are recorded. Finally, in order to increasing awareness and
learning for ST, the paper concludes with students’ recommendations on
improvement of the curriculum MSc degree on STM and learning
environment for this, and recommendations on further increasing of the role
of Shkodra University for ST education.
Necessity for Integration of ST Concept in Higher Education
Since 1992, Agenda 21 of the UNCED conference stated that “education is
critical for promoting sustainable development and improving the capacity
of the people to address sustainable development issues” (UNCED, 1992:
Chapter 36). Given the critical role of education in achieving of the SD, the
United Nations General Assembly at its 57th session in 2002 declared the
period 2005–2014 as the United Nations Decade of Education for
Sustainable Development (DESD) and designated UNESCO to lead the
Decade (UNESCO, 2007).
As a potential driving force of change towards sustainability UNESCO
(2009) defines Higher Education Institutions for three reasons:
• Students will meet daily in their future work with sustainability issues
faced by society.
• Capacity of Higher Education Institutions for keeping the unique
• The premise that have Higher Education Institutions direct links with
business and the community where research could be disseminated,
connections made, and social change brought about, all of which will be
crucial to help society transform itself.
So for institutions of higher education the great challenge of the 21s t
century is to train future professional students who are capable of acting in
favor of sustainable development (Junyent, 2007).From all of this we can
conclude that in order to transform economic systems toward sustainability,
primarily it is necessity integration of SD concept in the system of higher
In higher education for tourism, integration of sustainable tourism
development concept is more imperative for several reasons.
Tourism is one of the world's largest and fastest growing industries that
have greater geographical spread in the world (Cook, Yale & Marqua, 2010;
Middelton & Hawkins, 1998; Sharpley, 2004; Swarbrooke, 2002; Weaver,
2006; WTTC, 2009). To every country with tourist resources the expansion
of tourism appears to be a very attractive method of achieving economic
growth. Thus, tourism has the potential to improve the national balance of
payments through the new currency introduced by international tourists,
stimulate investment, to diversify the economy, to generate a larger and
faster growing in employment than the same investment in another
economic activity, to contribute to improving the quality of life etc (Cook,
Yale & Marqua, 2010; Middelton & Hawkins, 1998; Mihaliç, 2004;
Sharpley, 2004; Swarbrooke, 2002). Without tourism in many countries, the
innumerable suppliers of goods and services to the industry would not be
able to sustain their businesses.
The expansion of tourism is supported by a increasingly leisure-oriented
society. Even in difficult years of the current economic crisis, tourism is
expected to regain the leading dynamic role in global growth and to keep an
average annual increase of 4.3% of tourism demand on the global scale until
2020 (WTTC, 2009).
But while tourism provides considerable benefits to many countries and
communities, serving as agent of development, the rapid unlimited
expansion, and non-right managed of the tourism puts pressure on
environment of traditional and new tourist destinations, making that an
agent of harmful change (Middelton & Hawkins, 1998). Therefore, tourism
development should not simply follow demand. It should start from a
responsible management of the base capital of tourism industry-tourist
resourse. This is because tourism is a resource industry, dependent from the
gift of nature and the society heritage, so a lot of decisions in the field of
tourism are irreparable (Murphy, 1998). Quality of tourist resources in a
destination is the primary motive of tourists to visit that destination and the
primary reason of tourism businesses to direct investments at that
destination and not in another. Furthermore, nowadays visitors are
demanding more the healthy environmental products with local taste
(Middelton & Hawkins, 1998; Swarbrooke, 2002; UNWTO, 2010). If these
attributes are not provided by the destination, or lost during the process of
resource overuse or mismanagement tourist destination, the existing tourist
customer will go to another tourist destination and only a reduction in price
will keep that destination temporarily in the market (Middelton & Hawkins,
The connection of tourism with the environment shows that the survival and
success of tourism depends heavily on the ability to develop responsible
policies and management strategies that allow tourism to continue further
enhancing while protect the environment. This becomes more challenging
today in terms of existence of a big competition in tourism.
In this competitive situation, it is important for tourism destination to
develop a consistent planning and management system aimed at
sustainability and quality of tourist product and on the changing demands of
the market. Within this context, it is clear that abilities and the competences
of the public sector responsible for management of sustainable tourism
destinations need to be developed.
But, in the management of sustainable tourist destination, tourist businesses
have a great influence. Although management of tourist destinations is
generally in the hands of the public sector, it has owned or controlled by
only a part of the tourism product, while most of the tourist product is in the
hands of private tourism businesses sector (Middelton & Hawkins, 1998;
Swarbrooke , 2002). Also, their power in the management of sustainable
tourist destination increase greatly due to the internal capacity to manage
tourist demand because they respond directly to market forces and their
decisions are determined by the large knowledge on the consumer and by
the goal of profit (Middelton & Hawkins, 1998). So, the way that the
tourism business is managed on a day –to day basis will determine its
impact on the world around it, and whether or not it will be sustainable.
Also, tourism is a labor-intensive service industry, where the service
delivered by employees is the core of the product which is offered tourists
(Swarbrooke, 2002). In this way, the tourism industry is dependent for
survival (and at best, competitive advantage) on the availability of good
quality personnel to deliver, operate, and manage the tourist product. As
stated above, the human factor is fundamental to development of the
tourism industry, since it constitutes the key base of quality in tourism
supply. So, for STD, creating sustainable tourist product is necessary the
human resource building for ST. “The challenge to create more sustainable
human resource management in tourism is clearly a major task. However,
unless we succeed with this challenge, it is hard to conceive of how we can
develop truly sustainable tourism” (Swarbrooke, 2002: 236).
On other hand, tourism is a dynamic industry and where the competition is
too great. Recognizing, predicting and quickly adapting to the latest
developing trends are necessary skills for today’s industry managers for
sustainable growth of tourism.
So, those who work in the industry can be a make-or-break dimension for
sustainable success of tourism industry. For the sake of both the tourist and
the sustainable future of the tourism, it is vital the qualification of human
resource for sustainable tourism development.
Integration of STD in curriculum of higher education provides tourism
managers with a future-oriented viewpoint and with basic competences that
can enable them to act responsibly for finding creative and innovative
solutions for issues affecting the sustainable future of tourism.
Also, the importance of higher education to STD is based in capacity of
university for the unique research on issues affecting the future of tourism
and on the premise that higher education institutions for tourism have direct
links with actors of tourism where students could work and where research
could be distributed, all of which will be vital to help tourism industry
transform itself for sustainable future. Holding of this scientific conference
on STD also proves this.
As a conclusion, the STD cannot be achieved unless sustainability principles
are embedded into tourism planning and policy. This in turn can only be
achieved if sustainability is accepted as an integral part of the education
process. So, it is vital to provide the tourism managers of tomorrow with an
clear understanding of principles of STD and with a the ability to give
creative and innovative solutions for the STD. In this way, the ST is a key
concept for consideration within tourism programs in the higher education.
Tourism study in higher education in Albania
In Albania Tourism is the new industry. Only after the years ’90-ties, with
the opening of Albania to foreigners, politics of Albanian government
determined tourism as a priority industry in development of country.
Development of this new industry constitute a challenge for Albania in
terms of the existence of a more competitive environment of neighboring
countries and further which had experience in tourism development. In this
challenging environment, the human resource development for tourism was
necessary. So, higher education programs for tourism have emerged in
response to the following needs of human resource development for:
• The availability of qualified staff for new and growing tourist
• Raising the image of careers in tourism.
• Employment regulation.
• Keeping the industry abreast with the latest technology and trends.
• Responding to increasingly demanding service and communication
requirements of customers.
The first tourism graduate program in Albania was launched in Tirana
University. The fact is that tourism as an area of study in higher education
has received the greatest development the last decade as a response to the
impressive growth of the tourism industry during the last 10 years 9 and the
perceived employment needs of this growing economic sector and was
given added impetus by student demand that saw future employment
This strong influence resulted in the opening of higher studies programs for
tourism in 6 of 11 public universities and in the licensing of opening of
these programs at 4 of 34 private universities that operate in Albania (Table
1 illustrates the variety of degree titles according to web-site of Education
Ministry in Albania). According to legislation, the study cycles in higher
education in Albania operate on the basis of the Bologna Declaration (3+2).
The outcome of these developments was that higher study are becoming the
main route, at least in principle, for potential employees to gain entry to the
industry and not surprisingly modules of those studies are strongly gearing
to these employment needs.
“Curriculum design in higher study for tourism area undoubtedly affects the
student experience with different curriculum framings resulting in students
graduating with a range of perspectives, attitudes and competences”(Tribe,
2002 citied from Busby, 2003: 49). Therefore, integration of STD concept
in curriculum of higher education is necessary to provide students –
managers of the future of tourism in Albania, with a future-oriented
viewpoint, critical of tourism issues and with basic competences that can
enable them to act responsibly for finding creative and innovative solutions
for issues affecting the sustainable future of tourism.
According to INSTAT statistics, the increase in the number of foreign tourists in 2010
compared to 2000 is 7.6 times
Table 1: List of universities with tourism programs according to study
Name of the
subsidiary of the
Faculty of Economy
Noli” in Korca
Cabej” in Gjirokaster
Qemali” in Vlora
1. Management of
Tourism Curriculum in Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi”
The Shkodra region has strong tourism potential to become an important
and competitive tourist destination in the tourist map of Albania and
beyond. It is one of the only regions in Albania and the Balkans that has a
variety of important natural and historical-cultural attractions within a small
geographic surface and with a favorable geographic position to be easily
accessible from the European and domestic tourism market (Dibra, 2008).
Shkodra region has enabled the development of four main types of tourism:
Citizen Tourism, Lake Tourism, Coastal Tourism, Mountain Tourism
(Troshani, Bakiu, 2000). Given these potential tourism and socio-economic
benefits of tourism development, the economic development strategy of
Shkodra region has defined tourism as a priority sector of the economy and
key contributor to sustainable development of this region.
Therefore, for the return of these tourist potentials in real estate for the
development of Shkodra region, it is required tourism wise policy and
management strategy to ensure economic growth and sustainable future for
tourism. Importance of wise management of these tourism potentials in the
Shkodra region become more sensitive because most tourist attractions have
protection status (Dibra, 2008)
In these conditions, the academic staff of the Shkodra University directed its
request to the government for opening programs of study in tourism. So,
Shkodra University offers study programs in tourism in two degree:
Bachelor degree in “Tourism” since 2003 and Master of Science degree in
“Sustainable Tourism Management” since 2008.
The study program of Bachelor degree in tourism at this university,
designed for management career entry in tourism, provides students basic
knowledges and practical skills to design, manage, and distribute tourism
services for a variety of visitors at various tourist facilities and settings.
The study program of MSc degree in STM offers a contemporary degree
that provides students with a great opportunity for sustainable success in this
dynamic industry. Specifically, it is designed to:
provide students from undergraduate programs in north region of
Albania and further, who are interested in profession of the tourism
management, a higher graduate program opportunity in tourism, most
specifically, on STM;
Meet emerging demand of tourism industry for degreed professionals
who can manage complex sustainable tourism environments;
Provide a strong foundation for career advancement as: future doctoral
studies, and executive and regulatory job level positions within the many
varied public, private, and nonprofit tourism organisms;
Provide educational advancement and applied research opportunities to
the emerging needs for academic personnel of private university with
variety the Bachelor programs in Tourism and Hospitality, needed to
prepare students for varied jobs and careers in tourism;
Inspiration other people in the tourism destination by becoming
motivated tourism managers for sustainable tourism development at that
Realizing an added value of our faculty by making it a Leadership in
education for ST in Albania and further;
Take a leading role in promoting an ethically-oriented form of education.
MSc program in STM is designed to add value to first degrees by enabling
students to develop in three ways that are central to a career in STM: First,
to develop students an integrated understanding of the dynamics of STD by
enabling them to see STD in its local, regional, national and global context,
and in its relationship to the diverse organizational, institutional and
geographical settings within which tourism is developed, planned and
managed. Second, to enhance students with practical knowledge and skills
relevant to STM by making known them functional areas of STM in order to
enable them to offer effective solutions to complex problems and to
effectively contribute to the integration of ST practices across a range of
organizational, institutional and geographical settings. Third, to develop
students relevant knowledge and skills to strategically manage by
developing of their capacity to engage with the rigorous analysis of
contemporary issues and problems facing ST and to engage in research for
finding effective different strategies for the improvement of the
sustainability within diverse tourism contexts; by developing of the their
capacity to integrate the sustainability into decision-making.
Modules of this MSc program selected to fit the career of the student in
tourism management and reflect the “triple bottom line” of sustainable
tourism—economic, environmental, and social-cultural viability. So, this
program is a new interdisciplinary program of study and is subdivided into
12 thematic modules. Specifically, its curriculum includes:
•‘STD’ module as an introductory subject to explains the understanding of
concept, principles, dimensions of STD and the scope of ST
•Modules of the science field : Tourism economics, Environmental aspects
of the tourism and Natural heritage, Intercultural communication,
Research Methods in tourism
•Modules of the business field: Financial management, Human resource
Management, international marketing, Ecotourism and Rural Tourism;
•Modules of the planning and policy field: Management of Sustainable
tourism Destination, Strategic Management.
•In last semester, curriculum provides students an internship experience and
independent study for the preparing of the dissertation.
The development of curriculum in this program is supported on a wide
range of research-based expertise amongst academic staff of Shkodra
University and by foreign guest lecturer from the University of the
Countries with successful practices in sustainable tourism management as
SCC of NC in USA and various European Universities. Also, this program
is supported by links of this university to local development offices, tourism
businesses and tourism related businesses, NGOs operating in the northern
region of Albania etc.
When trying to integrate ST in study programs, the concept becomes very
complex due to infinite combinations of disciplines, the wide space of ST,
different level of analysis for decision making. This leads to the existence of
different viewpoints and levels of understanding on the usage the ST
concept in study curriculum. This paper seeks first to draw the student
perception on the importance of integration of the sustainability in tourism
education and after that to draw student perception on the usage ST in their
higher study curriculum for tourism and to elicit problems of learning
environment in this study program. Taking as a base Busby’s (2003) line of
research, some changes have been made to fully clarify the purpose of the
study. To present such overview a measuring instrument was needed. This
measuring instrument had to be simple and easy to use in order to enable the
highest response rate possible. A self-completion structured questionnaire
survey was identified as a functional method for these purposes for two
reasons. One, a structured questionnaire facilitates the administration,
tabulation and analysis of data and facilitates the response of the
respondents and make these responses more reliable (Elmazi, 2007). Two,
self-completion questionnaires can be administered on-line to all graduate
students because it has the advantage of distributing the questionnaire to
graduate students geographically distributed Researchers possessed their email addresses because of the need for communication on-line studentteacher during the courses of the study. In the questionnaire, the close-ended
questions were used. Some statements were included to assess specific
perceptions of students using Licert scale. Likert scale is assessed as a
unique technique used to measure the opinions, beliefs and attitudes
(Elmazi, 2007, McDaniel & Gates, 1996).
The paper takes MSC degree program in STM of Shkodra University “Luigj
Gurakuqi” as a case study from higher education for tourism in Albania.
The population from which the survey sought information was defined all
graduate students in 2010 and 2011 for a fairer assessment of full
curriculum in their study program. Following this, questionnaires were
distributed on-line to e-mail of every graduate students (32 in total). The
analyzing of the information collected from survey gives an overview of the
ideas of the students that responded. However, the outcomes of the study
identify some important messages about student perceptions of the present
usage of the concept of sustainable tourism development within their
programs of study, and provide material for further discussion and research.
The survey involved all graduate students (32 in total) of MSC degree
program in STM of Shkodra University, but 23 of them were responded the
questionnaire providing a 72% response rate.
Their age varies 24-48 years old, reaching an average age 32 years old and
where more than half (57%) belonged age of 24-30 years old. Most of them
(78%) work in Shkoder. Of all students surveyed, only 57% of them work
actually in the tourism field.
Students asked for their motivations to attend the MSc degree program on
STM (Figure 1). About 96% of students believe in the opportunity of
making career in tourism because they recognize that tourism is the future of
Albania. Strong motivations for them were taking a full graduation (87%)
and personal growth (83%). Also, more than half of students (57%)
considered attending of this program as opportunity to have easier to find a
job in tourism. So, from 13 of graduate students (57% of total) employed
actually in the tourism field, 10 of them (77%) have been employed during
and after completion of the MSc degree program on STM.
According to the records from this questionnaire results that this MSc
program on STM constitutes the main way of the qualification to the field of
tourism for these students. So, 52% of graduate students surveyed have not
taking other qualifications expect MSc program on STM, while only 35% of
graduate students surveyed have gained other qualifications in tourism field.
To get an indication on the importance in Albania of the building human
capacity for ST and the role of higher education for it, graduate students
were asked to rank three statements according to Likert scale (Table 2). As
regards the scoring of the scale, statements were scored 5 for “strongly
agree” down to 1 for “strongly disagree". From the table, it is evident that
students accepted that the building human capacity for ST is a prerequisite
for STD in Albania. Students were understood the importance of the
integration of ST concept in the education process for the building human
capacity with abilities to act responsibly for the sustainable future of
tourism. Also, all students strongly agreed the role of higher education
institutions of tourism in Albania as a critical partner of change of tourism
Table 2: Perceptions of graduated student on the importance in Albania of
building of the human capacity for ST and the role of higher education for this
The sustainable future for the tourism in Albania starts by
building human capacity to achieve its.
The building human capacity for STD in Albania can only be
achieved if sustainability is accepted as an integral part of the
education process in tourism.
Higher education institutions of tourism in Albania should be
a potential driving force of change of tourism towards
To assess the reality of STD in Albania, students were asked to rank two
statements (statements 4, 5 at Table 3) on a Likert scale where score 1-5
expresses: 5 for “strongly agree” down to 1 for “strongly disagree".
According to the table, students clearly believe that attempts by public
sector and tourist businesses for STD in Albania are slowly.
The second question asked students to indentify which modules in their
MSc degree program on STM provided a foundation on STD&M. Not
surprisingly, all students recognized STD and Management of ST
Destination modules to be directly relevant. Also, more than half of students
surveyed identified Human Resource Management (83%), Tourism Strategy
(78%), Environmental Aspects of Tourism (74%), and Ecotourism & Rural
Tourism (57%) modules as the foundations on STD&M.
Table 3: Perceptions of graduated student on the reality of STD in Albania
and on the curriculum of MSC degree program on STM
The sustainability concept has been widely accepted at
government level on policies of development for tourism in
Albania, but the reality shows that their successful applications
have been slow.
The current practices of tourism business in Albania do not help
The MSc program on STM, I ended up, provides me with an
understanding of the ST concept
The MSc program on STM, I ended up, recognizes me with the
possible ways in which tourism could be managed to ensure its
The concept of ST is already integrated in all the modules within
the curriculum of the MSc program on STM, I ended up.
There is too much emphasis on commercial aspects of tourism in
curriculum of the MSc program on STM, I ended up.
Response categories: Strongly agree-(1); Agree (2); Not sure (3); Disagree (4); Strongly
In an attempt to assess specific perceptions of the curriculum of MSC
degree program on STM, students were asked to rank four statements
(statements 6, 7, 8, 9 at Table 3), representing curriculum components, on a
Likert scale. From the table, it is evident that the highest mean score was
recorded for statement 8. This statement concerning the embedding of the
ST concept in all modules elicited a surprisingly result that the ST concept
is not present in all modules. With regard to statement 9, there was
polarization. It is important to note that only three students stated for “not
sure” but none of the students stated for it “strongly agree” or “strongly
disagree”. This demonstrates that the influence of industry on the content of
MSc degree program on STM is evident. The highest acceptance is evident
at statement 6. Its mean score demonstrates that students gain adequate
knowledge for the understanding of ST concept. But the same situation
didn’t display in statement 7. Only one student stated “strongly agree”, who
hasn’t Bachelor education background in tourism, while other students
stated “agree” and “not sure”. The answers of following questions in the
questionnaire light the mean score of this statement.
When asked to identify as many authors as possible associated with the
concept of sustainable tourism who have been used during all their courses
in the MSc program on STM, must students were not able to cite any
authors. Given the plethora of on-line existing articles, exiting articles in
scientific bulletin of economic faculty at Shkodra university, exiting lectures
prepared by the academic staff of this program and books on STD&M
brought from SCC of USA in Shkodra University, this is disappointing and
concerning result. Among positive responses for books’ authors,
Swarbrooke, Buttler, Taylor, Edgell, Middelton are identified by many of
The questionnaire also included some important questions regarding for
enhancement of integration ST concept in the curriculum of MSc program
on STM. More than half of students thought for a greater integration of the
sustainable tourism concept at these modules: Tourism Strategy (65%),
Financial Management (61%), Human Resource Management (61%),
Natyral Heritage (61%), Management of Sustainable Tourist Destination
(56%), Intercultural Communication (52%) and Tourism Economics (52%).
In recommendations of the graduate students for approaches of the
enhancement of learning environment at their MSc program to provide the
best opportunities for learning on STM, students believe for in making
more: Interactive lecture (96%), Modules on management aspects for ST
(78%), Use of guest lecturers from countries with successful examples of
STM (65%), Involvement of practitioners who work in field of tourism
(96%), Use of actual local case studies (91%), Use of successful case studies
(96%), Examples of policy and regulation for STM (96%), Field trips to
learn in a 'live' tourism environment for some specific issues of module
(100%), Self-managed discussions and debates (96%), Books for exploring
of the literature on ST (91%), Keeping the communication with government
officials or businesses of the tourism (96%), Organization student and
lecture exchanges (100%).Only for the approach -Group work in preparing
presentations-, most students (52%) suggested continuing of their
development with the same level.
To serve more of the learning on STM during forth term, 87% of students
(Fig.2) suggest that the internship to become in function their dissertation
preparing for MSc degree. Also, more than half of students (53%) accepted
the need of increasing of the level of points for passing of a exam in their
MSc program on STM (Fig.3). According to records, students think that
average of points for passing of a exam in their MSc program on STM to be
55 points. This would serve quality of learning on STM. In the
questionnaire is included the question on perceptions of graduate students
for increasing the average grade level of student as the admission criterion
in MSc program on STM. According to the records, more than half of
students (74%) think for that average grade level of student as the admission
criterion in MSc program on STM to be 7(Fig 4).
graduate students for
increasing the average
grade level of student as
the admission criterion
in MSc program on STM
Conclusions and Contributions
Researchers come in the following conclusions from research findings:
•Students clearly believe that attempts by public sector and tourist
businesses for STD in Albania are slowly.
•It is argued here the building human capacity for ST is a prerequisite for
STD in Albania
•The building human capacity for STD in Albania can only be achieved if
sustainability is accepted as an integral part of the education process in
•Integration of ST concept into tourism programs in the higher education is
too necessary that they play a critical role of change of tourism towards
•The integration of the concept of sustainable development within
programmes of study in higher education is not an easy task
•Students of MSc degree program on STM at Shkodra University have a
reasonable understanding of the concept ST
•Aspects of STD&M aren’t widely addressed in MSc degree program on
STM offered by Shkodra University.
•The learning environment on the STM is required by students to
improvement in order to provide the better learning opportunities on the
•Students suggest that the internship to become in function their dissertation
preparing for MSc degree
•The quality of the MSc degree program at Shkodra University depends also
on effective recruitment of students for attending of this program.
•The increasing of the level of points for passing of a exam in MSc degree
program on STM would serve quality of learning on STM.
•The MSc program on STM constitutes the main way of Bachelor students
for the further qualification to the field of tourism in Shkodra region.
Researchers of this paper believe that this study has the following academic
•The paper treats an issue previously untreated in Albania, integration the
STD in higher education.
•The paper contributes to the literature on education on STD and to
literature for education on SD.
•Research method used by taking of a student feedback is a way of
monitoring the quality of study program on integration of ST concept in
Higher Education curriculum for tourism
Also, the researchers of this paper believe these practical contributions of
•The paper presents some practical ways for enhancement of the curriculum
of MSc degree program on STM in Shkodra University, improvement
learning environment, increase the role the academic staff of Shkodra
University for further education ST
•The paper serves building of ST industry in Albania that provides jobs and
economic growth while at the same time practicing sustainable
approaches to natural and cultural resource management
•This paper is in the support of the United Nations Decade of ESD 20052014
The paper stresses the need for Albania to make ESD a national priority and
for the government and other stakeholders to develop a National Strategy
for ESD. Given the fact that tourism is considered a priority sector of
development in Albania, education for STD should be paid a special
attention. Education for STD should support by innovative programs which
aim at creating a tourist product with long-term production features. Since
the higher education institutions are the critical partner for STD, it is very
important adopting a clear policy about integration of STD concept in
higher education curriculum in Albania.
Taking into account the findings from the analysis of questionnaire data,
authors of the paper make some recommendations for further enhancement
of study program for MSc degree on STM in Shkodra University.
According to the enhancement of integration ST concept in the
curriculum it is necessary:
Curriculum of MSc degree program on STM have to take into account
that ST principles should be practiced in all aspects of tourism
management, and that sustainability should be treated as a managerial
philosophy to include into all modules rather than a matter of the
module. In this way, the curricula provides tourism students, who will
be future educators, industry planners, researchers, managers and
operators of tourism with the latest thinking on a comprehensive range
of themes addressing the STD &M and encourage students to engage
with the important issues, rather than to push always any politically
Since all four functional management areas: marketing, finance, human
resources, and operations play a important role on management for ST
(Swarbrooke, 2002), authors of the paper suggest to include module:
Operations Management for Sustainable Tourism in this curriculum.
This can be achieved through the annexation of any module with general
information on any module that connects with it.
Also, to express the relationship of management functional areas with ST,
authors suggest that their other modules already included in this
curriculum should be named: Financial Management for Sustainable
Tourism; Human Resource Management for Sustainable Tourism,
Marketing Management for Sustainable Tourism.
Author suggest to include elective modules in this curriculum in order to
concentrate students in the area that fits their career goals best, where
will give the effective contribution for STM Such modules can be:
Sustainable Management of Ecotourism; Sustainable Management of
Rural Tourism (they are already included in the curriculum with the
names: Ecotourism and rural tourism) and Sustainable Management
Festivals, Meetings and Events.
According to the enhancement of learning environment on STM it is
The increasing of the average grade level of Bachelor graduate student as
the admission criterion in MSc program on STM. Authors agree with
suggestion of most of students that average grade level of student as the
admission criterion in MSc program on STM to be 7. A good
recruitment of students to attend this program will enhance the quality of
the MSc program on STM, but indirectly and the quality of the Bachelor
program for Tourism, and so will increase the rate of graduate
recruitment and retention in tourism management jobs and would make
more effective their contribution on STM in Albania.
The increasing of the level of points for passing of a exam in MSc
program on STM would serve quality of learning on STM. Authors
agree with suggestion of most of students that this level to be 55 points.
More support for academic staff development. Teaching sustainability is
also potentially demanding on staff, since it requires a holistic and
multidisciplinary approach. It encompasses abroad range of disciplines,
including aspects of economics, sociology, anthropology, natural
science, as well as business and management. So, for the delivery of
sustainability in this program, professional development of lecturers is
vital. For this necessitates institutional support for academics of this
programs including opportunities for staff development as: financial
support for their training experience program in west universities, for
their participation in science Conferences and Journals on ST in or out
More interactive lectures means that the lecturer must to set the context
for learning, introduces the topic, objectives to be achieved from this
topic and structures of the lecture in such way that the lecturer invites
student participants for interactive communication on the topic’s issues
that are explained during the lecture as for example: the introduction of
statements to be argumentative if it is false or true; or multiple choice
questions or only question and finally the lecturer gives the right
More interactive scope for the discussion in the seminars of key theories
and concepts, exploring case studies, and exploring the literature,
debates and self-managed discussions on issues of contemporary
concern in sustainable tourism management as well as international
tourism in general in order that to translate the theoretical concepts into
More field trip and short study visits for intensive learning in a 'live'
tourism environment providing the opportunity to engage in analyzing
of the challenges of developing, managing and promoting sustainable
tourism. The field trip to a 'live' destination must run as part of the
Management of Sustainable Tourism Destination module, will enable
students to apply knowledge and ideas acquired in the classroom in a
specific tourism context. Here, additional contributions can give by a
wide range of specialists and practitioners who are trying to introduce
the sustainable tourism practices.
Researches of students in a range of sustainable tourism planning and
management issues and problems which are developed in different
modules during the three semesters, must to serve student’s thesis and to
support by scientific supervisor of student's dissertation. For this theme
for dissertation and its scientific supervisor should be determined after
the first semester of this program.
The place of the internship for MSc degree students must to serve topic of
student’ dissertation. This would make students more responsible during
the internship and their dissertation would have real impact on STD &
M in the tourism business or the tourist destination where students
develop the internship.
The provision for use by students of more comprehensive books on ST
and the provision of more other resources such as expert guest speakers
and visiting lecturers to support the integration of sustainability into
According to monitoring the quality of this program it is necessary:
Evaluating of the quality of this program must be not only by statistical
information (as the pass rate, average mark, number of applicants and
accepted students, number of graduated students in MSc program on
STM) but and by strengthening of external evaluating (as foreign guest
lecturer of this program or tourism organizations and institutions where
students develop internship) and by taking of student feedback.
Methods for gaining student feedback on this program can be: Module
evaluations after the completion of the module and student
representation in the program committee (meeting at least once a year)
Creating a program committee comprising all relevant teaching staff in
this program, student representatives and others who make a
contribution towards the effective operation of the program (e.g.
library/technician staff), which must have responsibilities for the quality
of the program. Before that this study program to start, the program
committee shall undertake once a year to review in-depth content of
every module of program’s curriculum that the overall aims and
objectives were appropriate with managerial philosophy for ST. Also,
the committee must analyze the quality of this study program through
the above methods of evaluating and to take the relevant measures for
In order to the Economic Faculty in Shkodra University to be always the
leader in Education for ST is also necessary to integration ST concept in
Bachelor study curriculum and in Study curriculum for Professional Master
programs in Tourism field (which the Economic faculty should make more
effort to be open them in response to industry needs and student demand to
complete graduation). To achieve sustainability, it isn’t enough providing
courses and programs content which are more closely geared to the needs of
the tourism industry for ST, but and the provision of the mode of delivery
such as the use of open and distance learning. This is the only way by which
the majority of staff in the industry can gain access to educational
opportunities for ST. The academic staff of this study course should
undertake the opening of summer school in September month or during the
years of distance learning courses for education on STD for businessmen
and people employed in tourist enterprises. This kind of education offers
knowledge on the development of environmental and social responsibility in
operations of a tourist enterprise. It can improve the quality of services
offered, especially in this area which is dominated by unqualified
employment. Also, summer school for education on STD should undertake
for those indirectly employed in the sector, e.g. traders, individuals
employed in transport, services, etc. In this way, the educational level for
ST of people employed in a growing industry of the tourism will improve.
Researchers of this study hope that this paper will provide a useful starting
point for further in-depth discussions, integration curriculums, practices and
research on the ST concept in higher education in the tourism field.
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EXTRA CONTRACTING RESPONSIBILITY OF TOURIST
ENTREPRENEUR FOR DAMAGES CAUSED TO HEALTH,
SECURITY AND PROPERTY OF CLIENT-AN INSTRUMENT OF
IMPORTANCE FOR DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM INDUSTRY
Faculty of Law UT
Nowadays, tourism is ranked in the group of most developed industries of
world economies. The positive effect of developing tourism industry is not
limited only in this sector, but it also ensures the development of other
economic sectors. Basing on this special importance, Albania is engaged to
supporting and expanding of tourism, aiming to transform the country into a
touristic mediterranean destination and to set it on the map of world tourism.
To meet this priority, however, a fundamental requirement continues to
remain not only improvement and enlargement of infrastructure, but even
that of legislation, which provides legal instruments for developing this
activity in conformity with european standards.
By this paper the authors have the view to deal one of the factors that impact
on development of this sector and exactly the responsibility that albanian
legislation provides in charge of tourist entrepreneur, in all those cases when
it is proved the damage caused to client’s health or property. To realize this
goal, in this paper will be introduced the general concept of causing the
damage, accompanying it with cases from damages that can be caused
during the period of accomodation in a tourist destination. In this context,
the authors will present a comparative study between provisions of Law No.
9734, date 14.5.2007 „For Tourism”, accompanied by relevant changes,
from one side and provisions of civil code from the other side, which
represent the basic legal frame that establishes the extra contracting damage
in albanian legislation. For a better meaning of this responsibility, there is a
difference to be make evident between contracting responsibility that holds
the entrepreneur in cases of non fulfilling the obligations provided in the
agreement with the client and that extra contracting one that derives from
causing the damage.
A special place in this paper will be dedicated to objective responsibility of
tourist entrepreneur, as one of modern developments of private law, which
goals to reward the damage that comes during the accomodation at hotel,
even in those cases when it is impossible to prove the fault of entrepreneur.
In conclusion, basing on Resolution of European Parliament of 6th of April
2011 “for Proposal of Rule of European Parliament and Council regarding
the european tourism statistics”, in this paper there also be presented
recommendations for improvement of albanian legislation in this field.
Key words: development of tourism; sector of hotels; extra contracting
responsibility; cause of damage; european standards for tourism
I. A general overview on responsibility of tourist entrepreneur for
causing the damage. A compared overview between the civil extra
contracting responsibility and the contracting one.
Today, tourist undertaking includes a wide range of activities, starting from
holes, restaurants, tourist transport and other undertakings which operate in
service of tourism.
The same as the activities of hotels or restaurants, the activity of tourist
transport, is held on basis of licensing from proper ministries that cover
tourism and transports, a procedure that is arranged according to that
provided by the new law in this field. According to article 2 of Law no.
9734, date 14.05.2007 “For Tourism”, “this normative act arranges the
relations between public institutions and private subjects, juristic and
physical persons, native or foreign ones, who exercise tourist activities and
which establish rights and liabilities of subjects participating to such
activities”. The law provides the establishment of a special structure, the
Commission of Tourism Standards which after examination of request and
its documentation, proposes to the minister about issuing or refusing the
categorization to demanding subject. One of more troubling issues
encountered during tourist activity remains the one of damages caused to the
consumer. Even though the Albanian legislation has not solved out
constantly the problems in the field of civil responsibility of commercial
agents, because of specifications of tourist activity, in practice it is attested
that the supplier or consumer often have uncertainties about civil
responsibility of each one in a judicial relation created between them. This
uncertainty is somehow explained because of provisions of special
legislation that arrange tourist activity must be read combined with principal
legislation that arranges the extra contracting responsibility to our judicial
order and eventually with the civil code of Republic of Albania.
Let’s deal with these provisions shortly, “every hotel, every accommodating
unit or tourist restaurant is responsible, for as long as the client stays there,
for the security of his life, of standards of service that it offers and for any
damage caused to health, security and property of the client, in conformity
with the legal provisions in force”.
According to this law, the office of Tourist Service represents an
administrative structure, depending on Ministry of Tourism, whose
prerogative is the solution of complaints of clients to hotels proprietors,
restaurants owners, tourist guides, travel agents, tourist organizers, and other
tourist undertakings for goods and services offered by them. So, according
to articles 12, item 1; 13 letters dh) and e), this structure makes the proper
verifications for complaints or other claims of clients and according to the
case, it orders the subjects mentioned in letter “dh” of this item to
indemnify, totally or partially, the client who has made the complaint or
orders the owner of tourist enterprise to indemnify the client. The respective
Ministry of tourism by its proper structure has as its legal obligation to
inspect the hotels, the other accommodating units, the restaurants and other
tourist enterprises. According to article 32 of above mentioned law, the
respective ministry of tourism, by a written notification, can ask to any
person who manages a hotel or another accommodating unit for tourists, a
restaurant or a tourist enterprise, to allow the authorized clerk to inspect
through entering to the premises where the proper business is exercised.
The civil code by its side, which remains the main legal frame, arranges in
few several provisions the civil responsibility for causing damages in
general which also comprise the damages caused during the tourist
undertaking. Although there is a little number, basing on this legal frame, it
is evident a rich judicial practice. Since at the beginning it must be
underlined that texts cited above, do not intend to describe materially all the
illegal facts that bring civil responsibility of tourist entrepreneur; in the
frame of these general principles, it belongs to judicial practice that on cases
when illegal facts are proved during the tourist service, to verify the
determination of the sort of judicial responsibility and to verify fulfillment
of conditions necessary for engagement of rewarding the damage at any
In principle, according to actual legislation, as a consequence of causing a
damage to health, security or property of a client, the civil damage
responsibility, the content of which is composed of obligation of tourist
agent to reward the damage caused. This responsibility is a constituent part
of judicial responsibility that has any subject for the illegal facts performed
by him. Different from the other forms of social responsibility of every
individual for his illegal facts, the judicial responsibility is featured of
possibility it has through the force of state, to apply the law provided
sanction to the culpable subject for each sort of judicial responsibilities. It’s
all the different from criminal responsibility, the civil one, which we are
dealing with, is based on reward of damage caused by committing an
illegitimate act. If the illegal act as a result of which is caused a damage to
the consumer, at the same time meets the requirements of a criminal
offence, except the obligation of rewarding the damage, the sanctions
provided by criminal code will also be applied to the tourist entrepreneur.
The extra-contracting responsibility represents a civil sanction which is not
applied versus the person who has committed the damage, but towards his
property, with which he is obliged to reward the person to whom he has
caused such damage. In these circumstances, it is obvious that this property
responsibility passes even to legatees of tourist entrepreneur.
Before making a detailed assay to responsibility of tourist entrepreneur, it
must be underlined that between this responsibility and the contracting
responsibility of entrepreneur there are significant differences. So, in all the
cases, a contract between the client and the tourist entrepreneur is engaged,
the object of which is the service offered and the rights and liabilities
assumed during the fulfillment of this contract. Every dispute of contracting
liability legitimates the other party to ask for the fulfillment of liability and
in case this is not possible for rewarding the damage caused as a result of
non-fulfilling the liability or when the contracting liability is not liquidated
on the right way. Considering that in some cases both forms of
responsibilities, the contracting and the extra-contracting one, imply the
indemnification, practically there are cases of wrong application of each of
them, or worse, of their superposition. In order to have a clearer idea, let’s
see the similarities and distinctions between these two forms of civil
Both of these responsibility forms are dominated by the main concept of
repairing a civil damage, produced as a consequence of an illegitimate
action and done on purpose by the side of the person. As a consequence, the
basic elements are the same: an illegitimate action that risks a liability,
which therefore violates the right of another person; committing on purpose
such an action, as the subjective element of responsibility, a causal report
between the illegitimate action and incoming of damage. However, beyond
these similarities, there are fundamental differences between these two sorts
of entrepreneur’s responsibilities.
The first difference is related with the sort of liability that is violated by the
side of tourist entrepreneur. In the case of extra contracting responsibility
we are assaying, the violated liability is a legal one with general character
that belongs to all the individuals of the society; the liability consists in not
committing anything that can harm the health, security or property of
another subject. Otherwise, in the case of contracting responsibility the
liability of tourist entrepreneur consists in executing all the liabilities that
are expressively provided in the contract; these liabilities are concrete and
they must not only fulfilled, but for more they must be fulfilled in the way
and quality as provided in the contract. So, it is clear that to engage the
contracting responsibility of entrepreneur, the existence of a valid contract
must be proved.
Therefore, each damage that may be caused to the client in the precontracting phase, for example revoking the offer before the date
determined to receive the reply by the side of the client, or before the date of
contract negotiation, will be rewarded basing on extra contracting
responsibility and not contracting one. Moreover, the damage caused basing
on this contract, which has resulted later to be invalid, would be possible to
be rewarded referring to legal basis that establishes the extra contracting
responsibility. From the other side, basing on relativity of contract’s effects
between the tourist agent and the client, we must accept that each damage
caused to a third party – person that is not a party of this contract-, will be
also rewarded on basis of an extra contracting responsibility.
A second difference between the sorts of civil responsibility, is related with
the conditions provided from the law, necessary for engagement of each
responsibility. In the field of contracting responsibility, the civil code
provides clearly that the person holds law responsibility in those cases when
he has complete capacities to act – this capacity is required to make the
contract and to execute it-, which as a rule is won when the person fills the
age of 18 years old. In the field of extra contracting responsibility, the
provisions of civil legislation do not provide a certain age, as a result it is
unanimously accepted by the law doctrine that will be responsible for
damage reward every person who has the necessary consciousness to
understand the importance of action committed, regardless the age. In other
words, the criminal capacity of action does not condition the capacity to act
any more as required in contracting field.
A third and very important difference has to do with extension of damage
reward in both cases of civil responsibility. It is true that in both cases the
tourist entrepreneur has to reward not only the effective damage caused to
the client – damnum emergens-, but even the unrealized revenues – lucrum
cessans-. But, while the debtor entrepreneur basing on the contract of tourist
services who has not executing the contracting liability responses only for
the damage provided or that was predictable at the moment of making the
contract. In the field of extra contracting responsibility, the responsibility is
complete; the tourist agent who has caused the damage responds for any
damage even for an unpredictable one.
A fourth difference consists in proving the culpability of tourist agent, in
both cases of civil responsibilities. So, in the case of extra – contracting
responsibility, as a rule, the culpability of tourist agent must be proved by
the side of client who has submitted the damage. All different, is in the case
of contracting responsibility, the creditor-client must prove only the existing
of the contract, and the fact that the liability provided in the contract has not
been executed or by the case, even executed this has not been fulfilled in the
same way as the one provided by the contract; basing on these two
elements, the culpability of tourist entrepreneur is presumed by the law.
From what we already mentioned, it is easy to understand that in the case of
contracting responsibility, the situation of creditor-client is very simple. As
we are going to analyze in the following, the proof of culpability in cases of
extra contracting responsibility, is one of the most difficult proofs to be
administered before the court.
A fifth difference according to the kind of responsibility in cases when the
damage has been caused by several touristic agents at the same time. In the
case of extra contracting responsibility, l when there is an interaction
between some agents in committing an illegitimate action, they are going to
respond in solidarity for the damage caused. As a consequence, the client
can address to each of them who is obliged to reward the complete damage
to the client. In case of contracting responsibility, in the hypothesis of some
tourist agents in the quality of debtor’s quality, the principle of contracting
solidarity will not have effects, but each one will respond only for his part of
damage that is caused to the client. In these circumstances, to fulfill the total
amount of damage, the creditor client must start a judicial plaint versus each
of tourist entrepreneurs to whom he has contracted to.
II. The damage caused to the client and the responsibility according
the Albanian Legislation
The criteria for the extra contracting responsibility of tourist
entrepreneur for damages caused to health, security and property of client
1. The damage caused to the client
The existence of a damage is considered not only the main condition
to be engaged in an extra contracting responsibility of an entrepreneur, but
even a premise for starting a judicial process which object is rewarding the
damage. The damage as the main element of civil responsibility represents
the result or the negative effects that a consumer submits, as a consequence
of an illegitimate action committed by the tourist agent or his responsibility.
Referring to the judicial practice, we can mention some like: harming
health, accompanied by loss or reduce of capacity to work; death of a person
who is the financial supporter of the damaged one; loss of objects or
extraordinary amortization of them; financial loss that comes as a result of
an unreasonable cancellation of service and of need to appeal in other
services, or other ones.
The reward to be given as a result of extra contracting responsibility
is always a patrimonial one, in cases when it consists in repairing the
damage in nature, or also when the damage is rewarded in the form of
restitution an amount of money. The issue is debatable if this patrimonial
reward is given only for damages also patrimonial, or it can be accorded
even to non patrimonial damages, which are diversely considered as “moral
damage”. In cases when the damage caused can be assessed in money, it is
patrimonial damage. For instance, the damage that comes from loss of
objects left in the hotel room. If the damages are not possible to be assessed
in money, then we have a moral damage and represents the spiritual suffer
for such loss. So for example, it can happen that the object lost or
destructed, has not only a certain economic value, but at the same time it can
represent a family memory, and being such it can be associated with an
indeterminate value, which represents an affective damage, that means a
The monetary reward of moral damages has been one of the most
controversial in our judicial practice. Not stopping to details which surpass
the object of this paperwork, in our judgment, the issue of rewarding in
money of moral damage must be accepted without any equivocation form
The last, so that the damage can be rewarded by the side of tourist
agent it is necessary to be indubitable and not be rewarded by another
subject. Regarding the certainty of damage, the judicial practice has
affirmed constantly that the damage must be certain to exist and possible to
be assessed. Meanwhile the condition not to have been rewarded by another
one, it is also comprehensible. The extra contracting responsibility does not
intend to create supplementary revenues for the client but simply to remove
the negative effects caused by the damage. So, for example, if the
automotive vehicle has been damaged in the premises of a touristic agent,
the last one will reward the damage only in the case when this damage is not
repaired from a company of insurances.
2. The illegitimate act committed by a tourist entrepreneur
In order to force the tourist entrepreneur to reward a damage
submitted by the client it is necessary that the damage is caused as a result
of an illegitimate action committed by the entrepreneur or other persons that
act in his name or for his account. Even though the provisions of civil code
provide for “any fact that causes a damage to the other”, it is unanimously
accepted that this responsibility is referred to the premise that the action that
has caused the damage is part of the category of illegitimate facts. In the
attempts to define an illegitimate action, we will consider it like any fact that
violating a right of an individual provided by the law order, harms the
person that enjoys the quality of the client. The notion of violated law is
dealt by the judicial practice widely, such have been considered not only the
subjective rights provided by the law, but even legal interests that are
protected by legislation in force.
When we examine an illegitimate act like a special element of extra
contracting responsibility, we will consider the objective fact, so the exterior
demonstration of a certain behavior of an individual, making an abstraction
for his subjective behavior, an element that will be especially surveyed. The
illegitimate character of the act flows objectively as a result of violating the
subjective law, without the need to analyze if the author of act has
committed it on purpose or because of his imprudence. So, the illegitimate
fact of entrepreneur is the object of the act committed by him. As a rule, the
great part of illegitimate actions committed by the side of tourist
entrepreneurs are demonstrated in the form of a positive actions; stealing of
several things, profiteering of an amount of money greater than the value of
service offered to the other clients; destruction of a car and other like these.
But, in other cases, the illegitimate act is demonstrated even in the form of
an inaction, by not acting for a certain service or doing an activity, not
taking several measures for keeping things or objects of the clients. It must
be understood that in any case, inaction will be considered an illegitimate
acts that brings as a consequence the responsibility of a tourist entrepreneur,
in all those cases when the legal provisions provide the obligation to act in a
3. Causal relation between the illegitimate fact and the damage
In order to make active the extra contracting responsibility of tourist
entrepreneur, the existence of a damage or of an illegitimate action
performed by the entrepreneur is not enough but it needs to exist a causal
relation between these two indispensable elements. This relation implies the
fact that the damage is caused to the client properly as a result of an
illegitimate act committed by the tourist entrepreneur.
Basing on numerous cases that are encountered in practice, we
ascertain that many times the causal relation can be easily determined. The
other times, as a result of interference of some consequent acts by the side
of entrepreneur, or of acts by the client himself or by the thirds, the
determination of the fact if the damage has come as a result of
entrepreneur’s act remains difficult to be determined.
Life demonstrates that the complexity of facts and of human acts
makes deciphering of causal relation difficult to be solved, the relation
between an act and the damage submitted by the client. Basing on this
complexity the judicial practice makes a selection of factors and acts that are
found coordinated, selects only those that have happened before the
damages happened and that have caused the last one.
In its orientations, our judicial practice includes in the causal relation
not only the cause which is necessary for a damage to exist – condition sine
qua non- bujt even other episodic causes, so reasons that have helped,
making possible the damage to happen.
After a contradicting practice, the actual jurisprudence is led by the
principle that not only the necessary reason, but even other factors which
have helped to cause the damage will be included in the causal relation.
4. The fault of the person who has caused the damage
In order that the tourist entrepreneur is put before the responsibility
to reward the damage caused to the client, except the conditions surveyed
above, it is necessary to determine if the illegitimate act that has caused the
damage be committed on purpose by the side of the author. When we
analyze the culpability as an element of civil responsibility we refer to the
subjective dimension of an illegitimate act, in other words, to subjective
behavior of the author in report with the act and with the consequences of it,
at the moment of committing it.
Since at the beginning, we have to underline that there are important
differences between civil responsibility and criminal responsibility of
committing an illegitimate action, differences that become clear even in the
element of culpability, as a fundamental condition of engaging each of these
responsibilities. So for instance, the criminal responsibility is often based on
facts performed on purpose by the author, while the civil responsibility of
causing the damage will be engaged even for aimless forms of culpability,
Even though, fault represents one of fundamental conditions of civil
responsibility, in civil code we do not find a special provision of culpability
definition; of its sorts and of queries of its definition. Different from civil
code, the criminal code and doctrine of criminal law have paid a special
importance to the approach of this element of criminal responsibility. But
considering the fact that the notion of culpability remains the same, the
doctrine of civil law and the judicial practice are based continuously on the
notion of culpability defined in criminal law. Culpability represents the
subjective, psychic behavior of the author towards an illegitimate act and to
its consequences. In all cases, the concept of culpability is present in a
negative subjective attitude, of not respecting or by violating legal
provisions. Violation of legal liabilities is preceded by a complex psychic
process that includes the conscience and will, and ends in the form of an
illegitimate act. This psychic viewpoint consists in two factors:
•Factor of understanding the facts; this factor means the existence of
conscience to realize the significance of act to be committed. The
culpability at any of its forms, presumes a certain level of conscience
to understand the importance of acts and the consequences that
come from it.
•The factor of will; in the process of forming the behavior, the factor of
conscience is followed by the factor of will, which represents the
analyze of act that the author wants to commit and the decision to
commit an illegitimate action.
Both of these factors are found unified and if they are present by
committing the illegitimate action, they represent in their unison the
phenomena called culpability. In the function of this viewpoint for the act
committed, culpability is performed in several ways, which start from the
simple imprudence, gradually varying up to the direct goal to commit an
illegitimate action. In our civil code, we do not find any provision referring
to the form of culpability regarding the extra contracting responsibility
determination. In cases when such determination is absent, unanimously it is
accepted from juridical literature, that, the guilty entrepreneur will be
considered the one who regardless the form of culpability, negligence or
imprudence, has violated the rights of the client.
For all mentioned above, it is clear that if in the process of
assessment of culpability, there are circumstances that have impeded the
freedom of conscience and will, they will impact to elimination or by the
case to reduce of author’s culpability. The judicial practice and law
literature have accepted unanimously some factors that exclude culpability.
They are: the act committed by the client himself; the act committed by a
third one, for whom the entrepreneur is not responsible; and the major force.
III. Perspectives of improving Albanian legislation in the field of civil
responsibility of tourism operators
Today, tourism is ranked in the group of the most developed
industries of world economies. The positive effect of development of
tourism industry is not limited only in this sector, but it also guarantees the
development of other economic sectors too. Basing on this special
importance, Albania is involved in supporting and extending tourism,
aiming the transformation of our country to a Mediterranean tourist
destination and installing it in the world tourism map. In order to fulfill this
priority, the main demand continues to be not only the improvement but
even the extension of infrastructure, but even of legislation, which provides
the legal instruments for development of this activity in conformity with
Even though Albanian legislation which establishes the extra
contracting responsibility, which includes also that of operators in the field
of tourism, was compiled in the beginning of years ’90, while the legislation
that provides licensing and supervision of these operators is of last decade,
the dynamic of development in this sector considers to be indispensable the
intervention of legislator to make amendments in order to improve this
Basing on a comparable overview of legislations of EU member
states, and on Resolution of European Parliament of 6 of April 2011 “For
the proposal of Regulation of European Parliament and of European Council
regarding European tourism statistics”, we think it’s an urgent need to
improve this legislation in direction of extending the objective responsibility
even to some cases of services offered by tourist operators.
Another quality required today from tourist product, is the chance to
be used in conditions of security, without causing any damages to physical
integrity or to his things. This ubiquitous concept of “security” accepted
even from Directives of European Union, sets the private initiative before a
responsibility different from that already known up to today.
As we have seen during this paperwork, the actual legislation
provides that civil responsibility of a tourist entrepreneur will be active in
those cases when it is proved that the illegitimate act is made on purpose.
So, this way it is clear that the objective responsibility is excluded. But, this
juridical principle, which on its side it is based on the moral principle that
no one is responsible for the damage caused at least from imprudence, it is
still not accepted even nowadays for several fields of activity or business,
where the entrepreneur together with his profits must assume even the risk
of an objective responsibility. Only this way, the rights of the clients would
be guaranteed, because in most cases the client does not profit the reward
for the damage as it is impossible for him to prove the author’s culpability.
The extension of objective responsibility domain, even in cases of
tourist operators is related with the character of industrial civilization which
is based on using some means that in itself are an added risk resource
accepted as an unavoidable component of actual technologic developments.
As it is already accepted, if the science and technique still do not offer
means and measures capable to stop the means that derive from them, for
some risky activities, and when the subject still continues to exercise such
activity, we have to accept that the subject exercises this activity at his risk.
In these circumstances he must respond for the damages caused, without
having the possibility to prove the absence of fault.
The objective responsibility is based only on casual relation, which
has to be proved that exists between an illegitimate act and the damage
caused to the client. Failure of this responsibility will be realized through
excluding this causal relation or by proving the fault of a third from where
the product which has caused the damage during the exercise of a tourist
activity has derived. The responsibility of tourist operator does not have to
be effective in all those cases where basing on all scientific and technical
knowledge at the moment when the product is in circulation, the
predictability of damage is impossible. According to European directives in
this field, the so called “development risk” is charged to the consumer.
Lucy William., Philosophy of Private Law., Oxford University Press Inc
Hinteregger Monika., Environmental Liability and Ecological Damage In
European Law., Austria 2009
Francesco Galgano., E Drejta Private., Luarasi 1999
Nuni Ardian., E Drejta e Detyrimeve., Morava 2008
Bussani Mauro., La colpa soggettiva. Modelli di valutazione della condotta
nella responsabilità extracontrattuale., Cedam: Padova 1991.
PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF
SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN ALBANIA
Dr. Alketa VANGJELI
Faculty of Economy
University “Aleksandër Xhuvani”, Elbasan
The strong and sustained rise of tourism activity over the past decades is one
of the most remarkable economic, social and cultural phenomena of our
time. Recently, tourism has been seriously considered in the national
sustainable development strategies in many developing countries. The
tourism is an important industry in Albania, growing faster, thus becoming a
source of increasing stress on the environment, natural and cultural
resources. But the present inclination to evaluate short-term gains over the
long-term environmental consideration constitutes one of the main concerns
in respect to the future of the national natural and cultural wealth.
Within this prospective, Albania recognizes the important role of tourism in
its economical future and the need to promote a strong interest in
sustainable tourism. The development of sustainable values in tourism
requires above all, the optimal use of environmental resources, as well as the
respect of the socio-cultural authenticity of the country host communities
ensuring viable and long-term benefit to all stakeholders.
This paper attempts to look into and evaluate the performance of the tourism
sector in Albania. It aims to identify the problems facing tourism in Albania
and propose some policy recommendations for the development of a
modern and sustainable tourism industry.
Key words: sustainable tourism, development, resources.
Tourism is arguably the world’s largest and fastest growing industry,
accounting for about five percent of the world’s Gross National Product and
six percent of the employment (Glasson et al, 1995). Most governments
encourage tourism for its ability to spread economic development and
reduce inequalities in income distribution by providing jobs (Wahab and
Pigrim, 1997). For poor countries, regions, towns and cities, tourism is seen
as the fast track to development. Tourism is therefore viewed by
government as a catalyst for national and regional development, bringing
employment, exchange earnings, balance of payments advantages, and
important infrastructural developments benefiting locals and visitors alike
(Glasson et al, 1995).
Defined by the impressive network of businesses and services and by the
infrastructure needed to support it, tourism is one of the world`s largest
industries involving the wide range of stakeholders, including the private
sector tourism businesses, governmental and intergovernmental
organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) networks,
consumers and host communities.
In recent decades, the tourism industry has shown sustained growth in
both revenues and number of tourists, and has left broad economic, social,
cultural and environmental footprints reaching almost every part of the
world. Touristic activity generates significant economic benefits to both
host countries and tourists’ home countries alike. Especially in developing
countries, one of the primary motivations for a country to promote itself as a
tourism destination is the expected economic improvement, mainly through
foreign exchange earnings, contributions to government revenues, and
generation of employment and business opportunities.
The recent years in international tourism indicate that touristic activity is
still concentrated in the industrialized countries of Europe and Americas.
However, there has been a substantial proliferation of new tourist –
generating and tourist – receiving markets in the developing regions as well.
After many years of isolation, Albania has changed rapidly toward a free
market economy, offering many opportunities to become a new tourist
destination in the Mediterranean. The tourism is an important industry in
Albania, growing faster, thus becoming a source of increasing stress on the
environment, natural and cultural resources. But the present inclination to
evaluate short-term gains over the long-term environmental consideration
constitutes one of the main concerns in respect to the future of the national
natural and cultural wealth.
Within this prospective, Albania recognizes the important role of
tourism in its economical future and the need to promote a strong interest in
sustainable tourism. The development of sustainable values in tourism
requires above all, the optimal use of environmental resources, as well as the
respect of the socio-cultural authenticity of the country host communities
ensuring viable and long-term benefit to all stakeholders.
Until recently, the literature on sustainable tourism development in the
Albania was undeveloped and it seems to have received very little attention
by previous researchers. Therefore, the main aim of this paper is to provide
an analysis of tourism development in Albania by considering and
identifying the existing problems. In particular, this paper seeks to address
three objectives: first, to analyse challenges and opportunities for
sustainable tourism development; second, to evaluate the performance and
to identify the problems facing tourism sector in Albania; and third, to
provide interesting policy implications and recommendations for policy
makers, public authorities and managers of tourism in order to identify the
priorities for the development of the sustainable tourism in Albania.
2. Challenges and opportunities for sustainable tourism development
In both theory and practice, the adoption of a sustainable development
strategy and the consequent sustainable development policies seem to
guarantee long term viability of the tourism product.
In an attempt to apply sustainable development in Tourism, World
Tourism Organisation defines sustainable tourism development as
development “that meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while
protecting and enhancing opportunity for the future. It is envisaged as
leading the management of all resources in such a way that economic, social
and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity,
essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems”
(WTO, 1995). This definition allows to consider sustainable tourism
development as a multidimensional concept that attempts to harmonise
development and environment in an integrated way. Specifically the concept
can be analyzed along the following dimensions (Spangenberg, 2005):
Ecological, Economic, Social, Cultural and Institutional.
Within the framework of the above, sustainable tourism development
• The environmental challenge in the form of resistance against degradation
of the natural basis of human life;
• The economic challenge in the form of increasing present income while
guaranteeing future income;
• The social challenge in the form of promotion of social justice, security
• The cultural challenge in the form of preserving and promoting culture and
• The institutional challenge in the form of promoting participation of the
local societies in strategic decision making.
Under such circumstances, policies toward sustainable tourism
development require the integration of environmental, social, economic,
institutional and cultural objectives into a coherent strategy, safeguarding
the essential interests of each dimension.
Over the past decade, tourism has become the largest industry worldwide in
terms of employment and share of global gross domestic product. Economic
gains have been a major driving force for the growth of tourism in
developing countries. The initial period of growth happened in the late
1960’s and 1970’s, when tourism was perceived as a key activity for
generating foreign ex-change and employment by both development
institutions, such as the World Bank, as well as by governments (Goodwin,
2000). Despite the negative economic impacts of tourism (such as inflation;
dominance by outsiders in land and property markets; inward-migration
eroding economic opportunities for domestic industry including the poor)
the demand for travel and tourism continues to grow.
As more people are interested in spending leisure time in nature,
ecotourism has become one of the fastest-growing segments of the tourism
industry. This creates opportunities in areas characterized by natural
attractions, wildlife and wilderness habitats. Local communities may benefit
in economic terms as well as create a commitment to conservation and
Careful planning and assessment are important parts of sustainable
tourism development. Officials responsible for national parks and other
nature areas will have a major responsibility for handling the challenges and
deciding which opportunities for tourism development can be sustained over
the long term. Local communities will also have to participate in planning
and assessment when culture and heritage are important parts of ecotourism.
It has been noted that the principles for ecotourism have not yet been
firmly established in order to guide planning and assessment. However, two
basic principles of ecotourism that have been identified are: (1) encourage
conservation and (2) provide benefits to the local populations. However,
planners and policy-makers must also keep in mind certain realistic truths
about tourism: it consumes resources, creates waste and requires certain
kinds of infrastructure; it creates conditions for possible over-consumption
of resources; it is dominated by private investment with priority on
maximizing profits; its multi-faceted nature makes control difficult; and it
may be seen as simply entertainment services consumed by tourists. The
challenge of sustainable tourism development, therefore, is to balance the
principles with these truths, and this can be done only through integrated,
cooperative approaches involving all stakeholders and related economic
activities in the area.
There are certain tools that can be used to help achieve balance, such as
assessment of carrying capacity, finding the limits of acceptable change and
doing cost/benefit analysis. Tourism policy-makers, planners and managers
should consider these tools as helpful only if they take a holistic,
coordinated approach, especially since benefits and costs in terms of
sustainable tourism development are not easily defined in monetary terms.
Furthermore, measuring the success of tourism involving nature (for
example, national parks) and culture (for example, village-based tourism)
should not just be based on number of visitors or amount of income; rather
measurement should include the length of stay, quality of the experience and
whether natural and cultural resources have been conserved.
Environmental management of tourism development
Tourism plays an important role in economic development at
community, national, regional and global levels by using natural resources
and environments as key physical inputs. In making use of the environment
and natural resources, the negative impacts have to be minimized to assure
sustainable use, as well as generate enough tourism revenue to reinvest a
certain portion of funds. The reinvestment should aim at enhancing the
quality of the resources and build the management capacity at various
There is a complex relationship between tourism and the environment,
such that tourism has inevitable and important environmental impacts,
including: resource use, consumption, waste, pollution and effects from
tourism-related transport. At the same time, beaches, mountains, rivers,
forests and diverse flora and fauna make the environment a basic resource
that the tourism industry needs in order to thrive and grow. While the
viability of tourism could be threatened by negative environmental impacts,
tourism could also contribute significantly to environmental protection. This
shows that tourism and the environment are interrelated and interdependent
in complex ways, and together they could provide a sustainable economic
base for development. In light of these observations, tourism policy-makers,
managers and planners must address the issues of environmental
management of tourism development in a sustainable manner. All of these
issues make it evident that formulating policies to preserve the environment
are decisive and must be made while meeting economic development goals,
especially eradicating poverty, at the community, national, regional and
Making effective policies require that the roles of different stakeholders
be considered. The major stakeholders involved with issues of sound
environmental management are: the community, the tourism industry, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), the government and international
communities. Each type of stakeholder should be actively involved and
aware in managing the sustainable development of tourism, and they must
also work in partnership. If all stakeholders work in partnership to sustain
tourism development plus protect the environment, then the present
generation will provide a meaningful legacy for future generations.
Understanding the limits to economic growth, the carrying capacity of
natural resources and the need for sustainable action should be the guiding
forces in the management of tourism development.
Promotion of cultural tourism and heritage site management
The major contribution of the tourism industry as a vehicle for economic
development in many countries around the world has been widely
acknowledged. At the same time, tourism should be seen as an activity that
contributes to a better understanding of places, people and their cultures.
The challenge facing policy-makers is to have a broader perspective and
better understanding that there can be both positive and negative effects
from tourism development. Moreover, a broader perspective challenges all
stakeholders involved with tourism from the community level to the
national level to find the means to work together in more proactive ways
that will increase the positive effects and minimize the possible negative
effects of tourism development.
Sustainable tourism development provides the opportunity to take
proactive approaches based on broad participation by stakeholders, which
would contribute to more effective policies and plans. This would increase
the opportunities to realize the full social and economic potential of the
tourism industry. Sustainable tourism development creates the opportunity
for governments and all stakeholders in the tourism sector to aim at ensuring
long-term prosperity and quality of life for future generations. Sustainable
tourism development also creates opportunities to preserve natural and
cultural heritages for tourists and local people in ways that address
development problems and reduce risks to the environment and ways of life.
3. Some problems and challenges of sustainable tourism in Albania
Albania has so much to offer to tourists in terms of its hugely diverse
natural beauty, its culture, its heritage and archeological sites. It also
benefits from a wonderful Mediterranean climate. Albania offers infinite
potential to investors to take advantage of unexplored opportunities in
tourism, and helping to develop this industry into a key strategic sector in
the country’s economy.
Tourism sector is wide spread in Albania. During the last years the
number of tourists visiting Albania is increased (Figure 1). The data on the
number of tourist in 2010 represents an increase of 30.2% compared with
2009 (2.5m visitor arrivals), mainly from Macedonia, Kosovo and
Montenegro (Figure 2). An even greater amount of tourism activity occurs
in the form of domestic tourism and day trips. The number of visitors
accommodated in hotels is increased 13.8% in 2010 compared with the last
year (Figure 3). Tourism, directly and indirectly, accounts for around 4% of
country GDP and 160 thousand jobs (INSTAT, 2010). Tourism plays
already a vital role in employing local population. This is a clear indicator of
strong growth created by improvements in infrastruture and business
conditions supporting the tourist industry in our country. Continuing
improvements are being made to encourage investors to develop the
infrastructure for tourism in Albania.
Figure1. Arrivals of foreigners by means of transport (1995 – 2010, in
Source: INSTAT, 2010
Figure 2. Arrivals in Albania from the European countries (January – June
Source: INSTAT, 2010
If Albania could use its own resources to the interest of tourism it could
be much more developed than it actually is. Today, Albania is gaining its
rightful position as a tourist destination. This presents an ideal situation for
foreign investors to step in and expand their business in Albania’s tourism
Of equal significance for sustainable development, however, is the
special relationship that tourism, compared with other economic activities,
has with the environment and society. This is because of its unique
dependency on quality environments, cultural distinctiveness and social
interaction, security and wellbeing. On the one hand, if poorly planned or
developed to excess, tourism can be a destroyer of these special qualities
which are so central to sustainable development. On the other, it can be a
driving force for their conservation and promotion – directly through raising
awareness and income to support them, and indirectly by providing an
economic justification for the provision of such support by others.
Figure 3: Arrivals of foreigners and Albanians in hotels (2000 – 2010, in
Source: INSTAT, 2010
Tourism can be a tool to aid or drive regeneration and economic
development as well as enhancing the quality of life of visitors and host
communities. Making tourism more sustainable will contribute significantly
to the sustainability of the Albanian society. Creating the right balance
between the welfare of tourists, host communities and the environment,
reducing conflict and recognizing mutual dependency, requires a special
approach to the management of destinations.
Although some improvements have been made to the Albanian tourism
sector during the last decade, some problems have not changed and this has
resulted in a relatively low number of foreign tourists visiting the Albanian
coastline as opposed to other neighbouring Mediterranean countries. These
problems include mainly the lack of information and marketing, overall
poor infrastructure, environment, lack of skilled people and low level of
suitable accommodation (Kushi, 2008). The present inclination to evaluate
short-term gains over the long-term environmental consideration constitutes
one of the main concerns in respect to the future of the national natural and
The existing size of the hotels on the coastline of Albania is small, largely
having a capacity of up to 20 rooms (Mullai, 2005). Hotels of this size are
not able to work with big tourist groups organised in package tours by the
western operators. Such hotels capacities match only the demand of
individual clients or small-organised groups of tourists. New
accommodation capacities recommended for development have been
calculated to meet foreign market demands (not including ethnic Albanians’
demands), according to projected overnight forecasts and desired number of
beds per accommodation structure, as well as international standards
required by these markets. Also, it is set that areas suggested for the
development of such capacities should fulfill the requirements of tourist
segments part of international market.
However, Albanian small firms in general do not use advertising or just
spend a very restricted amount of money because of the low level of
revenues (Gorica, 2002). This amount is even lower in the case of the
holiday hotels sector where the peak season is very short (a maximum three
to four months during the summer). Sometimes advertising expenditures are
conditional on annual revenues so that firms employ advertising only during
Key challenges on realization of strategic goals of Albanian sustainably
•The realization of ownership conditions and the completion of
concerning privatization process.
•Albania’s competitiveness on the international market of investment
•Establishing a developmental spatial plan for Albanian tourism.
•Continuous protection, implementation and respect of high ecological
standards, and long-term sustainable assessment of tourist potentials.
•Education of all management and other staff in tourism.
•Construction of transport infrastructure and the optimal organization of
transportation to service tourism.
•Development of an integral and integrated offer in a tourist destination.
•Increasing the level of quality of all accommodation facilities, primary
and secondary, and adapting categorization criteria to international
•A more effective distribution and use of modern trends in
communication and marketing.
4. Conclusions and recommendations
Tourism has become the largest industry worldwide in terms of
employment and share of global gross domestic product. Policies toward
sustainable tourism development require the integration of environmental,
social, economic, institutional and cultural objectives into a coherent
strategy, safeguarding the essential interests of each dimension.
Making effective policies require that the roles of different stakeholders
be considered. Each type of stakeholder should be actively involved and
aware in managing the sustainable development of tourism, and they must
also work in partnership.
Tourism sector is wide spread in Albania. During the last years the
number of tourists visiting Albania is increased. Although some
improvements have been made to the Albanian tourism sector during the
last decade, some problems have not changed: the lack of information and
marketing, overall poor infrastructure, environment, lack of skilled people
and low level of suitable accommodation. The existing size of the hotels on
the coastline of Albania is small and they are not able to work with big
tourist groups organised in package tours by the western operators.
For developing of the sustainable tourism in Albania some
recommendations are addressed to the public sector: Legal framework and
finances (urban and spacious planning, taxes and allocation of financial
sources, calming down conflicts in the fields of building and infrastructure),
infrastructure (the construction of roads, waterworks, sewage water and the
management of remains), buildings and equipments for education and health
(capacity building in commune, general administration, checking system
The recommendations to the private sector are: facilities for the
amusement of citizens and tourists, designing and building attractive public
parks, events and activities for tourists, awareness campaign for the
protection of the ecological system, training for services and products of
tourism, facilities for offering services and products.
The new focus of sustainable development and management of tourism
should be on the promotion of economic incentives and environmental
education and on local capacity building rather than merely on the
establishment of rules and regulations, which proved to be largely
ineffective. Developing and raising tourism–oriented education is a key
challenge for sustainable tourism. This should be accompanied by making
efficient use of the mass media and other facilities to publicise and promote
existing attractions and available recourses.
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Management: Visitor Impacts, Carrying Capacity and Management
Responses in Europe’s Historic Towns and Cities. Avebury,
Goodwin, H (2000) ‘Pro-Poor Tourism: Opportunities for Sustainable Local
Development’, D+C Development and Cooperation, No. 5,
September/October 2000 pp.12-14.
Gorica, K. (2002). Albanian Tourism Management - The Future Path to
Sustainable Development, PhD dissertation, University of Tirana,
Kushi, E. (2008). Informaton Asymmetry, Quality and Prices in the Tourism
Market: An Application to Albanian Holiday Hotels. PhD
Dissertation. Staffordshire University. Stokeon-Trent, UK.
Mullai, N. (2005). Tourism Development - A Catalyst for Economic Growth
in Albania. Albanian Export Promotion Agency Contributed Paper.
Executive Forum on National Export Strategies: Export of Services:
Hype of High Potential? Implications for Strategy-Makers. 5-8
October 2005, Montreux, Switzerland.
INSTAT (2010). Economic and Social Indicators.
Spangenberg, J., H., (2005), Reconciling Sustainable development and
Growth: Criteria, Indicators, Policies, Sustainable Development, 12.
Wahab S., and Pigram, J.J. (ed) (1997). Tourism, Development and Growth:
The Challenge of sustainability. Routledge, London.
GLOBALIZATION DIMENSIONS AND GLOCALISATION
OF CULTURE: DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM
IN PERSPECTIVE OF ALBANIAN CULTURE CASE
PhD Cand. Matilda LIKAJ 10
Globalization broadly refers to the expansion of global linkages, the
organization of social life on a global scale, and the growth of a global
consciousness, hence to the consolidation of world society. Globalization is
a social and local phenomena with vast implications that effects all us in
our everday lives. The enormous diversity of economic exchanges, political
agreements and electronic communication that we have become accustomed
to see in different countries of the world, depends on complex economic
such as tourism and social ties that link countries and people around the
These connections and influences between the local and the global
are quite new in Albanian history. The fall of communism in countries of
Eastern Europe, such as Albania, made these countries to form and have
economical, political and cultural relationships with other Western
countires. But unfourtanly the focusing on the western culture made the
alianation of Albanian culture to the society. This situation brought the
regresion for the development of the tourism in this country. But nowadays
Research Assistant and Lecturer
Department of Political Science and International Relations
Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences
are developing different policies to different societies and culture to be as
global as local. That means by being conscious of the existent of so reach
culture by presetting our own culture to different society’s culture by
referring to the globalization. So in this paper we are going to study what
glocalization is and how can the Albanian culture be glocalized to the
globalized world. By discussion of Albanian culture we are going to take as
the sample, Shkodra a city (as the target of tourism) that is a mosaic place of
presentation different cultures and sub cultures. Also in this study we are
going to explain the effect of globalization as the way the World looks and
the way We look at the world and glocalization as the way of using the
globalization as the tool for presetting own culture for development of
tourism in Albania. Also we are going to study to the Cultural Factors and
Physical Environment of Albania that are the main attractive part for the
well developing of the tourism.
Key words: Globalization and Glocalization in Albania, Albanian
Tangle and Entangle Culture, Cultural Factors and Physical Environments
in Albania, Shkodra city as a mosaic of the culture, Tourism and Its
development in Albania in the context of culture.
1. GLOBALIZATION: old for the rest of the world but so young
Globalization broadly refers to the expansion of global linkages, the
organization of social life on a global scale and the growth of a global
consciousness, hence to the consolidation of world society. Globalization is
a social and local phenomena with vast implications that effects all us in
our everday lives. The enormous diversity of economic and cultural
exchanges, political agreements and electronic communication that we have
become accustomed to see in different countries of the world, depends on
complex social and cultural ties that link countries and people around the
‘Globalization’ is a fuzzy and so much complexity word. There is an
extensive literature on globalization from a wide range of sociological,
economic, cultural, political and technological perspectives. The term has
further entered everyday commentary and analysis of featuring in many
political, policy, cultural and economic debates. According to Trigilia, there
are many good reasons for assuming that globalizing trends will go together
with significant institutional changes and a redefinition of the boundaries
between the different forms of economic and social regulation ( Trigilia, C;
2002: 263). But of course it is not so simple. So we must ask what are
hidden histories are silenced by the fuzziness of the word ‘globalization’?
We are going to explain in details the question in the other sections of this
paper but first thing that we must do now is to explain what ‘globalization’
is and what is the mean of this word? What is the history of starting and
continuing of globalization?
The world became global five centuries ago. The rise of the West,
the conquest of the Americas, New World slavery and the Industrial
Revolution can be summarized as ‘a first moment of globality’, an Atlantic
moment, culminating in U.S. hegemony after World War II. Europe became
Europe in part through severing itself from what lay south of the
Mediterranean, but also in part through a westward move that made the
Atlantic the center of the first truly global empires. This Atlantic moment of
globality entailed at the onset massive flows of money, capital, goods, ideas,
motifs, and people not only across states but across continents ( MudimbeBoyi, E; 2002: 8-9). Here we can edit that there is also a huge impact of
cultural form toward non western cultural societies. And globalization made
and is still making possible the one direction exchange of culture from
Western world to the rest societies cultures.
The term “globalization” as used by social scientists and in popular
discourse has many different meanings and definitions. Some of the social
scientists contend that it is important to distinguish between globalization as
a particular contemporary political ideology and what some other social
scientists call structural globalization. Structural globalization means the
increasing worldwide density of large scale interaction networks relative to
the density of smaller networks. Social scientific approaches to
globalization disagree about how the structure of the world economy has
changed over time. It is believed that since the 1960’s a new transnational
economy has emerged in which national societies have become integrated
into a global network of trade and an interdependent division of labor under
the effect of the globalization mentality.
Or let conclude it with other words that the term “globalization”
often refers to changes in technologies of communication and
transportation, increasingly internationalized financial flows and commodity
trade and the transition from national to world markets as the main arena for
economic competition. (Dunn, Ch; Babones, S.J; 2006: 93). But of course,
inside the economic competition, there is a new opening of a cultural and
social competition. As we can see, globalization is as much heterogeneous
as homogenous. That means that it they involve with its form or let me say
‘identity’ highly intricate interactions among a whole variety of social,
political and economic practices and institutions across a spectrum of almost
all societies of the world.
Another aspect of diversity of globalization term comes from many
different things and reasons for its emergence as a popular concept. The
usage of this term generally implies that a recent change (within the past
decade or two decades ago) has occurred in technology and in the size of the
arena of economic competition. It also follows that economic
competitiveness needs to be assessed in the global context rather than in a
national or local context. These societies have been used to justify the
adoption of new practices by firms and governments all over the world or let
us to say, the political agreements and these developments have altered the
political balances among states, firms, unions and other interest groups.
So with few words, we can say that globalization refers to a
multidimensional set of social processes that create, multiply, stretch and
intensify worldwide social interdependencies and exchanges while at the
same time fostering in people a growing awareness of deepening
connections between the local and the distant. But, according to Anthony
Giddens the core of globalization is the experience of ‘distanciation’ as
social relations get stretched across time and space and thereby take on an
increasingly reflexive quality. Also, Kobrin emphasizes the increasing scale
of economic activity, inter-firm alliances and information flows and Gilpin
the interdependence of national economies.
Fig1. The globalization scholars and dimension (Steger, B. M; 2003;
So as a conclusion of what globalization is this picture can explain in
the best form. Globalization is just a huge toy elephant that is formed from
different but so important pieces like culture form, political form,
economical form, religious form, ideological form and environment or
2- GLOCALIZATION: an ironic version versus to globalization
It is important to distinguish that globalization has an aim such as
‘globalization project’ as a hegemonic political ideology and structural
globalization that changes in the density of international and global
interactions relative to local or national networks. Charles Tilly proposed a
similar definition of structural globalization that is ‘an increase in the
geographic range of locally consequential social interactions, especially
when that increase stretches a significant proportion of all interactions (such
as cultural, social, political and economical interactions) across international
or intercontinental limits’. If national-level networks and global networks
increased in density at the same rate, there would be no increase in
globalization in the sense of connectedness. (Dunn, Ch. Ch ; Babones, S. J;
2006: 94-95). Consequently to what Tilly said can be reply with a very
influential method which is called glocalization. Only minutely different
from the term “globalization” regarding spelling, glocalization serves as a
means of combining the idea of globalization with that of local
considerations. Glocalization means to protect and to refer one society
social and cultural identity to the global world. But of course this kind of
presentation can occur by the help of political and economical agreement
that globalization serves to all societies and states. So the increase of
presenting national identity in the world by the help of features of
globalization is called glocalization.
A combination of the words "globalization" and "localization"
used to describe a product or service that is developed and distributed
globally but is also fashioned to accommodate the user or consumer in a
local market. This means that the product or service may be tailored to
conform to local laws, customs or consumer preferences. Products or
services that are effectively "glocalized" are, by definition, going to be of
on 16 August 2011).
For Anthony Giddens, globalization is centrally understood through
the concept of time and space distanciation. This is a process in which
locales are shaped by events far away, and vice versa, while social relations
are disembodied or ‘lifted out’ from locales. Peasant households in
traditional societies, for example, largely produced their own means of
subsistence, a tithe was often paid in kind (goods, animals or labor) money
was of limited value and economic exchange was local and particularistic.
Modernization replaced local exchange with universal exchange of money,
which simplified otherwise impossibly complex transitions and enabled the
circulation of highly complex forms of information and value in
increasingly abstract and symbolic forms. The exchange of money
establishes social relations across time and space, which is speeded up under
globalization. Similarly, expert cultures arise as a result of scientific
revolutions, which bring an increase in technical knowledge and
specialization. Specialists claim ‘universal’ and scientific forms of
knowledge that enable the establishing of social relations across vast
expanses of time and space. Social distance is created between professionals
and their clients as in the modern medical model, which is based upon the
universal claims of science. As expert knowledge dominates across the
globe, local perspectives become devalued and modern societies are reliant
on expert systems. Trust is increasingly the key to the relationship between
the individual and the expert systems, it is the ‘glue’ that holds modern
societies together. But where trust is undermined, individuals experience
ontological insecurity and a sense of insecurity with regard to their social
reality (Ray, L; 2007; 9). In this paragraph Anthony Giddens referred a
problematic way of globalization which brings the alienation of tradition
and different local cultures. It is important to stress that nowadays or let me
call in post modernist period it is very important to be focus on the strength
of social and cultural identity of local areas. Or let me explain with other
words, almost all societies have been influenced by globalization. All the
feature of globalization or Western culture features have been appeared and
influenced to different societies. These features took shape in these local
tradition cultures. So the young generation where they who were the most
influenced group from this culture. To be alienation from your own culture
does not mean just to be away from the culture of your society but also it is
very important to say that in these societies will be always an identity
anomie. I am not going to say crisis because the values of these cultures are
replacing with new Western values. For this reason there is not any empty
field for concurring the crisis. There are found just new forms and replacing
of values and other cultural component with the Western’s culture values
and components by forming a new shape of culture but not well fitting in
these societies. For these reason we can say that in these societies and
cultures are forming new social and cultural pathologies or anomies. In
nowadays, it is important to be conscientious for the situation that these
societies are carrying. One of these societies is Albania society too. For
eliminating the social and cultural anomies forming by the effect of
globalization must be applied a new form for return in identity and also not
to be separate from the world, which is called Glocalization.
3-ALBANIAN CULTURE: Shkodra city as a mosaic of cultures
Culture is an extremely very broad concept in social sciences and
especially in sociology. In this paper we are going to see culture in a
sociological and economical perspective, for this reason we can say that
culture is made up of all of the ideas, beliefs, behaviors and products and a
group’s way of life. Culture encompasses everything humans create and
have as they interact together. Culture shapes the way we see the world. It
impacts how we think, how we act, what we value, how we talk, the
organizations we create, the rituals we hold, the laws we make, how and
what we worship, what we eat, what we wear and what we think of as
beautiful or ugly.
One of the main parts that composed the culture are also subcultures.
A subculture is a smaller culture within a dominant culture that has a way of
life distinguished in some important way from that dominant culture
(Stolley, K;2005: 49).
To study culture we have to stress on several aspects of it such as
cultural values, norms and symbols. The study of these aspects contributes
to our overall understanding of what culture is and how it is created and
passed between generations and how important culture is in everything we
do. We can list the most important of aspects of the culture as following:
a- Values culturally defined ideas about what is important, are
central to culture. Values delineate how a culture should be.
b- Norms constitute the shared rules or expectations specifying
appropriate behaviors in various situations. We need norms to maintain a
stable social order. Norms direct and prohibit behavior. Norms tell us what
we should do and also tell us what we should not do ( Stolley, K; 2005: 46).
c- Symbols are central to our understanding and sharing of culture. A
symbol is something that stands for, represents or signifies something else
in a particular culture. It can represent, ideas, emotions, values, beliefs,
attitudes or events. A symbol can be a gesture, word, object, or even event (
Stolley, K; 2005: 47).
Every culture is composed of both material and nonmaterial
components. Let’s explain these components with few words as following:
a-Material culture includes all the tangible products created by
human interaction. Any physical objects created by humans are part of the
material culture. This includes clothing, books, art, buildings, computer
software, inventions, food, vehicles, tools, and so on.
b-Nonmaterial culture consists of the intangible creations of
human interaction. These exist as our ideas, languages, values, beliefs,
behaviors, and social institutions. Material culture, such as technology, may
change faster than nonmaterial culture. The result may by a cultural lag, in
which a gap occurs as different aspects of culture change at different rates
(Stolley, K; 2005: 41).
But Schein has suggested that the components of culture can be subdivided into three levels as following figure.
Fig.2: Edgar Schein’s three levels of culture. (Middleton, J; 2002:
1st Level: Is the level of Artifacts, which includes everything we
might see, hear or feel. Artifacts would include the physical environment, all
visible behaviors, way people dress, rituals and ceremonies, the technology
2nd Level is that of Espoused values which manifest in the artifacts
of the culture an espoused value that open communication is important may
show itself to the other cultures or to the tourists.
3rd Level that Schein identifies reflects the Basic Underlying
Assumptions that have become so taken for granted that people in the
organization such as presentation of the culture would find it inconceivable
to base their behavior on anything else.
So with other words we can say that the first level or Artifacts are all
material components of the cultures whose we can see and touch and the
Espoused values and Basic Underlying assumptions are non material
component of the culture Albanian culture is one type of culture that could
not be identifying as Western or as Eastern. Albanian culture is the complex
form of Western and Eastern culture. This example is served for seeing into
the Shkodra city. The culture of this city is building in the long period of
time under the perspective and the effect of other cultures and civilization
such as Byzantine (today’s Italian), Slaves (Serbs and Montenegro),
Ottoman (Turks), Austria and Hungary etc. So as we may see that the
culture of Albania society is formed over many different civilizations which
formed a very reach mosaic of sub cultures. This mosaic of cultures is
formed also in Muslim and Christian religion’s cultural issues. Shkodra
became an important trade center in the second half of the 19th century.
Aside from being the center of the vilayet of Shkodra, it was an important
trading center for the entire Balkan Peninsula. A special administration was
established to handle trade, a trade court, and a directorate of postage
services with other countries. ‘Other countries had opened consulates in
Shkodra ever since 1718. Obot and Ulcinj served as ports for Shkodra and
later on Shëngjin (San Giovanni di Medua). The Jesuit seminar and the
Franciscan committee were opened in the 19th century. It was also the main
spot for transporting 'illegal' things through Montenegro and throughout
Eastern Europe. In the 19th century Shkodra was also known as a cultural
center (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shkodra, Accessed on August 16,
2011). Shkodra city is known as the cultural cradle of all historical period of
Albania. It contains in itself not just the material culture such as Rosafa
castle, Pijaca, churches and mosque of different period, old trade center
place etc, but also a very rich non material culture such as the presenting of
different civilizations. It present and transmits the strong identity to the
persons or let say to the tourists who visit it. So as conclusion we can say
that the strong Albanian identity that has been presetting from the Shkodra
city, give opportunity to society to form a glocalization in front of global
4- TOURISM AND ITS DEVELOPMENT IN ALBANIAN:
A perspective view in the contex of culture
Globalization is cultural too, indicated through the growth of global
consumption cultures, media and information flows, migration and
identities. Throughout the latter half of the twentieth century we have seen
the emergence of global brands that carry both cultural and economic
significance. A related form of cultural globalization occurs with tourism.
As well as the physical movement of vast numbers of people each year,
tourism entails the global packaging and selling of culture that has effects
on local cultures, economies and industries. This and other aspects of
globalization can be viewed as either creating new opportunities or creating
threats. Creating opportunities to be in touch and influence with other
country in the many contexts such as culture, social, economical, tourism,
political etc and create threats to the cultural identity, which most of the
time is prejudice as traditional identity or non development identity. ‘The
Globalization is essentially about transnational flows (of people, money,
cultures, goods etc.) across borders, but its effects will always be spatially
located somewhere, and virtual spaces are downloaded and accessed in
particular places (Ray, L ; 2007: 6-7). By using the key elements or features
of globalization we can say that globalization and modernization process at
one country can be formed by the help of communication or information
technology and the flow of people from one country to another. According
to the Dunn and Babones, in terms of accessibility, cost, and velocity, the
hitherto more local political and geographic parameters that structured
social relationships are greatly expanded. Global communication facilities
have the power to move things visible and invisible from one part of the
globe to another whether any nation-state likes it or not. This applies not
only to economic exchange but also to ideas, and these new networks of
communication can create new political groups and alignments’ (Dunn,C;
Babones, S. J ;2006: 96).
Culture was the central focus of what perhaps was the most
successful popular proposal about the process of globalization, that is the
reason why McLuhan’s important and iconic formulation of the ‘global
village’ has been formed. So in the contrast to global village we have
opportunity to present a new form of society and culture by taking as
reference the glocalisation. This presentation can be formed by the help of
developing the tourism.
For Giddens, by contrast, globalization is intrinsically bound up with
modernization. Modernization establishes three critical processes: time–
space distanciation, disembodying and reflexivity, each of which implies
universalizing tendencies that render social relations ever more inclusive.
Complex relationships develop between local activities and interaction
across distances. Political globalization refers to the intensification and
expansion of political interrelations across the globe. These processes raise
an important set of political issues pertaining to the principle of state
sovereignty, the growing impact of intergovernmental organizations, and the
future prospects for regional and global governance. (Steger, B. M; 2003:
77). Albania was one of those states which lived a hermetical form of living.
That means there were no cultural, social, political and economical
exchanges with other societies. After 1990’s, in Albania happened so many
changes with different dimension such as political changes, economical
change and major socio-cultural changes. The reasons of these changes have
been so many factors which till today are the main indicator in the today
society’s changes. One of these factors has been the impact of globalization
and the presentation of Western cultural image to the Albanian society. The
fall of communism and the rise of globalization impact in Albanian society
and culture major changes and influent the Western value by reducing the
traditions one. But how is possible and what were the main reasons that
Globalization have been changing the Albanian culture and what were the
reason that formed a new organization of society? Shortly we can say that
globalization is a wave which has a long time in influencing the change of
the world. And to eliminate the alienation of one society’s culture it must
be need to form a new wave which is called glocalization. To accept
globalization as it is, to give opportunity to all other society members to
keep in touch with Albania culture or to come as tourist in Albania is one of
the most important sides of globalization. A new and more globalized form
of tourism has emerged since the establishment of the pleasure periphery in
the world after 1990’s.
Another important aspect of the recent globalization of tourism is
conceivably the most interesting. This is the postmodernizing
declassification of tourist and non-tourist areas and the accompanying
declassification of cultures. This is most manifest in a decline of the
pleasure peripheries to follow the decline of the seaside resorts. All of the
above history indicates a rapid growth in international tourism in the second
half of the twentieth century. Indeed, international tourism, measured by
arrival from another country, expanded more between 1950 and 1990 in the
world and after 1992’s in Albania. The cultural impact of globalized tourism
is multiple and complex but here can be outlined a few of the key
a- The extent of globalized tourism indicates the extent to which
tourists themselves conceptualize the world as a single place
which is without internal geographical boundaries
b-Globalization exposes tourists to cultural variation confirming the
validity of local cultures and their differences
c- The objects of the tourist gaze are obliged to relativism their
activities, that is, to compare and contrast them to the tastes of
those that sightsee (in certain circumstances this may imply local
cultural revival, if only in simulated form)
d-Tourism extends consumer culture by redefining both human
practices and the physical environment as commodities (Waters,
So these kinds of outlines have been applied in the Albanian tourism
policies. So Albania culture and identity as an unknown and undiscovered
was converted as an open society to all other societies just after 1990’s.The
policies of Albanian politic give opportunity to Albania to be globalize to
present its culture and identity. Also the touristic policies are developing by
increasing every year. So the presentation of a strong identity of Albanian
culture by forming new wave of glocalization will bring a well development
of globalization process to our country.
5- INSTEAD OF CONCLUSION
Albanian culture is one type of culture that could not be identifying
as Western or as Eastern. Albanian culture is the complex form of Western
and Eastern culture. This example is served for seeing into the Shkodra city.
The culture of this city is building in the long period of time under the
perspective and the effect of other cultures and civilization such as
Byzantine (today’s Italian), Slaves (Serbs and Montenegro), Ottoman
(Turks), Austria and Hungary etc. So as we may see that the culture of
Albania society is formed over many different civilizations which formed a
very reach mosaic of sub cultures. This mosaic of cultures is formed also in
Muslim and Christian religion’s cultural issues. Shkodra became an
important trade center in the second half of the 19th century. Aside from
being the center of the vilayet of Shkodra, it was an important trading center
for the entire Balkan Peninsula. Shkodra city is known as the cultural cradle
of all historical period of Albania. It contains in itself not just the material
culture such as Rosafa castle, Pijaca, churches and mosque of different
period, old trade center place etc, but also a very rich non material culture
such as the presenting of different civilizations. It present and transmits the
strong identity to the persons or let say to the tourists who visit it. So as
conclusion we can say that the strong Albanian identity that has been
presetting from the Shkodra city, give opportunity to society to form a
glocalisation in front of global world. This will increase the globalization of
Albania by the main clue which is tourism.
1-MUDIMBE-BOYI, Elisabeth; 2002; History, Identity, Culture and the
Challenge of Globalization; State university of New York
2-TRIGILIA, Carlo; 2002; Economic Sociology, State Market, Society
in Modern Capitalism; Blackwell Publishers
3-Global Challenges and Local Responsibilities, The East Asian
Experience; 2007; Edited by Jang-Sup SHIN; Routlege Study in
Modern World Economy
4-Global and Social Change, Historical and Comparative Perspective;
2006; Edited by Christopher Chase Dunn & Salvatore J.Babones;
Johns Hopkins University Press
5-RAY, Larry; 2007; Globalization and Everyday Life; Routlegde
6-STEGER, Manfred B ; 2003; Globalization Vary Short Introduction,
OXFORD University Press.
7-WATERS, Malcolm ; …; GLOBALIZATION, Second Edition
8-MIDDLETON, John; 2002; Culture; Capstone Publishing
9-STOLLEY, S. Kathy; 2005; The Basic of Sociology; Greenwood
10- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shkodra, Accessed on August 16, 2011
1B9m, Accessed on 16 August 2011
THE PAST, THE PRESENT AND
THE FUTURE OF THE ALBANIAN TOURISM
Dr. ILIR KADUKU
Faculty of Economics and Agro - Business
Agricultural University of Tirana
The issue of tourism is increasingly taking place in media debates during
the recent years, due to the increased number of the visitors, our brothers
from Kosovo and tourists from all over the world. Actually it is created the
full concept that the tourism development should be seen as a goal to
increase its influence in the Albanian economy. I have been trying to collect
data over 10 years and to be in touch with every progress in the field of
Albanian tourism. I agree when you say that tourism is still in our infancy
stages, but although it is talked of a "golden" baby, let me remind you that
it’s a baby born many years ago ... Recently it is talked about the important
role that tourism plays in the economy of the country. In fact, this problem
is discussed by all governments that have come to power after the 90s. But
if you see reality, you are convinced that in most cases it was only
PROPAGANDA. For someone who is in contact with the Albanian tourism
developments, the more difficult question to answer is: Why aren’t we
developing our tourism with an accelerated and perspective system and to
the pace of development why are we the lowest compared with all Eastern
European countries? If I used the metaphor of the train entering in the
proper rails, where the train symbolizes the Albanian tourism and the rails
the proper ways of development, I would say that our current tourism has
begun to join the rails. I say this more to relax myself with optimism and to
show the civilized world that Albania has inexhaustible resources.
Total area 28.748 km2; Population 3.6 million; Over 1
Albanians lives abroad;
II. Toursim and environment.
It is known that Albania is among the countries with severe environmental
problems across Europe, and that Albania ranks among the last countries in
the environmental organizations reports, especially regarding the irreparable
damage to the seaside. Naturally rises the question, where are state
institutions for environmental protection? Before 2001 there existed NEA
National Environment Agency which was indifferent to what was happening
with the sea, (perhaps it didn’t have the competences). But after the year
2001 to give to the environmental issues the importance that they really
deserved, NEA became the Ministry of Environment. But it was surprising
that in this case the Ministry made a blind eye and a deaf ear and didn’t take
any responsibility for the irreparable damage to the coast, although the high
functionaries of this " ecological catastrophe " have had lunch and dinner on
the shores of this seaside and are shareholders of most hotels, villas of the
III. Tourism, national property.
As an intensive participant during the changes of the '90s, I have seen the
salvation of Albania from the economic point of view unequivocally on its
own natural resources, to its geography. An old professor, a friend and a
great man ( Prof. Vladimir Misja ), in a confident moment, told me " Ilir,
remember one thing, tourism is our mine. Tourism is our golden baby ".
Such sentences, spoken in those years represented a political heresy. I have
the impression and belief that this is a national reality. It is known that
tourism is the biggest industry in the world. Its development in our terms
means that there is a huge political, economic, social and historical cost. It is
enough if I remind to the readers that only during the last year Albanians in
the position of the tourists, have spent about 567 million dollars abroad. To
be attentive to the importance of this indicator, we simply mention that this
figure represents 57.6 % of the remittances. On the other hand, it is
important the actual ratio of the income by the services with the export of
goods. Only during the year 2008, tourism generated 11 % more income
than exports, or more precisely 677 million dollars. It's pitiful, but during
the recent years the tendency to spend holidays abroad has increased. This
extra flux to go abroad relates to the lack of comfort of the domestic
tourism. If we add to the realized profits from businesses in the area of
services, the money that Albanians spend abroad, then the approximate
figure obtained would be over a billion dollars. Tourism should not be
understood simply as a separate sector, but its development must first be
closely connected with other sectors such as construction, agriculture,
transport, etc.. We, Albanians have always been original and radical in our
solutions. Once " we rushed to the mountains and hills, to make them fertile
like the fields ": then we proceeded to chrome that broke through the
blockade, with metallurgical and superphosphate plants, while now we
continue with electric trains and air balloons. We have never had been given
the chance to judge " down to earth ", for the present and the future of our
country. And once that the ex - post - communist government, tried to talk "
seriously " for Albanian tourism ( not the Greek one ), for the concepts of
the massive tourism and the elite one, was wrong " by accident " in its
demographic, geographic and regional conception. According to the so called liberal economists, who are " ex – communist " acid residues, the
respect to the perspective policies of tourism varies on that of the Ionian
coast and the " others ". So the anti -national and regional nippy logic of
these philosophers stood in the great fact: the working class and peasant
workers, so called the working mass must be cleaned and washed by the old
fashioned Adriatic. The elite, the enlightened leadership will come by the
With such denigrating provincial policies, nothing else is done but it is still
continued with tales of childhood time, " Get opened Sazan, close Sazan ".
It is now the modern time of Albanian tourism. Nobody will allow that for
the sake of caprices of irresponsible people, to put in flames the greatest
property that we Albanians have: tourism. Millions of Euros are spent for
the master plans of the tourism development and it is unknown the fate of
their implementation. I have enough friends in Ksamil. All know the feats of
the former - governments and their courtiers, about the distribution of false
construction permits in Ksamil. Didn’t you know honored former –
governors, that Ksamil is part of this national development master plan and
is not owned by the political mafia?
Such schemes are nothing, except the Albanian variant of Panteleone and
Sicilian mafia. One of the merits of the " starched band " is that they
founded the bases of the theory of " the burnt earth ", as if they were the
properties of their fathers. We are all witnesses of the telecom privatization
in Albania. These " sons of the wind " tried to privatize up to 15 days before
the elections, unique event in the world economy. I do not want to linger
with the concessions that constitute another chapter. The undeniable fact is
that these hooligans wearing ties not rarely are presented to us as anti Albanians, as dirty servants of their personal interests. Let us refer to the
facts as they are numerous and stubborn. Are these the governors who sold
for " five aspra " the mobile telephony and the Albanian Telecom, which
have systematically robbed the Albanians, the most unique citizens of
Europe? Are those the same who privatized banks, oil, power plants,
different factories and plants? The former government of these starched
thugs made Albanian citizen from the last citizen of Europe to a peon of
foreigners on their own land. Thousands of temporary emigrants will be
converted to permanent emigrants with the lack of desire to turn their head
to their own country. All this has happened as a result of the current
criminal governance strategy.
Do not forget that the national wealth is the most sensitive part of a country
that aspires to democracy. And we Albanians must become braver and
protect our rights. Let’s not kill each other, " why did you see me or why I
saw you ”, but arise and fight for basic democratic rights, such as private
property. Let us fight with all means "even democratic ones" against
gangrenes left to us by the former – clique in power. Do we expect that the
so - called " socialists " to do such a thing? Every Albanian patriot knows
what these monsters and their clique represent. Then we must give them a
solution. The solution is: We must do it on our own.
Then naturally rises the question: Do the state and laws exist that must cut
Gozzilla’s hands who ruined our coast? ... Some say that the state itself was
corrupted, the state of monopoles, which was occupied by mafia ( State
Chapture .). So we are left to nothing, let’s hope that the government of the
" Time for change " will restore our human dignity, and simultaneously
return the seaside to the luxury identities of the Albanian coast?
IV. Tourism and the Program of the Democratic Government.
The successful realization of the project " with clean hands ", is a
revitalizing " oxygen " for Mr. Berisha, to the democratic government and
for the future of Albania. The success is linked to causal way with the
emergency resolution of each of the above links of the chain, which forms
the institutional Calvary of Albania. I mean the relationship between the
public official and his relations with the private sector. The unscrupulous
greed for abuses is the official morality " homos corruptuss " and " homos
administratius " that mystified the criminal government during the transition
period. The leitmotif of the work of the Public Administration Department
near the Council of Ministers in recruiting civil clerks, has been
axonometric " Militant and abusive ". To hold back the galloping access of
this phenomenon it is urgently amended the law on the conflict of interests,
law that the ex - governments abstracted during the years of their own "
The democratic government must ensure that the ethical rules must be
applied and be unique for all public officials and their associates involved in
the public service. Here must not be made exceptions even the cases when
the public officials move " accidentally " or not toward the private sector.
The concept of anti - corruption must pay attention to the abusive practices
of the socialist government, where leaders of the most important state
companies, after having stolen with both hands the state property, open
private activities paralleling with those they have had in the state job. As a
result of these abusive practices of corruption, in the Albanian market have
sprouted dozens of mysterious companies of travel, pharmaceuticals,
architecture, construction, insurance, banks, etc.
It is urgent that the Parliament requested to amend the law and its rigorous
implementation, a law which provides that persons who create private
companies must be screened regarding their criminal record or even
restricting the rights that they may be exposed. At the same time the
shareholders of the private companies must show the real source of income
based on the foundation of the companies. If anyone needs more
information about the way they "were born" many of the mysterious
Albanian companies, I am ready to provide free service.
V. Tourism and Government transparency.
So far the public discussions are more involved in what is called " hardware
" or visible page of tourism: infrastructure and construction of
accommodation units. While less attention has been paid to what constitutes
" software " and that is intangible, i.e.: the service, the people, the behavior
of the hosting community or the hospitality in market economy conditions
and problems associated with it.
I'm glad when I read that it is acknowledged that " It is time to speak
openly, ... it is really true that there has been evidenced an inconsistency
between the statements we make and the concrete work ". But nevertheless I
am not clear why this discrepancy exists and what is the role of the
specialists and the ministry that deal with this key problem of the Albanian
vulnerable economy. If politics and our politicians will continue to be the
regressive part of the development of this country, shall we wait until they
learn to do their duty properly? Would it be better that everyone does his
duty, instead of waiting for solutions from " above "?
It is true that God has given us this “ golden ” baby, but to harvest its gold, a
" master plan " is not sufficient, which is predicted to lay eggs of gold. A
wise Shkodra saying says " With a swallow doesn’t come the spring ". The
fact that we are still in the infancy steps in this field, it shows that
everything must start from the very beginning with a clear strategy for the
tourism development, which I think is still not complete or not totally
transparent! Excuse me if I am wrong but isn’t it the duty of the responsible
institution for the field of tourism with all its components?
Tourism is an industry characterized by an intense involvement of the
workforce. Human resources for this industry are rated as “ raw material “
or are described by experts as the most important factor to be afforded by
this industry over the last decades and ongoing.
But what quality do the human resources offer in the Albanian tourism?
Does it satisfy the current customer requirements and needs, i.e. of the
tourist? I think that despite the innovative efforts, it still remains too much
to be done in this direction.
It is time to assess the motivation of visitors who pay to be satisfied. But
when these tourists pay that amount that may be the same or even higher
than in another country, they expect that the service is just as high, or better.
It is this factor that will determine competitive advantages of our local
tourism, but also between it and the tourism of our competitors.
During the many meetings held by CRTRA except the decision to demolish
illegal buildings, often it is discussed about the future of tourism in Albania.
My idea is that the time has come to have a scientific discussion on the
concept of massive tourism and elite one. I want to express my opinion only
on these two concepts.
First is to be congratulated the fact that at last it is paid attention to the
tourism as one of the most important resources of the economic growth in
Tourism is one of the largest industries in the world and its effects on the
economy of a country are equally great. On the other hand other than the
very large and visible positive effects ( mainly economic ones ) the tourism
is associated with negative effects such as big, such as environmental,
culture damage, social problems etc. All these turn the dream of
development through tourism disappointing, if they are not controlled or
prevented by the right time. Long ago the main branch of our economy has
been agriculture. Finally we are becoming even more conscious of the
importance that tourism can have in the Albanian economy. Being still in
the early stages of awareness on the importance of tourism, this branch has
not yet reached the stage of overestimation, to consider it as "a solution to
all our problems". So we must take care that in macrolevels, to combine
tourism with other branches of the economy to eleminate the dependence
from a single branch.
VI. The massive and elite tourism
Let's look inside the development of the tourism itself in our country. As we
know the current developments in our tourism have been chaotic, without
respecting the proper and no state-controlled laws. However, a positive
factor to note is that these chaotic developments are not spread in alarming
sizes throughout the country but only on a few hot points of it, mainly in
Durres, Vlora and Saranda. This has kept me alive the optimism that even so
far non-development of our tourism has its positive side, because it is easier
to develop something better there where doesn’t exist any form of
development, rather than recreate something good where the bad has given
its effects on the environment and society.
10 years ago our politicians (who surprisingly had the decision-making
about the fortunes of this country in every sector, ignored the opinion of the
experts) : decided to make the division with a knife: the Adriatic coast shall
belong to the masses and the Ionian to the elite!!! Under such a logic it
results that 2 / 3 of our coast to be destined for massive tourism! It also
makes you not be enthusiastic about the decision of the recent demolitions...
At least for the moment we have only a few hotspots. While with this
massive way it exists the tendency only for mass tourism.
Which are the effects of a massive tourism I believe that all those who have
little knowledge about tourism, know them. If you want to do such a thing,
after several years we will need to demolish 100 times more of these that we
are demolishing today. Have you ever thought to ask directly in these areas,
the local residents and investors whether they agree with this kind of
division? When will we begin to think more about the future prospects for
tourism? To determine the future of tourism areas are made detailed studies
and should be taken into account many factors. How can I believe that every
decision is "well studied"? It is time that the only master plan for the
tourism perspective development, doesn’t mold in the drawers of the
Ministry but to fight for its rigorous appliance? My advice is that before
such radical decisions, it should be thought of all the consequences.
Albania is a very small country, and by now is too polluted in many areas.
There should not make decisions for the death of the other untouched areas!
In this case I would be more satisfied if they were left in their primitive
form, as nature made them, and we could turn back to agriculture and not
think of tourism. All the factors (except for the short-term economic factor)
show that Albania should avoid the massive tourism. Such a small country
would not need more than a few years to return to "the successive hell" with
the following consequences behind. We cannot shelter massive tourists,
when you think of the small space, the unspoilt beaches, our culture (we are
generous to a friend, but also say "too much but badly done"). The effects of
the massive tourism in such places unexplored yet, with virgin nature and
unique culture, we read every day in the tourism literature, media, the
experience we have when travelling in these countries. When shall we learn
from these bitter experiences of the others, who need millions of dollars and
years to repair the consequences and improve the image?
I wouldn’t like that the Albanian generosity vanishes beacuse of the
commercialization and turns to a shock and frozen smile as a result of
another side of the medal of tourism, for which we hadn’t warned. I would
not like that pelicans of Karavasta, carp of Shiroka, the koran of Prespa or
other unique beings that we have the luck to have them, disappear from the
influx of tourists masses. Instead I would like the Albanians to have the
pleasure to offer his generosity to the tourists coming to know the culture,
history and our nature.
We don’t need massivity. What we would receive for 2 - 3 years from 100
tourists who belong to the "so-called massivity" (but which later would
drastically decrease), we can get for a much longer time by 10 quality
tourists (not just elite) . If we want to attract these kind of tourists, we must
not become a bad copy of a phenomenon already ugly, but we should enter
the tourism market as unique, as Albanians. This is the only reason why
these tourists would come to us and not to our competitors. We mustn’t
forget that tourism is not only the Adriatic and Ionian, but is also Korab,
Lura, Thethi, the lakes, the castles, the characteristic cities etc. Tourism is
not done only during summer but during the whole round.
This kind of longlasting tourism needs more time to develop, requires more
studies by the specialists of the tourism and the fields that are related to it,
but we will harvest its fruit for a long time, and the coming generations will
be grateful to us that at last we will leave something easier to be developed
later and not chaos and destructions.
VII. The quality of tourism.
Now in Albania you can finds hotels and restaurants built with expensive
materials, marbles and granite, with TVs and air conditioners, bathrooms
with bath etc. But meanwhile the bathroom is not cleaned well, the hotel
may not have water or lights, the shower doesn’t work, you cannot find
anyone to communicate in foreign languages, the service starts to be offered
after half an hour, the prices are higher for foreigners or for the Kosovars,
and when you complain to the owners they say you can go somewhere else.
All these have to do with the culture of service and influence in shaping the
image of the tourism service in Albania.
The one who tries and lives the experiences of the tourist or the client of
these services observes a "feature" of the Albanian tourism: luxury
buildings, but in many cases remain icy, not filled with vitality and warmth
of hospitality, and lose the luxury and elegance because of the offered
service. It must be emphasized that guilty for this are not only the owners
and employees. The latter often have the desire and willingness to do
something nice, but the lack of adequate professional culture to distinguish
which are the requirements and needs of tourists and their priorities.
If we analyze the history of the Albanian tourism industry we will see that
we have very little tradition, taking into account the 40 year history of a
regime which fought the concept of a consumer society, where the offering
of the services of leisure and entertainment was considered foreign and
microbourgeois, where culinary art did not develop because of poverty,
where in the area of services existed only popular restaurants or social food
canteens, and the construction of the hotels in the main cities was made in
the 1970s only when the need for foreign currency deemed necessary.
This explains the low interest of the public opinion on the tourism. Even
though something has begun to move these last ten years, it still remains
under the political propogandas during the tourist season. Still it is not
thought about the advertising sensitizing spots that show the public the
importance of the domestic tourism in our economic development. They
promote civilized behavior and the service at the right level or criticize the
phenomenon of benefit, robbing attempts, the indifference that is being seen
frequently in the services sector in general. These should be financed by the
Albanian government (in cooperation with the relevant NGOs) and to be
broadcasted continuously a few months before the grand opening and during
the tourist season, with the clear slogan "Message of the Albanian
Government" at the end of the spot. This practice is often applied in western
countries for combating negative phenomena, but also to transmit new ideas
for positive development.
VIII. Albanian tourism, professional education and promotion
Since the time that I am watching the development of tourism in Albania, I
have noticed that exhausting efforts have been made to show the
profitability of this gift that nature has bestowed us. If Albania is lacking an
awareness of the public on the importance of tourism, this is mainly because
of the lack of a contemporary level of professional education in the field of
tourism, there are no institutions that offer consulting, statistical data,
studies and project designs on our tourism, seminar events, and training by
foreign experts in this field (I believe you agree with the fact that some
specialists who are qualified or are expected to be qualified again in the
frame of "the swallow"), publications on the perspective tourism
developments in our country (we heard that here are built hundreds of
hotels, but the intention is to make these hotels known by the tourists) etc
etc. So if you are missing all these mentioned above (and many other things
that media and politics are interested to bypass), shouldn’t we think that all
the above mentioned factors, may play the most important role to somehow
fill this gap?
Mustn’t we think that for the moment we have what to show with modesty
and that the promotion is on of the main tasks of these policy makers of this
field, at least if we want to make our future way simpler? Because with the
image of "a country with a fragile economy in the middle of Europe" only
with an aggressive promotion and well studied may be the optimal solution
and what the Albanians and our brothers and friends from all over the world
are looking for.
The fact that it is a "real success" to know what is being done with our
tourism, has to do with little changes that happen in it, or with the
negligence to give it the due importance to the promotion? It can’t be
different when it is not being understood that the internet is becoming the
golden key of tourism in every aspect.
During my stay in Germany in the year 2002, and this time I couldn’t leave
without visiting the most important event of tourism here, the Fair of Keln.
This Fair is one of the most famous in Europe and it is known that the
German market is one of the most attractive for the business of tourism,
because the German tourist, except being a tourist with high income, has the
other advantage of going on vacation more than once a year in different
countries of the world.
Besides the professional interest, the other reason that made me visit this
Fair has been the Albanian representation in it. Before visiting the Fair I
checked the internet if Albania would be represented or ont, but I didn’t find
it. I asked at the Information Center when I entered the Fair, if there was any
section where Albania was represented, but after they checked they told me
that it didn’t have any representation. Being bored I thought that our
"tradition" didn’t exist, because two years ago I barely found a little
Albanian stand somewhere without any representatives in it, but only a few
posters, while the last year I couldn’t find them anywhere .....
So I began to see with what were represented our Balkan and Mediterranean
neighbors. I started to visit the stand of Macedonia that has always been
presented every time I've been in this Fair. It seemed interesting the fact that
Macedonia has always had its stand near the Mediterranean countries!
(which seems to me a very tactically smart solution while there is no any
way out of it in the Mediterranean.). There, to my great surprise, told me
that Albania is represented somewhere, but not in the Mediterranean stands,
even not in those of the Eastern Europe or Balkans but......in the booths of
the Farway Countries!!! (like the countries of Asia, Africa, etc.). The reason
was very "simple": in those stands the Albanian presentation was sponsored
by an NGO organization .....
I waited no longer and hurried to find our stand at the "Farway Countries",
but just like other times for my bad luck I found there only a few posters
instead...... Disappointed I asked the Macedonian who had visited our stand
before to see what our stand offered, with what they were presented this
year, and he showed me some leaflets which had been given to him and that
I had seen them since 3-4 years... In contrast to what I found the first two
years, at our stand was added the "famous" poster of the girl with the red
dress that has turned her back, which for coincidence perfectly symbolized
our tourism in relation to our visitors. So we "accidentally" continued to say
to the visitors: "Sorry, but even this year we are turning you our back ...".
On the other hand as for irony in that poster was written: "Discover (know)
Albania", while those words meant to me the opinion that we should first
discover and know Albania ourselves, because with that presentation we are
making to our country we don’t know it properly ourselves yet... This
presentation not at all dignified (in succession), and the dignified
presentation of our neighbors, made me get upset at the beginning, but later
the revolt converted into a sad taste.
At first I was upset for that meaningless representation of an agency, which
although it is not yet known whether it still exists or is dissolved, practically
operated better than the Association (the legitimate one) of Tourist
Agencies!!! On the other hand I was thinking if it is worthwhile to be
represented in vain, or not appear at all when you do not have what to offer.
Thinking to find the trace of the problem, the logic followed a spiral that led
to the same weak point as well as important to our tourism: to the former main leaders of tourism or in other words, to the former - Ministry of
First of all this Ministry had to be presented itself to such important fairs
like its counterparts. If it is presented itself, it should provide one or more
tourist products. But to create a tourist product, the Ministry should
formulate strategies for the development of the tourism in our country,
should stimulate local and foreign investors to invest in a particular form of
tourism, in accordance with the draft strategy, which should have taken into
consideration our internal economic, social, cultural, demographic and
natural factors. And this is the main problem. So, after a long term strategy
was compiled, where all the factors mentioned above were taken into
account, and the most important, after it is applied, it will be easier to
advertise its products not only by the Ministry of Tourism, but also by the
tourist agencies themselves.
A good and contemporean strategy (though to my opinion - was not
complete), was developed at that time (in the year 2002), with the help of
GTZ, but that was not never applied... At that time, from an interview of the
Minister of Tourism we could know that a new strategy was being drafted.
As mentioned above, not that the previous strategy did not need to be
improved but who guarantees us that the new strategy will not undergo the
fortune of the former one?
There are more that 20 years that we are not giving a specific direction to
our tourism. There are years that we remind of our tourism only some weeks
before the tourist season starts. The experience of the developed countries
shows that for the summer season of this year, the work begins since the
closing of the season of the last year, so around August - September. While
we by November start to think only for the demolition of the illegal
buildings and in January we begin working to develop a new strategy!!! But
when shall we start to rebuild? What will we offer to the vacationers this
summer except some fewer illegal accommodations?! The fact that we think
to develop a new strategy in January makes me think that its application (if
it ever happens) may impact some small effects only next year. I repeat the
question: What has thought the Ministry of Tourism about this year?! Shall
we go again a week before the season starts, to beg to our brothers from
Kosovo to spend their holidays to us, in order not to fail the summer season?
I am sure that with what we offer, they will again answer to us with the
enthusiasm of the last year?!
Like me, there are many others interested ones (Albanian and foreigners),
who want to receive information from this Ministry what has been done,
what is being done, and what is planned to be done in the field of the
Albanian tourism. The invitation of the ex - Minister of Tourism in his
article to the newspaper "Shekulli" for the need to exchange opinions with
the other interested parties to our tourism, was to be congratulated, but first I
think that this exchange of opinions should not be done in the common
media but in a specialized media such as in the internet website of the
Ministry. One other form of communication or information would be at that
time the publication of a periodical paper by this Ministry, but when you
think about the illogical lack of the website, the latter seems a "luxury".
However I repeat that, the invitation for giving opinions on the future of our
tourism, which I consider as an invitation of cooperation with all interested
parties - can be a turning point to our tourism fortunes. It is precisely the
lack of cooperation and knowledge that have left our tourism in such a
I think that together, Albanians and foreigners, interested in our tourism
development, should create an independent Albanian Club Tourism, with
the aim of contributing through articles in media on our tourism problems
and possible ways of solutions. Let us contribute together in building a
modern Albanian and longlasting tourism, and not to be presented any more
at the "Farway Countries", but where we belong to.
In fact, more than a full awareness on the potentials of the tourism in our
country, there is a confusion, an uncertainty, either in the public sector or in
the private one. Nobody is able to say what direction our tourism will take,
who will define these directions, how, and when shall be applied. The
"salvation" from such questions which add confusion, comes with the
answer: "There is a tourism master plan". This they say when they want to
"get rid of" you in the Ministry, even in the comunes with tourism
development potential they say the same, although they don’t know what is
this "master plan" that will come from "those who are in the government ".
The most tragic result of this indifference to our tourism, is that it is still not
been seen as such a potential even by the new generation. This comes
precisely as a result of the lack of public awareness that was mentioned
above. And therefore, Albanian students who have the opportunities to
study abroad prefer far less the tourism branch. So someone who spends
large amounts to be educated abroad, still doesn’t see tourism as a sector
that will take sufficient importance and development, to ensure that student
a source of income to build his life.
But if this guarantee won’t be given by our governors (because they
themselves have no idea what will be done with the tourism), the private
sector should be the one who must do more. Here we do not refer to those
tourist agencies held with contraband visas, or those hotels that formally
kept afloat, but for those serious private entities that have experience in
tourism and will try to change something. It is their duty to try to create a
new generation of managers, because they should look at them the increase
of their profit and the survival from the competition. Of course that they
should require to do this in cooperation with the relevant ministries of
tourism and education.
Even a master plan that won’t be rigorously applies will not solve the
problems of our tourism, even a ministry official who hears for the first time
about the tourism when he is assigned to do such a task. The only solution
to the problems of tourism comes through education with contemporary
Modern tourist today, doesn’t aske any more where he will spend the
holidays, but what he will do when he gets there. Our tourism leaders, must
answer to the first question, as well as to the second. Therefore, to capture
the rhythm of time, it must begin to think immediately about the preparation
of the new generation of future tourism managers.
It exists a very large gap between the demand for such managers andthe
educational structure of the tourism profile. The three high schools that we
have cannot prepare these managers. Even that half-semester of our
universities cannot do this. It is time to think seriously about opening a
University (attaching hectically to the very professional job and with the
genuine profile of the contemporary program completely full and with
objection the professional education for the tourism that is currently
developed by the University “Aleksander Moisiu” in Durres), which will
prepare the best students of these high schools to the level of managers.
Opening such a school is not easy when you think about our conditions and
experience, but if its importance is seriously assessed, the Ministries of
Tourism and Education collaborated with the private sector, and the three
high schools and the existing universities, this solution is not impossible.
And if all parties give their contribution, the patterns or even the experience
may be taken from similar western schools, which are always ready to help
in such cases, when they see a serious engagement from the local party.
Until such a school is opened it must be seen the prompt opportunities (to
precede the close tourist seasons) for the preparation and absorption of new
managers. We think that there are alternatives: The most important is the
one which deals with the absorption of those few students who have done or
are doing such a school in countries with the tourism more developed than
ours. To attract such students in the public or private sector, it should be
taken into consideration that this is not done offering them a job as a
receptionist or ticket seller. Also such students that often may have a richer
background than their potential Albanian bosses themselves, cannot be paid
with a salary of 10 000 lek when meanwhile the most common work they
could find in the West is paid at least 1 000 Euro.
It is known that such amounts are not given by all companies in Albania, so
a solution (especially for those students who have difficulties finding a job
abroad), may be the compensation through the commitment offset by
Albanian companies to local tourism product. If for example a travel agency
undertakes the challenge to "reveal", to include in the tourist package, and
sell the Albanian product, then this product will develop more, which would
bring the increase of the rate of profit, and therefore rewarding the
employees. At the same time it will attract the attention of the foreign tour
operators, and as a result the number of tourists shall be increased. So the
orientation toward domestic product will provide more income and security
for the future, as well as providing more opportunities for such students to
put into practice their knowledge - and this may be a reason for them not to
expect the same salary.
The second alternative is sponsoring the best students of tourism in Albania
to study in a western school. This can be done through cooperation of the
private sector (individually or organized) with the respective schools in the
country. With these students may be bound a contract, in which different
companies can pay a scholarship (the experience shows that it’s not a big
amount for these companies) to these students, while the students must
achieve satisfactory results and turn back to Albania to work for that
company after graduation. The latter is achieved by cooperating with the
authorities that give the permission to stay in the country where the student
is going to study, making this staying permission with the condition to turn
These were just some ideas, but if the interested parties get together with the
concerns and problems as treated above, we should discuss such ideas in
detail through round tables, conferences or seminars on tourism (which
continue to be a rare phenomenon in Albania!), to find the optimal solution,
and to implement it as soon as possible in practice.
Now it's time to seriously think about human resources and culture of
service, before the traditional Albanian hospitality commercializes and
transforms to the culture of negligence, poor service, or extortion of the
customer, facing the irreparable consequences of non-refoulement and flow
of the number of tourists. It is time to understand that we are actually
entreating to be included in the Courtyard of the Great European family;
there we cannot go with these concepts. We must make the comparisons
with the owners of the courtyard, because otherwise they won’t even open
the door of that yard, let alone to enter inside the house.
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IT IN TOURISM AND RESERVATION SYSTEMS
Brilanda Bushati, PhD
Lecturer, University “Luigj Gurakuqi”,
Faculty of Economy, Shkodër, Shqipëri
Fatbardha Molla(Beqiri), PhD
Lecturer, University “Luigj Gurakuqi”,
Faculty of Economy, Shkodër, Shqipëri
Prof. Dr. Arjan Abazi
Lecturer, University of Tirana,
Faculty of Economy, Shqipëri
Recent years in our country, the development of many fields, even that of
tourism began rapid strides. This development is associated with the
construction of highly comfortable accommodation facilities like hotels,
restaurants, travel agencies, etc., many of which are now reaching modern
standards, which are observed in the city of Shkodra.
In their beginnings, these structures were manually, but today out
information technology is widely used which creates tourist facilities in the
area helping in its advertising in many other respects.
Businesses today require more than satisfy customers more than simply
increase their number, for satisfying the customer will serve the firm in the
IT (information technology), which rules the world is rapidly in recent
years, is bringing new opportunities and tourism industry
Realization of this theme serves to inform about the use of the hotel
reservation system "Colosseo" in town who finds Shkodës and use
information technology to the hotel and generally in other similar structures.
From this paper, based on the research, aim to answer questions such as:
• The use of Computer skill helps in these structures work?
• What is the impact of the use of a Web site where their present structure?
• What is the impact of the use of the reservation system?
• How is the use of this system?
• What are the advantages and disadvantages of this system?
In this paper will treat and theoretical elements related to the topic and also
to describe the system of reservation in Hotel "Colosseo", and which we
have chosen as illustrative example of this theme, SWOT analysis, primary
research results and conclusions and recommendations for the case of
The work is concentrated in the city of Shkodra and especially the work of
the aforementioned hotel.
Information Technology and tourism
IT (information technology) is required to return to reality and is being
treated as a source of creating competitive advantages of a business. This
serves as incentive to build models that are flexible to customer focus, his
desires and preferences. Development of systems is a complicated process
of very intensive in terms of time. It has to do with:
1. Defining the requirements of customers as a source of information for the
2. Transformation of these requirements in an information system based on
Businesses today require more than satisfy customers more than simply
increase their number, for satisfying the customer will serve the firm in the
IT (information technology), which rules the world is rapidly in recent
years, is bringing new opportunities and the tourism industry and travel. 11
Koumelis-Monday, August09, 2004
Already, online transactions in the travel industry and tourism are growing
steadily, despite severe economic problems in this area. 12
Tourism is one of the industries most dynamic things in some developed
countries and will continue to grow rapidly in coming years. 13 In 2006 more
than 64 million Americana or 30% of the population uses the Internet to
look for information about destinations or to check prices and skedulimet.
Of these about 42 million trips are booked through the internet with an
increase of 8% compared with 2005, according to the Travel Industry
Association of American. (www.tia.org). In the same period, online travel
sales in Europe grew by 44%, with revenues over $ 14 billion (www.crt.dk).
During 2007 increased by 30% transactions B2C (business to consumer) in
German speaking countries through the Internet. Surveys show that this
growth will come in the coming years. IT (information technology) is where
business transactions take place via telecommunications networks,
especially the Internet.
Trade electronically is the process of buying and selling or exchanging
products, services and information through networkve kompiuterik
including Internet. 14
Internet emerges as the largest channel of distribution of goods, services,
professional and managerial duties. Electronic commerce is changing the
very structure of the economy, market and industry, products and services
and their flow, customer segmentation, values, behavior, the labor market
impacts may be even larger in society and politics and the way how we view
our world and ourselves in it. Travel and tourism are illustrating how IT
(information technology) can change the structure of an industry and create
new opportunities for businesses particularly in B2B2C. For the first time
appear in the Dow Jones B2B2C Interactive database on 27 September 1999
at the International Computergram OrderTrust. 15
Hannes Werthner, Francesco Ricci, Communication of the ACM, December 2004/Vol.
47, No. 12,101-105.
http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/epic/internet/indsibtour.nsf/en/h_qq00102e.html, Tourism Counts:
A Consultation Framework for a National Tourism Strategy,Nov, 05, 2003.
Efraim Turban, Jae Lee, David King and H. Michael Chung. Electronic Commerce: A
Managerial Perspective.Higher Education Press, Pearson Education, 5(2001), 4-5.
TL, Whatever B2B2C Means, One Thing is Clear--It's the Place 2B with e-tailers in peril,
the smart money's on those offering help, Kathleen Pender, Tuesday, April 11,2000.
Before you apply B2B2C, explain: First was the B2B (business-to-business)
Internet companies like Commerce One and ARIBA, then as B2C, were
applied business-to-Consumer companies like Amazon.com, Yahoo or
America Online ; next logical step was C2C, representing the Consumer-toConsumer companies like eBay. Generally, B2B2C, represents business-tobusiness-to-Consumer, and those companies that sell products or services to
the latter companies I sell to consumers via the Internet. In other words,
describe transactions in which a business sells services or products to a
consumer using another business as a broker. However B2B2C way is
ongoing and the time, IT (information technology), and B2B, B2C and C2C
are all classifications of IT (information technology). B2B2C IT
(information technology) has started to become more business model of
choice for many industries, especially tourism.
Information technology in tourism refers to a system based on Internet
business, including tourism and its distribution system in order to realize
Generally speaking, consumers use the Web sites of the tourism industry
to find maps of roads (59%), accommodation (54%), activity programs
(46%), airline fees (45%), restaurants (36%) and calendar of local events
(26%) (Scott's Business Directory, 2002).
In comparison with other sectors of industry, tourism industry has
experienced a great success from the adoption of IT (information
The tourism product in particular has to do with emotional experiences
and is not exactly right as a business. Tourism industry and travel as a
global industry presents such features:
(1) Travel and tourism represent approximately 11% of GDP in the
world by the World Council of Travel and Tourism.
(2) World Tourism Organization predicts one billion international
coming in 2010. Tourism is expected to grow faster than other sectors of the
(3) As an industry umbrella, is associated with many other sectors such
as culture, sport.
http://www.wordspy.com/words/B2B2C.asp, Jessica Seigel, "While Nasdaq Burns, "The
New York Times,
April 23, 2000.
(4) Supply and demand for forming a network along the production and
distribution are based on cooperation.
(5) presents the characteristics of its product eg a bed of unsold
represents the loss in revenue. This risk can be reduced when access to
information is possible.
(6) Tourism provides opportunities for employment. It creates jobs for
young and old, for all lines and levels, in urban and rural areas throughout
Hotel "Colosseo" in Shkodra, as the name suggests, is built by considering
one of the wonders of ancient architecture.
Hotel "Colosseo" offers an excellent combination of high standards,
strategic position downtown and traditional hospitality.
Hotel "Colosseo" is located in the center of the city of Shkodra, very close
to the museum and one of the oldest areas of town. It is located at the
beginning of the so-called street "pedonale", which is one of the most
frequented streets, especially by foreign tourists.
Located near two of the most important buildings of worship in the city,
such as mosques, "Abu Bakr" and had "Franciscan." Near the hotel are also
many financial and economic institutions, as different banks, shopping
centers, Albtelecom, the Office of the City water supply, etc.. Not far from
the hotel there are two very important state institutions, the Municipality
and the Prefecture.
Colosseo hotel clientele is divided into three parts: the hotel's clientele,
which comprises 95% of foreign clients or local businesswoman who
accommodate a maximum of two nights at the hotel. Bar and restaurant
customers who comprise the majority of domestic customers and very little
of the hotel customers. Customers of the conference room who are different
government organizations and NGOs, foreign and domestic.
Reservation System at Colosseo Hotel, functions, benefits and problems
Hotel "Colosseo" is one of those hotels that our city has been recently
started to attend successful information technology to facilitate the process
for employees, to facilitate booking their clients but also to bring to
yourself potential clients by suggesting them to this hotel, making
advertising what this hotel offers but also informing them that this hotel
has bids, prices, cheap rooms, etc..
Having a reservation system, this hotel allows employees to be more
accurate and not have trouble. While earlier reservations were written on
paper, hotel reservations now marked by a modern computerized system
being the most accurate so even safer. This as receptionists can not be
confused if a room is occupied or not, but everything is listed and the
information obtained in myrë direct and very fast without having to
browse entries made which can be made are numerous and confuse. So in
this way avoid the confusion and possible delays because customers need
not wait on the telephone line while workers check all reservations made,
even though the employees do not have their records rifrskojnë
occasionally because it is done automatically by the program but avoid the
confusion as being accurate and precise everything has no reason to be
given the same room two clients.
But also support that this program gives customers is quite considerable.
This is because those who from their homes or wherever they are, they
wanted a website online that they take all the necessary information but
also for hotel rooms that are currently free. This makes it easier for all
reservations made so comfortable by the residence of clients but also has
access easily because it can be done at any time of day or night.
But besides that customers in this way avoid the long queues at the agency
but also the lower cost advantage. The cost is lower after reserving
themselves do not have to pay the agency for this but also avoids the path
you need to do to the agency.
At the same time they see the house prices, so they can choose from there
if you can afford these prices without having to go to ask agencies.
But not everyone has access to the internet and it does that not everyone
can easily find in this system, and not everyone can make good use of the
Internet. Another problem is the fact that many people have no right to
trust the technology, even though they perform their bookings are not quite
sure that everything will go well until the test. In line of this is the fact that
many people may be afraid of using the cards online.
One issue that the carpets would like the problem is that the hotel
"Colosseo" still does not offer the option of booking from the internet.
Customers who need to complete their reservation phone numbers given
for this in the relevant page.
Something that should be mentioned as benefits of using this system is
memorization of data. By computerized any data, also allow their
memorization in order to be used in case of need, like when a client returns
to the hotel. In these cases, employees know which room has kept this
client but also whether there are any special requirements in order to meet
these requirements again without having to ask again, eg when a customer
wants more towels in the room, or wants to bring to room coffee.
Memorization of data also enables employees to have facilities where there
is a group of customers who frequent the hotel for a relatively long time, ie
at this time the hotel is frequented by employees of the Ashta hydropower
plant. For this hotel remembers any data, starting from the number of
workers who have rooms, service schedules, but also bills which are then
paid by the relevant state institutions.
• personalized program
• Ease of reservations, check-in and check-out
• Partial Payments, total subscription (Payments made in parts, all at once
(several days) or in some cases be prepaid for reservations)
• Messages (this system enables the storage of messages to contacts. As
stated above, if a customer has a specific requirement, such like that any
meals, coffee or something else to bring into the room, or to awaken at a
time given or will not be disturbed by anyone during their stay, these
messages are stored by the system and at the right time for pulsed signal
annunciator recepsionistin and thus avoid possible confusion or
• Customer Categories with discount rates
• Definition of payments for specific client
• Automatic loading of the client's financial situation by contact
• Maintains customer identification information
• History relevant client contact and
• Reservation confirmed or not (in the table presenting the rooms, it is
possible to easily identify which rooms are free or not by color. For
example: the color red - the client in the room, Leyla - confirmed
reservation, orange - reservation unconfirmed, white - free room, green - the
client has just been removed and the room still is not able to bring in free.)
• Check-in Check-out
• Partial payment, total, pre-payments (payments made in parts, all at the
same time (several days) or in some cases be prepaid for reservations)
• Messages - stores messages for contacts (this system enables the storage of
messages to contacts. As stated above, if a customer has a special request,
for example wants any meals, coffee or something else to bring into the
room, or I awaken to a set schedule or will not be disturbed by anyone
during their stay, these messages are stored by the system and at the right
time for pulsed recepsionistin annunciator signal and so avoid possible
confusion or forgetfulness.)
• Rooms outside use (if a room has something problem, eg a shelf break, a
broken faucet, etc., appear in the table where the rooms, this room gets blue,
which means that even though the room is free it can not be reserved)
Statistics and Reports
• State of the hotel (in this way, since everything is recorded, it is easier and
less time will determine the condition of the hotel, the room is occupied or
not and what is their condition)
• All reservations made (there are also marked all reservations made)
• History of disposal rooms (all rooms disposal then blue, have listed the
reasons why are in such a state. Thus has recepsionisti easier to justify why
no free rooms if not available)
• History of contact and the respective client (By computerized any
information, facilitate the memorization of them so that they can be used if
necessary, like when a client returns to the hotel. In these cases, employees
know which room has keep the client but also whether there are any special
requirements in order to meet these requirements again without having to
ask again, eg when a customer wants more towels in the room, or wants to
bring coffee to the room.)
• A detailed view of the space time action (all actions taken are stored, so
for every occasion, the hotel has detailed every move that is done and ready
to face at any moment)
¬ Advantages in communication.
¬ Generally no cost reduction
¬ The time it takes is shorter
¬ There is greater flexibility
¬ Provides customer services and
¬ Advertising is more effective
¬ Ease of Use
¬ Convenience of booking from
¬ memorizing data
¬ Contact with prices prior
¬ Information Technology is
used every day and more
¬ The Internet has spread even
wider across the country
¬ Various private companies
have the opportunity to provide
quality and economical Internet at
¬ Cellphone companies offer
multiple offers for Internet use
¬ Each day the number of
¬ Banks provide more and more
likely to use the cards on-line
¬ Having such a system creates
differentiation for those
businesses that use
¬ Not everyone has access to the
¬ Not everyone can use the
¬ Not all physical afford to have
internet at places where
¬ There is no legal framework
that supported the development
¬ There may be misunderstandings of ICT for enhancing
in communication with customers
¬ Use of on-line card is not
¬ Many consider structure as a
superfluous and the unnecessary
expense to their business, without
being aware of the benefits of this
In order to realize this study aiming at meeting these objectives we used
primary research that we conducted by distributing questionnaires to the 50
clients 50 different hotel "Colosseo" in the city of Shkodra. These 50 clients
who responded to questionnaires used during part of a simple random
selection among customers who have made advance reservations at this
hotel. The distribution of these questionnaires was conducted during the
entire summer and was distributed to 20 clients and 30 Albanian foreign
clients. While I have used secondary sources such as literature and resources
from the internet and especially interview conversations with employees and
managers of the hotel staff.
•Tab1. Are you satisfied with the use of information technology that uses
There are some Bad
•Tab.2 Do you think that this hotel should also enable the reservation
via the Internet and not just by phone?
•Tab.3 Since you have booked your house, does it affect your safety in
that when you come, you will find free room according to your
requirements although hotels may be overflowing?
Yes, I was quiet
But, but I had
Not affected, the
because whenever that
more confidence in same would be.
arrives at the hotel, my
the seriousness of
room can not be
caught by someone
who can go before me.
•Tab.4 Do you think that the booking system is a plus for tourism in
It’s a very
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1. The most widespread in terms of presentation of the hotel "Colosseo" of
his clients is through tourist agencies, but almost equally affected even
personal acquaintances, brochures and prior knowledge of the hotel's
official website. While few of them have found casually browse the Internet
2. A considerable, more than half of customers say they are very satisfied
with the use of information technology that possess the Hotel Colosseo.
Nearly half think that is pleasing enough, and only 5% think it has some
shortcomings. But none of them thinks he is weak.
3. The fact that the hotel uses information system by which clients are
presented with, or has been influential element they choose as a place to stay
for 45% of respondents, while some of them has been an important element
influencing the others has helped convince more choice. But none of them
thinks that it has affected.
4. With regard to the opinion that this hotel should also enable the
reservation via the Internet and not just by telephone, 75% were surprisingly
positive and negative 20%, while for 5% it does not matter.
5. Most respondents said that because they booked their homes has made
them to be quiet because whenever you arrive at the hotel, their rooms can
not be caught by someone else, while only 30% expressed uncertainty.
6. About 80% of respondents think that is a booking system is a very
important element for tourism in Albania, while 20% say the uncertainty
over the impact but nobody says it has no influence or impact is negligible.
7. For the achievements of tourism development in the country should be
sensitized managers to the introduction of information technologies in their
8. Special training should be enabled to realize the effective use of this
9. Reservation Systems pashlyeshën have a role in facilitating the work of
employees of these structures, but so worth clients to invest in having it.
10. Web sites are an element that affects many in the advertising business
should therefore be owned by any business srtukturë.
11. However, should exploit the fact that the growth of Internet use in bulk
12. Introduction to information technology should be made to children in
13. Measures need to be educated that the use of computerized sys is not
only reliable but brings much convenience.
•Bushati, B.PhD, 2011 “Përdorimi i TI (Teknologjia e Informacionit)
sjell oportunitete të reja për zhvillimin e turizmit”, Shkodër.
•Chen Guogui, Hou Weihua and Wang Yanzhang, the development and
countermeasures research of Chinese tourism TI (teknologjia e
informacionit), Academy Journal of Dalian University of
•Godbey, G. 1990 “Leisure in your Life 3rd edition”, Venture
Publishing, New York.
•Hannes Werthner, Francesco Ricci, Communication of the ACM,
December 2004/Vol. 47, No. 12,101-105.
THE ROLE OF CROSS-BORDER MANAGEMENT AND ITS
IMPACT ON REGIONAL TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE
AREAS OF ACCURSED MOUNTAINS (UES)
- THE ROLE OF THE KOSOVAR INSTITUTIONS-
Msc. Shqiponja Nallbani, Ass. 17
Sustainable tourism is not only the responsibility of state institutions,
but of all stakeholders and individuals who are actively or passively
involved in these processes. Given that the development strategy on the
basis of tourism sustainability requires coordination and multifaceted
commitment, intention to increase managerial efficiency in specific cross
border areas, the heterogeneous phenomenon is the fact that on one side it
adds governmental duties while on the other side tourism economy becomes
profitable. Relying on the rich natural resources of the western region of
Kosova, this paper aims at providing some managerial models that claim to
help and stimulate the development of mountain tourism of Accursed
Mountains (UES). Therefore, the proposal of specific methods that are
applied on similar management in the region and beyond, we believe that
this will encourage an effective administration of this border region in
general, making tourism the main backer of the regional economy of the
three states involved in the area of the Accursed Mountains (UES).
17The author are teachers at the Faculty of Applied Science in Business-Peja, University of Prishtina
Key words: natural resources, sustainable development, mountain tourism,
environment, economy, border management.
For several years regional development in our country was not
considered as an integral part of socio-economical development. Due to
domination of many social-political factors, the essence of regional
development was marginalized and analyzed only as a separate and
unimportant aspect of the general development. The fact that such a
development in the regional and spatial aspect was continuously ignored
which reflected on the regional development mechanisms to be neutral.
Now rapid development of undeveloped areas is determined as the primary
objective to necessarily distribute resources and invectives as required. The
main objectives of regional development were defined in general for years
and now they are repeated. Policies of such a development and its forms
should manage to accelerate the development of particular undeveloped
areas. This approach has inevitably led to a deeper identification of
problems and creation of methods and models for a regional and structural
Main reasons for places to engage in this field are huge and under
the determined regional diversities which not only encourage economicaltourism growth, but also prevent the phenomenon of migration process. It is
known that even today big and important strategic areas remain uninhabited
and with unexploited resources. At the same time inhabited centers are
distinguished with a maximum growth of both population and economy,
which is leading to negative consequences in the economical, social, spatial
and ecological scope. Role of government in new regional policies should
reflect by eliminating and mitigating limits which face unprivileged areas.
This applies especially to support areas with development problems through
investments and to incent flow of capital to be used to remove structural
defects. In order to support this process, state should be efficient and
permanently active for a longer period of time.
Complexity of regional problems, in parallel with the necessity for
tourism development now have resulted with a new social approach with the
aim to achieve the necessary development level to create a new concept of
regional development. In this term, main objective of the action strategy
should be focused in showing new institutional regulations on the basis of
all previous experiences, but also with the use of new ones which are built
according to the logic of sustainable development. Current trends of
regional development have shown that improper regional development is
not only the result of bad implementation of regional development policies,
but also of lack of systematic and institutional mechanisms. Great regional
differences show that municipalities close to Accursed Mountains
necessarily need a document which deals with identification of ways to
achieve the main objectives in order to stimulate balanced regional transborder development. In achieving this objective the following should be
included separately: Increase of regional competition; Decrease of regional
inequality and poverty; Creation of institutional and regional infrastructure
to implement tourism activities.
Management action strategy in the area of Accursed Mountains
Considering that the Republic of Kosovo together with the Republic
of Montenegro and the Republic of Albania have already started to compile
a document on research of tourism capacities, summarized in the Project
called “Dukagjini and Rugova valley access action program” 18, the process
should be operational in three stages:
1)Setting the development levels– in classification and typology term of
cooperation between countries which gravitate in the area of
Accursed Mountains in order to estimate the development
possibilities of tourism;
2)Setting development policies to incent regional development, and
3)Policies of Institutional development.
Execution of such a strategy and documents is important for the
Republic of Kosovo to orient towards the European Union. This orientation
not only would show a clear and proofed pro European position, but also it
Project “Dukagjini and Rugova valley access action program” , a document about
researches of tourism capacities Peja 2011
will prove that there are real regional cooperation and development
strategies which take into consideration the potentials of regional
development being in compliance with European standards.
Crucial principles of the regional development strategy in the
area of Accursed Mountains
The abovementioned strategy and document aiming at developing
cooperation and regional development in the area of Accursed Mountains,
firstly it should be based in the main principle that every success of the
regional development policy is reflected with:
Partnership – Partnership between local communities and partner
institutions from the private sector;
Subventions – gradual territorial decentralization, transfer of state
responsibilities to lower levels (local municipalities)
Compliance – activities being in compliance with the ministry and EC
Oriented program- a consolidated strategic and political one, and
other development strategies;
Support and evaluation of results – creation of systems to stimulate a
balanced regional development (permanent fund resources), monitor
and evaluation of results.
Increase of regional competition and reduction of regional
It is considered that the objectives of the three participating countries
in the agreement should be in compliance with the purpose for significant
development by providing the best standard for their citizens. In order to
achieve this goal these countries should focus their economic development
strategies in increasing regional competition, reducing unemployment and
poverty. Only the increase of regional competition in the future would
impact in the increase of national incomes. To achieve this it is necessary to
successfully implement the transition process, which should cause a
potential human, material and natural regional development, thus impacting
on the economy of these countries to be more attractive for a more rapid
development of the local private sector and a rapid flow of foreign capital.
The main objective of these countries should be creation of more favorable
market conditions for direct foreign investments. The strong focus of the
three countries towards the European Commission should require
“functioning of a sustainable market system’ and ‘the capacity to face the
competition pressure for EC’ (Copenhagen criteria), in the sense of creating
the most competitive economy in the world based on knowledge and
increase of sustainable economy with more working places and greater
social cohesion: (purposes of Lisbon process). 19
It is known that regional inequalities in development levels and in
the countries signing the agreement are quite evident, whereas in the
Republic of Kosovo it is increasing each year. Implementation and
successful management of this agreement would result with decrease of
poverty, considering also the development of transition process. Moreover,
unfavorable economical systems and social-economical transition process
should be treated because they have led to deterioration of traditional
backward parameters in the term of economical and tourism development
and also decline of industrial zones which serves to the increase of
Current income trends in tourism
The purpose of this regional cooperation above all is development of
tourism with the focus on increase of tourism capital through best quantity
offers ( best use of the existing sources and construction of new and modern
housing facilities, and different ones) and quality tourism factors (further
development of different kinds of tourism by selective promotion of natural
anthropogenic and cultural phenomenon)which would for sure lead to
greater regional competition in internal and external European market.
Presence of tourism trends which cannot be used in closed markets,
unfinished privatization and reconstruction of capacities are considered as
weakness in a small part of tourism as a sector of economical activity.
Without hesitation the aim should be based in the reduction of local visitors
and the increase tendency should be focused to foreign visitors, due to high
dependency on foreign visitors to secure much higher incomes. We have to
be specific also on the side issues dealing with storage capacity and
unimportant investments which should be reduced. In addition, we have to
mention the weaknesses related to internationals, that is improve of
information, improve of tourism activities in the regional level, etc.
Great impact that the tourism sector reflects in regional development
is the reasons for this sector to be considered of benefit in the future for all
participating countries. Characteristic of tourism is that it provides
employment and increase of new working places. Tourism as an economical
activity in these places not only has a significant importance in collecting
national incomes, but also it has the positive impact in payment balance
sheets. This collects money in the state budget and encourages investments.
Tourism could encourage the development of undeveloped areas beyond the
national aid mechanisms; it increases awareness of local governing on the
potential of tourism to achieve economical aims (courses of foreign
languages, catering, local management, and training guides) in small
businesses and investments in infrastructure in areas with tourism potentials.
Main action objectives for the development of regional
cooperation and tourism economy
The main objectives of regional development and tourism
development are formulated on the basis of the Tourism Development
Strategy of countries. For an action with multidimensional profit results
could not be encouraging. Therefore, related to the implementation of
strategic documents for regional development in the areas of Accursed
Mountains, we consider that there should be four main orientations for
strategic development to be analyzed, compiled and implemented as
Development of international tourism by stimulating economical
growth, employment and life standard
Creating a positive international image through tourism;
Providing and ensuring long-term protection of natural and cultural
resources through sustainable development of tourism
Identification and creation of new regional tourism products by
fulfilling international standards mainly by protecting costumer
rights in tourism, in compliance with European practices.
In order to achieve these aims and objectives activities should be
oriented towards creating an efficient management system with the
assistance of ‘destination management organizations’; creating necessary
tools to impact on development, increasing tourism competition;
formulating development programs for tourism in regional and local level,
especially in protected areas to improve organization, management and to
stimulate tourism development; development of a program for tourism
statistics which should be clear and a monitoring system to monitor the
impact of tourism in regional economies; creating a proper organization for
tourism development as a part of institutional organization of the system to
provide incentives for tourism investments and foreign investors, by
improving tourism infrastructure and by creating control systems for the
quality of tourism activities.
Policies, measures and activities on implementing strategic tasks
Gaining several effects from tourism could be achieved only through
the compilation of policies and objectives in fields that have a direct impact
in the development of this activity. Development objectives in special fields
should be set by referring to documents and policies related to:
infrastructure and transport in the tourism region and tourism product in the
area. Moreover, we have to consider also human resources and labor market,
relation with other sectors, marketing system for national tourism,
organization, direction and stimulation of tourism development according to
tourism development strategies of the respective Republics. It would be
worth that until 2015 to set nine main products of tourism which could
develop and commercialize the market. We have to move towards city
tourism, round-trips, business + mini-tourism, health tourism, mountains
and lakes, occurrences, rural tourism and of special interest. Investment in
tourism products and in the region would contribute in the development of
tourism in the entire region. The elements below are included in competitive
programs: touristic companies and competitive companies-this refers to size
structure and market conditions, and the field of storage capacity,
development and mutual cooperation between companies and the public
sector, development of legal regulations, and so on; The characteristics of
demand, motivation, the socio-economical level, attracting and protection of
costumer, touristic destinations, etc.; Sector support which provide a
relation with additional activities such as facilities in the tourism market,
travel agents, accommodation facilities, food and drinks, attraction, thus
developing a network of local manufacturers, and so on; Production factors
related to infrastructure, technology, financial and human resources,
researches and innovations and so on.
Investments in infrastructure not only can revive the existing tourism
offer, but they can for sure stimulate the private sector to represent the
application of environment standards in touristic destinations, being an
active relation between the public and private sector and to enable the state
government to improve the system of commercializing the country. The
investment policy in the tourism sector should e oriented towards:
1) Reconstruction and improve of quality of existing tourism facilities
(settling market, implementation of categorization criteria). This
includes not only catering facilities in big urbanized communities,
but also a number of additional accommodation facilities of the
private sector, or of the state property, and other traditional
destinations which have not been properly used yet due to bad
conditions and which have not fulfilled the modern standards. It
should be pointed out in particular that rehabilitation of the existing
housing in the transition process should be given priority for
investments with new projects ("Greenfield");
2) The new development provides warehousing capacity, according to
sustainable development concept, which is related to creating new
tourism products or bigger projects that serve to open new unknown
zones which were not discovered before/ and their valorization from
less important to valuable locations (national parks, natural parks,
archeological parks, industrial compounds, rural heritage, forest,
3) Large projects that involve urban rehabilitation in order to perform
an effective evaluation about the possibilities that tourism has
threatened industrialism in urban zone. 20
Krasniqi Dr.& Ukaj F, Menaxhimi i organizatave dhe destinacioneve në turizëm,
(Management of organization and tourism destinations). Prishtina 2010, pg. 45
Cross border cooperation in area of tourism between the boundary
zones of Bjeshket e Nemuna (Cursed Mountains)- a theoretical
It is obvious and widely known that actual tourist destinations are
under continuous competitive pressure from the new markets that are
increasingly rising. The area noted here is set in a suburban area of tourism.
The equality of markets occurs rapidly if a strategy is into place which
manages to clearly identify the appetite of the tourist for new products. It is
characteristic that in Mediterranean area there are not plenty of tourist
locations there is a need to establish additional new destinations in order to
open the doors for tourists and multinational companies, including the
international operators. In these circumstances, if a firm strategy is used, and
a proper cooperation in tourism development takes place firstly in regional
level shall develop the tourism, will encourage innovations and boost the
productivity. This has become a conclusion and widely known fact that new
services and goods arise if conditions are set to travel in certain destinations
through the cooperation of two or more parties aiming to fulfill needs of the
tourists with the goal of making this journey efficient and effective. This
way of cooperation can contribute in sustainable development of tourism
and increasing of competencies in terms of tourist operators and creating a
competition amongst main partners in the region by not leaving aside the
effectiveness of environment protection. The structure of international
tourism shows that the managerial strategies are essential to form a
sustainable development of tourism. In this context the majority of scholars
argue that traditional tourist destinations are more capable to attract massive
forms of tourism. This aims to involve industrial sector in tourist activities
without forgetting perseveration and protection of environment.
Improvement of tourist infrastructure aiming to attract a new category of
tourists it is something that every single country is capable to establish. This
requires cooperation between local governments in form of joint
entrepreneurships by setting up projects amongst countries in the region
surrounded by Cursed Mountains (Bjeshket e Nemuna) by involving
cooperation of private companies based on agreements made by
governments. It is believed that cooperation in development of marketing
strategies, marketing planning, implementation and control can lead to a
mutual interest not only for countries included in cooperation, but for
tourists and other stakeholders within the tourism sector. It is apparent that
cooperation in area of tourist marketing between the countries can be
achieved in various manners. Especially in tourism, marketing is complex
process which includes long terms strategic and tactical plans. Within this
cooperation marketing more than one participant may benefit because
individuals, groups, companies, institutions and organization may join and
establish connection aiming to generate maximal profit and increase the
participation, efficiency and effectiveness. The cooperative marketing can
be implemented in several ways and various levels. The conventional
strategy based on mix elements (i.e products, locations, prices and
promotion) 21. Instruments of cooperative marketing can increase profit,
reduction of weaknesses, enhancement of authority of countries in terms of
tourist operators and it results in opening new opportunities for further
cooperation. In micro level, strategies include cooperation by creating a
“joint force” which means “ a situation, where two or more activities,
processes fulfill each other which will work in joint effectiveness. 22
Cooperation – a need to create penetrating strategies
Local representatives of tourism sectors need to propose several
cooperative strategies which need to be taken into account within the
concept of market penetration. Most of participants admit and agree that
municipalities belonging to the region of Cursed Mountains can cooperate
to improve the current tourism products. As a part of strategy it is necessary
to analyze and implement three main approaches. Firstly, countries can
encourage the current visitors to endure their stay and to purchase as more
goods as possible. Secondly, through inter municipal cooperation to attract
tourists that want to visit competitive destinations. Thirdly, to convince
potential tourists who have been once in these locations to make such visits
again in the future. In order to meet these approaches 4 cooperative
activities are proposed as following:
In order to attract more tourists, management of joint promotional
campaigns which would be less expensive if are made in joint
efforts. For instance, participants are engaged in working together to
Stefan J. Page., Turism Management, Butlerworth / Heinemann, London 2003, fq. 102
Krasniqi Dr.& Ukaj F, Menaxhimi i organizatave dhe destinacioneve në turizëm,
(Management of organization and tourism destinations). Prishtina 2010, pg. 45
promote a magazine with largest tourist destinations. Also, they may
benefit out of this events in world market as well as an opportunity
to make joint travel in Kosovo, Monte Negro and Albania. Jointly
these municipalities can expand the participation which would very
costly if performed individually.
Elimination of all tourist tariffs that desire to visit these countries at
the same time. Participants involved in drafting strategies need to
agree that they need to invest in air and in transport for tourists.
A special importance needs to be paid when setting special tariffs for
restaurants, shelters (hostels), etc. which will be provided in a
particular period during summer season for tourists, especially for
those that at least once have visited the destination and has planned
to make visits in the coming year.
Publication of brochures, leaflets, flyers, maps that show historical,
cultural and natyral destinations as well as tourist structures (such as
hotels, restaurants, resorts, fun and entertainment spots, etc).
Creating a joint website which contains information about addresses,
prices and all other relevant information about hotels, tourist
agencies, museums, festivals, various important tourist attractions,
religious monuments and tourist operators. Provision of contact
numbers for booking and reservation and provision of contact details
of relevant tourist organizations and non governmental organization
which need to be available in different languages.
Strategic and tourist development of countries in the region that
surround the area of Cursed Mountains is considered a firm and possible
establishment in creating a joint local economic development especially in
rural zones. In this way, the municipalities and central governments itself of
the respective countries should stimulate balanced economic, natural and
cultural development by revitalizing historical sours for tourism purposes
and simultaneously improving living conditions of the rural population. In
order to develop and implement strategic documents for development and in
a tourist industry there has to be an establishment for a systematic action.
Such development strategy in these circumstances and in these locations
need to be determined and detailed in master documents which further will
stipulate balanced documentation on regional tourism development. Here
additionally need to be taken into account plans for local tourism
development, strategies for city development of those belonging near to
Cursed Mountains area which need to be part of national strategies.
Regional cooperation strategy along with tourism development
above all has to be ensured that proper analysis and reviews are made for
potential tourist locations and destinations. This than will determine the
vision of development and strategic objectives for developing tourist
activities and lastly measures need to be determined in systematical
approach in order to achieve this vision. Additionally, these documents will
help key agents of tourism development, particularly the local level when
drafting their own local strategies, marketing plans and other documents for
local tourism. The result shall be an effective usage and proper management
of tourism potential.
The action methodology of this strategy is based on the principle
“from bottom to top”, which means that local internal players have the main
role in enhancing the tourism development and in this way will have an
effective approach about the problems of local development. By attending in
series of seminars and meetings with tourism participants aiming to analyze
the current situation in area of tourism, evident problems and dynamic plan
for tourism development with specific measures in long term and short term
The strategy of tourism in the noted zones is a result of a team work
which derived from an already taken political decision and out of the
discussion made by competent personnel of the municipalities located in the
area of Cursed Mountains. This paperwork aims to provide a part of the
project to the team that will develop the strategy, particularly in the sphere
of marketing and management. Also a series of modalities have been
provided about the ways and methods of cooperation between the local
players aiming to develop tourism. Within these proposals there are specific
data provided, particularly for tourist association in cities and
municipalities, employees of the local and regional government including
the businesses involved in various tourist activities.
Furthermore this paper presented a launch point for the relevant
players which enables them to measure the progress of tourism and
economic development by identifying which steps need to be undertaken at
a later stage of development. Founding of a tourism strategy between three
countries is considered a continuous process therefore it is mandatory for all
of those responsible for implementation to continuously abide with the
timetable and the review of the strategy in order to meet the conditions set.
1. Buell P. & HeleyV. Handbook of Modern Marketing, New York
2. Bakic O., Marketing u turizmu., Univerzitet Singidunum, 2010
3. Kaspar C., Einfuhrung in das touristtiche Management, Bern 1990
4. Krasniqi Dr.& Ukaj F, Menaxhimi i organizatave dhe
destinacioneve në turizëm, Prishtinë 2010
5. Stefan J. Page., Turism Management, Butlerworth / Heinemann,
6. Dokumenti rreth hulumtimit të kapaciteteve turistike – Projekti
Dukagjini and Rugova valley access action program / Peja 2011
“TOURISM AS A RESPONSIBILITY
FOR GROWING ALBANIAN ECONOMY”
Rovena TROPLINI MSc
Adela ÇAFULI MSc
Tourism is considering an important contributor for the development
of many countries. Our attention to this sector should be higher. The paper
aims to evidence how recent developments in tourism sector have affected
the economy of Albania. We are going to mention some important
economic indicator as Tourism’s contribution to GDP (economic growth),
employment and creating opportunities for new businesses. We base on data
provided by the World Trade and Travel Council offers about the economic
impact of tourism in different fields of economy, including also an overview
on the number of tourists visiting Albania in the recent years, on their origin
and on the amount of revenues.
The second part of the paper emphasizes the importance of EU’s
projects to help the tourism sector in Albania. The EU faces brought many
benefits of impact to Albania, by improving the access to the European
policies and funds. The tourism sector is one of the fast growing industries
in the country and it has strongly benefits from the EU’s projects, making
Albania, so far, one of the main destinations to discover. Increased attention
by well management of these projects and investments in this sector, will
make that tourism will always come in increasing competition with other
neighboring countries and contributing so to the economic development of
KEY WORDS: tourism impact, economy development, WTTC, European
In many countries the activity of tourism is considered most
important than production regarding to the economic aspect and social as
well. The tourism is an excellent potential being a catalyst for the economic
growth and for this it is a key sector in macroeconomic level. Before the
democratic changes of 1990 the former communist regime did not allow the
tourism industry in Albania to become established. While the country has a
tradition of domestic visitation, its venture into international tourism has
only been possible since the fall of communist regime in 1991. After many
years of isolation, Albania is now changing rapidly toward a free market
economy, offering many opportunities to become a new tourist destination.
In many economies, the travel and tourism sector has for some time been
recognized as a major area of activity which both draw upon the resources
of those economies and affect their nature and development. Additionally,
governments have increasingly considered it appropriate to use tourism as a
subject or agent of macroeconomic policies. Tourism often has a high
involvement in policies related to employment levels or the balance of
payments, whose significance in modern macroeconomic management is
high. 23 The contribution of tourism sector is going to be significant,
especially the share of international tourism revenue to GDP.
Albania Tourism is part of the Tourism Development Strategy
(TDS) 24, showed that Albania could use its own resources to the interest of
tourism much more than it has actually done. The TDS also covers a longterm period until 2012. The main macro-economic objectives for tourism
development are thus to:
•generate jobs and income;
•accelerate the economic and social development throughout the
•improve the living conditions in Albania;
The Impact of Tourism Sector in the Economy of Albania, Esmeralda URUÇI, Albana BORIÇI
TDS describes the strategic concept of tourism development by giving the strategic directions and
the development of tourist products so that Albania would become a future tourist destination in the
international tourist market for attracting the foreign tourists.
•initiate economic activities;
•create a positive image of the country internationally as tourism
•increase the revenue of foreign currency and the tax income for the
•develop sustainable and environmentally friendly tourism.
The following vision shows the expected outcome from tourism in
Albania. It has been oriented towards the end of 2012, in order to bring to
the present time the expected results, thus expressing the achievement of the
objectives outlined in the strategy.
The tourism sector has strongly benefited from the EU integration,
making Albania, so far one of the main destinations to be discovered.
Albania has to do a lot of things in order to be part of EU, a lot of reforms in
all the fields and especially in tourism, because it has good resources to
develop it. There have been some preoccupation with the sector of tourism
in Albania, and there is awareness of the important role that tourism plays in
job creation, in the increase of income per inhabitant and, in many regions,
in the development of infra-structures, skilled labor and economic
Irrespective of its diverse impacts we focus on tourism because we
are convinced it has a significant influence not only on the institutions,
people and facilities that are engaged in tourism activities but also on the
local host communities. We are more particularly interested in tourism key
positive characteristics, which include the following:
• Tourism is a labour intensive industry, which generates employment
opportunities at semi-skilled, technical and managerial levels. This
is a very important aspect as most of the labour force in Albania is
• Tourism consists of predominantly small-scale businesses, in spite of
the fact that there has been increasing investment and involvement
in the sector by multinationals and local medium size and some bigsize companies.
• Tourism is a relatively decentralized industry that is highly capable
of diversifying regional economies, and hence is more suitable in
affording the region equitable development.
• Tourism is a relatively less-pollutant industry, which if properly
managed, can enhance the conservation and promotion of our
natural and cultural heritage.
• Tourism is an important vehicle for promoting cultural exchanges
that enhance international understanding and goodwill among the
diverse peoples of the world.
• Inherently, tourism activities act as catalysts for the development of
other sectors of the economy – i.e. tourism provide strong forward
and backward linkages, and is therefore conducive in inducing
macroeconomic incentives and motivations for development in the
2. THE IMPACT OF TOURISM IN THE ECONOMY OF ALBANIA
Travel and tourism is likely to figure in all aspects of GDP. Most
expenditure by tourists would be regarded as consumption spending (C), if
it is for domestic tourism or for the home-provided elements of an
international trip. Form the other side tourism receipts by businesses are
transformed into payments for factors of production – rent, wages, interest
and profits – which swell income (Y) and provide consumption tax and
income tax revenue (T) to governments 25. Governments may stimulate
development of a tourism industry through grants and loans, and by
undertaking their own fixed investment (G); if the capital required is
obtained from capital markets by government or private businesses, there is
a direct increase in (I) investment.
Also expenditures by businesses on buildings, plant, and equipment and
so on, to provide tourism services, are part of the GDP investment (I)
component, together with similar government expenditures, especially on
infrastructure. When a country sells its transportation or tourism services to
The Impact of Tourism Sector in the Economy of Albania, Esmeralda URUÇI, Albana BORIÇI
international tourists from elsewhere, this is obviously considered export
(Ex) activity for this country, while the contrary occurs when its residents
buy transportation or tourism services provided by other countries. The later
becomes part this country’s imports. So the outbound tourists take
expenditure out of an economy which is equivalent with an import (M), but
the method of funding trips may put aside money towards the trip for some
time, either in advance or by credit installments afterwards.
In the short term this may represent increased savings (S), and less
consumption of other items
We are referring to the data from the MTCYS 26, shows that the
number of foreign tourists visiting Albania has increased in recent years, but
tourism officials say the country could accommodate far more. Calculation
of number of foreign tourists visiting Albania is done by identifying nights
they have spent in Albanian hotels, according to tourism officials.
Official data published, reveal that the total number of tourists
visiting Albania was 2 million 990 thousand visitors entered during the
period January- August of 2011 of which 2 million 120 thousand were
foreign visitors by nationality and 870 thousand are Albanians not resident
guests. In comparison with the same period of last year the increase was
recorded with 16% of more foreign visitors non-resident, i.e in 2011 have
entered 300 thousand more visitors. Statistics from MTCY inform that 63%
are overnight visitors, 26% are day visitors and 11% were transit
visitors. The largest number of visitors is from Kosovo with 51%, followed
by 11% Macedonia, Montenegro with 5%, Italy with 5%, Greece 5%,
Germany with 3%, America with 2% etc. The majority of visitors, 86%
came by land, 6% by air and 8% by sea. So in July and August have entered
1,355,599 non-resident guests with foreign citizenship.
The major reception capacities of accommodation have Vlora,
Tirana and Durres. The number of visitors has increased and archaeological
areas and parks, showing even more interest from foreign visitors, as their
numbers in the period from January to August 2011 to the national parks,
archaeological sites and museums has been 79 094 versus 62 976 or 6118
visitors more than the previous year. Their goal is to increase the number of
visitors from neighboring countries, but also to be expended into new
Ministry of Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports
markets such as Germany, England, USA, who are the biggest exporters of
tourists in the world.
2.1 The contribution of Travel & Tourism
Different Components of Travel & Tourism
Leisure travel spending was ALL182.383bn in 2010 (5.4% of GDP)
and is expected to total ALL 194.1bn (5.4% of GDP) in 2011, rising to
ALL293.7bn in 2021. Business travel spending was ALL67.295bn (2% of
GDP) in 2010 and is expected to total ALL77.4bn (2.1% of GDP) in 2011,
rising to ALL168.8bn in 2021.
Domestic travel spending is expected to generate 12.3% of direct Travel &
Tourism GDP in 2011 compared with 87.7% for visitor exports. (i.e foreign
visitor spending or international tourism receipts).
Domestic travel spending was
ALL28.428bn for 2010 and is
expected to total ALL33.5bn in
2011, rising to ALL75.1bn in 2021.
Visitor exports were ALL220.638bn
(56.2% of GDP) in 2010 and are
expected to total ALL238.0bn in
2011 (51.7% of GDP), rising to
ALL387.5bn in 2021.
Source: WTTC, report 2011 for Albania
Tourism economic significance can easily be assessed in terms of the
contribution it makes, both directly and indirectly, to the total value of
goods and services produced in the economy, the export foreign currency it
earns through the sale of goods and
services to overseas visitors, and the
jobs it creates. So by addressing some
of aspects of tourism in the economy,
consequences, and most related topics
to our study, we will address its
involvement in economy level.
Source: WTTC, report 2011 for Albania
2.2 Travel &Tourism's Contribution to GDP 27
In order to see the contribution of the tourism in the economy of
Albania we are referring the data provided by World Travel and Tourism
Council by comparing 2010 with 2011. The direct contribution of Travel &
Tourism to GDP 28 for 2010 was ALL92.012bn (7.4% of GDP) and is
expected to be ALL99.8bn in 2011 29 (7.6% of GDP).
In fact the real growth of the T&T’s contribution to GDP for 2010
was 9.7% and for the 2011 is expected to decrease to 5.2%. This primarily
reflects the economic activity generated by industries such as hotels, travel
agents, airlines and other passenger transportation services (excluding
commuter services). But it also includes, for example, the activities of the
restaurant and leisure industries directly supported by tourists. The direct
contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP is expected to grow by 5.5% per
annum (pa) to ALL169.9bn (8.5% of GDP) by 2021.
The total contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP 30 (including
wider effects from investment, the supply chain and induced income
All values are in constant 2011 prices & exchange rates
The direct contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP reflects the ‘internal’ spending on Travel &
Tourism (total spending within a particular country on Travel & Tourism by residents and nonresidents for business and leisure purposes) as well as government 'individual' spending - spending by
government on Travel & Tourism services directly linked to visitors, such as cultural (eg museums)
or recreational (eg national parks). The direct contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP is calculated
to be consistent with the output, as expressed in National Accounting, of tourism-characteristic
sectors such as hotels, airlines, airports, travel agents and leisure and recreation services. The direct
contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP is calculated from total internal spending by ‘netting out’
the purchases made by the different tourism sectors.
The data provided for 2011 is taken from the T&T as expectations and are used here as the result
the 2011 is not finished yet and helps us to make comparisons through years.
The total contribution of Travel & Tourism includes its ‘wider impacts’ (ie the indirect and
induced impacts) on the economy. The ‘indirect’ contribution includes the GDP and jobs supported
-Travel & Tourism investment spending – an important aspect of both current and future activity
that includes investment activity such as the purchase of new aircraft and construction of
-Government 'collective' spending, which helps Travel & Tourism activity in many different ways
as it is made on behalf of the ‘community at large’ – eg tourism marketing and promotion,
aviation, administration, security services, resort area security services, resort area
sanitation services, etc;
-Domestic purchases of goods and services by the sectors dealing directly with tourists including, for example, purchases of food and cleaning services by hotels, of fuel and
catering services by airlines, and IT services by travel agents.
impacts) was ALL319.524bn in 2010 (25.9% of GDP), and is expected to be
ALL344.2bn in 2011 (26.3% of GDP). It is forecast to rise by 5.4% pa from
ALL582.7bn by 2021 (29.0% of GDP).The total contribution of Travel &
Tourism to GDP is three times greater than its direct contribution.
2.2 Travel & Tourism's Contribution to Employment
Graphic 1. Albania: Direct Contribution of Travel & Tourism to Employment 31
Travel & Tourism generate 64,000 jobs directly in 2010 (6.6% of total
employment), is expected to
generate 67,000 jobs directly
in 2011 (6.8% of total
employment). This includes
employment by hotels, travel
agents, airlines and other
services excluding commuter
services. It also includes, for
example, the activities of the
Source: WTTC, report 2011 for Albania
directly supported by tourists. By 2021, Travel & Tourism will account for
88,000 jobs directly, an increase of 21,000 (32.2%) over the next ten years.
The total contribution of Travel & Tourism to employment (including
wider effects from investment, the supply chain and induced income
impacts) for 2010 was 226,400 jobs (23.5% of total employment) and is
expected to be 233,000 jobs in 201 (23.9% of total employment). By 2021,
Travel & Tourism is forecast to support 304,000 jobs (26.9% of total
employment), an increase of 2.7% pa over the period.
The ‘induced’ contribution measures the GDP and jobs supported by the spending of those who are
directly or indirectly employed by the Travel & Tourism industry.
2.3 Travel & Tourism's Contribution to Investments
Graphic 2. Travel and tourism capital investments as % of
whole economy capital investment
Travel & Tourism
attracted ALL20.697bn of
capital investment in 2010
and is expected to attract
ALL22.8bn in 2011, rising
by 5.7% pa to ALL39.7bn
in 2021. This means that
Travel & Tourism’s share
investment rose from 4.4%
of GDP in 2010 to 4.5% of
GDP in 2011 and will rise
to 5.1% of GDP in 2021.
Source: WTTC, report 2011 for Albania
In terms of Travel & Tourism's total contribution to GDP Albania is
ranked 89th in WTTC's league table of 181 countries. The country’s visitor
exports in 2011 are in 67th place, and 7th out of 18 countries in Europe.
3. EU- ALBANIA, Impact on Tourism
Tourism is an important economic activity in the European Union
(EU). It comprises a wide variety of products and destinations and many
different stakeholders are involved – both public and private – with much
decentralized areas of competence often at regional and local levels.
Tourism has great potential as regards contributing to the achievement of
several major EU objectives, such as sustainable development, economic
growth, employment and economic and social cohesion. These elements and
the fact that many Community policies have a significant effect on the
various activities of the tourism sector justify renewed political attention on
the part of the main EU political institutions.
Community tourism is largely domestic. 87% of tourism activity
recorded is attributed to its own citizens with only 13 % to visitors from
non-member countries such as Albania. As for the tourism of EU citizens,
three-quarters remain within the EU, the remaining quarter going to other
parts of Europe and the world such as Albania9.
Owing to the multidimensional characteristics of tourism, the
tourism sector is highly influenced by the new demands derived from the
widening, deepening and enlargement of the European integration. The
policies adopted by the regional area and the implementation of the more
advanced degrees of integration with its resulting consequences are decisive
factors in the development of the tourism sector in member countries.
3.1 EU and tourism in Albania
The tourism sector is one of the fast growing industries in the
country and it has strongly benefited from the EU integration, making
Albania, so far one of the main destinations to be discovered. It plays an
important role in job creation, in the increase of income per inhabitant and,
in many regions, in the development of infra-structures, skilled labor and
economic diversification. The EU impact has brought many benefits to
Albania by improving the access to the European policies and funds.
Monitoring from EU has its own direct impact on the economy and mainly
in political stability, which will have indirect impact on the other challenges
that the country represents for the future: tourism and the way to manage
Within the EU reforms in the country seeks to develop measures to
improve the quality of Albanian communities, although tourism policy
remains the remit of individual local authorities. This is important, all the
more local authorities need to know the contribution which tourism makes
to the economy in terms of income,
Albania has participated to many events organized in the countries
of EU such as 32:
Dr.Carmen Chasovski,The new context of European Tourism generation, employment, balance of
payment and investment. Moreover, authorities in local and national level, need to compare their
tourism with other countries, at the same time they define their strategies to attract tourist to the
country (Cardoso and Ferreira, 2000)
National Tourism Agency, 2011
• Munchen Fair 26 February -03 March 2009: Our participation was
new for 2009 and it was realized with the project of GIZ in Albania.
The main focus is related with the camping.
• The International Fair for Tourism ITB - Berlin 11- 15 March
2009: The promotion of the Albanian tourism in the German and
International trade. It is the greatest tourism fair.
• The International Fair for Tourism RDA Coach Tourism –
Germany, 4 - 6 August 2009: His importance is the attraction of a
lot of tourist from the world.
• Tourism fair Rimini, 16 - 18 October 2009.
• The International Fair for Tourism BIT-Milano 18 - 21 February
• The International Fair for Tourism ITB - Berlin 10 - 14 March
• The International Fair for Tourism MITT - Moscow 17 - 20
• The International Fair for Tourism
RDA Coach Tourism
Germany 27 - 29 July 2010
• The International Fair for Tourism WTM - London 08 - 11
• Participation of the National Tourism Agency in International
Tourism Exhibition ITB Berlin, Germany, 9-13 March 2011: In
this exhibition Albania was represented with a stand of 117 m2,
creating in this way its profile in this important tourism event. The
participation in this activity presents great interest, because it
encourages the development of the country's tourism. Part of this
fair was also the tour operators, the travel agencies, airlines, the
accommodating units, etc. Besides the National Tourism Agency,
part of the stand of Albania was also some travel agencies.
• The International Tourism Exhibition BIT Milano: from the dates
17-20 February 2011, Bit Milan Fair opened the doors to the
Annual International Exhibition of Tourism in Milan, Italy. The
National Tourism Agency was for the first time presented with a
stand with contemporary and competitive design. There was a high
flux of visitors and a special interest was shown by the Italian
journalists who were interested to know more of the touristic
Albania, beaches, its traditions, food, cultural monuments, etc. This
came as a result of Albania being at the top tourism destination list
for 2011. Albania is part of this fair since some years, represented
mainly by private operators, hotels and some municipalities in the
stand created by the National Tourism Agency. The visitors of the
stand of Albania mainly focused on the cultural tourism especially in
the archeological areas.
• The Fair "Local Government and Tourism": The National
Tourism Agency participated to the "Local Governance and
Tourism ", which was held on 17 to 18 November 2010. The
purpose of this fair was to present the strategies of municipalities in
the field of tourism, local development strategies, various studies,
infrastructure projects that help develop tourism, business plans for
regional and local development, etc.".
• The “Mediterranean Exchange Archaeological Tourism”, which
took place from 18-21 November 2010 in Paestum-Salerno, Italy.
During the event, the development of archaeological and cultural
tourism in Albania was discussed in two conferences. The Albanian
stand was located in the central hall alongside countries as
Slovenia, Croatia, and Greece and in front of the Italian Ministry of
Culture stand. This activity aims to promote archaeological sites
and cultural destinations, the possibility of integration among
different cultures by promoting the marketing of specific tourist
products. The exhibition’s purpose is to offer favorable tourist
packages even out of the “high season", offering in this way
economic and employment opportunities for the local communities
All these organizations are made in order to promote the Albanian
tourism all around the world, especially in the countries of EU. They have
brought a lot of positive things to our country. A lot of tourists have come in
Albania; there have been more investments than before.
Despite the cooperation of the National Agency for tourism, we can
mention also the cooperation between the Ministry of Tourism, Culture,
Youth and Sports with the others Ministries of the other countries all over
the world such as Germany, Italy, Vatican, France, Spain, Portugal
(countries in EU), especially in the field of tourism. There have been signed
a lot of Agreements with the aim of encouraging the development of
tourism in both countries by intensifying the cooperation between their
governmental tourism organizations and other bodies related to tourism
aiming at the increase of bilateral collaborations of reciprocal interest.
They tent to facilitate the exchange of tourist information through
advertisements, spots, published and audiovisual promotional materials and
mainly by participating in the tourist fairs. The countries endeavor to broad
cooperation aimed at developing tourism sector and to this end support the
exchange of experts to promote tourism marketing by cooperating in the
sectors of training and technological research with a view to better
preserving and managing of areas and developing tourism investments in
compliance with the national legislation of their States. The most important
thing in these agreements is the encouragement of the citizens to travel to
each other country and also promoting the cooperation and direct contacts
between their tourism authorities, travel of agencies, other relevant
enterprises and organizations operating in the field of tourism with the aim
to increase tourist exchanges between two States.
The Ministry is also committed to developing tourism in a way that
is environmentally friendly, avoiding the overdevelopment and congestion
that plagues other destinations, setting Albania apart from its Mediterranean
competitors. To cope with the growing numbers of visitors, the Ministry is
working with the World Bank to produce a master plan for the urban
development of the southern coast.(MTCYS,2011)
3.2 What are the Implications for Albanian Tourism being part of EU
This in fact makes Albania as a unique destination accountable for
the overall management EU process (leading, planning, organizing and
control) of the area and for undertaking actions towards achieving its
The process of integration of Albanian tourism in the EU structures
or even the challenges that represent this strategy is not only a necessary
condition for our national and long term objectives but an efficient tool to
achieve some goals in the viewpoint of EU vision as:
• Contributing to the longer-term European prosperity and
development of the local communities (jobs, income, etc.). Taking in
mind the EU vision will help or be a big support for local
• Ensuring satisfactory visitor experiences (ideally the expectations of
visitors will be exceeded);
• Improving the profitability of the business sector (which is often the
lifeblood of any destination's tourism industry);
• Optimizing the economic, social and environmental impacts by
ensuring a responsible and sustainable balance between economic,
socio-cultural and environmental interests.
4. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
With the main aim of being involved in European structures, we
conclude the following conclusions: In Albania, the process of tourism
development, management and marketing or even the promotion should be
managed within an integrated structure; It follows from this that tourism
authorities (in national and local level within the country) must pay equal
attention in the future to: the destinations brand and the values that it
conveys to customers, the nature and quality of the destination
There is positive news for Albania's Travel & Tourism. Its direct
contribution to GDP is set to grow by 5.3% in 2011. It will be worth
ALL99.8 billion, directly employing 67,000 people or 1 in 15 jobs.
Over the next ten years, Travel & Tourism’s total contribution to
Albania's GDP is forecast to rise by 5.4% pa, bringing with it 71,000 new
jobs. By 2021, 1 in 4 workers in Albania will be employed as a result of
Travel & Tourism.
The research ranks countries among similar destinations to give
governments a foundation for competitor analysis. In terms of Travel &
Tourism's total contribution to GDP Albania is ranked 89th in WTTC's
league table of 181 countries. The country’s visitor exports in 2011 are in
67th place, and 7th out of 18 countries in Europe.
There have been signed a lot of agreements in order to promote and
develop the tourism in Albania. Participating in international fairs is a very
good thing for a developing country such as Albania that wants to be
integrated to EU because it gives the possibility to be known from the other
countries, and then too many tourists will come to our country, and many
investors to invest.
How should tourism be delivered? We propose key principles related to the
• Flexible structures –project teams; new methods of marketing
• Using the best tools –fundamental role of e-business and destination
• Partnerships of public and private sector, working to a common
agenda based on EU agenda;
• Evaluation of the impact of tourism in Albanian in the EU
integration, and measurement of this impact;
• Benchmarking performance, over time, and against competitors in
the Balkan regions.
Law regulation for tourism activity and local self-government in the
country is not very adequate and compatible for this field and related to
European experiences and European standards. Tourism and local
development are related in a quiet big point. Bigger competencies of local
units in tourism area.
Taking into account European perspective of the country, it can be
said that the process of Albania in European total membership, is a huge
responsibility for state, institutions and citizens to fulfill precise European
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commission of the European Communities, COM. 665. Brussels.
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Union’s Enlargement and the Development of Tourism.
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Brâncuşi” din Târgu Jiu, Seria Economie.
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19. WTTC- 2011 Albania Economic Impact Report 2011
THE ROLE OF INTERNET ADVERTISING
TO THE COMPANIES IN ALBANIA
Msc. Blerim KOLA, PhD Candidate
Msc. Dorian KRISTIQI, PhD Candidate
Head of Departament, FASTIP
Taking into consideration the increasing call for accountability of internet
advertising spending, measuring the contribution of internet advertising to
company’s effectiveness is a fundamental requirement for the success of the
Many companies in Albania have taken a limited view of the impact that
internet advertising can have an overall company’s effectiveness. This
article deals with the value or being more specific, it deals with contribution
of internet advertising to overall company’s effectiveness and hypothesizes
that internet advertising impact on company’s effectiveness.
An analysis of the data in the sample of the Albanian companies is used to
address the research question regarding the relationship between two
concepts. This research will confirm the positive or negative relationship
between dependent variable internet advertising and the independent
variable company’s effectiveness.
This article also deals with one of the problems for internet advertising
practice – its value, or more specifically, the contribution of internet
overall company's effectiveness. Some companies
invest significant expenditure in internet advertising.
Often internet advertising professionals want to prove how much value
internet advertising has to an organization, for example how much internet
advertising increases profits, contribute to market share, and support
customer satisfaction. This article attempts to examine the effect of
internet advertising on company’s effectiveness in Albania. With respect
to this, the research question is: “Can internet advertising impact and
improve company’s effectiveness in Albania?”
Research into measures of internet advertising and company’s
effectiveness and their relationship reflects this important issue. In this
article, we question the possibility of linking internet advertising activities
to overall organizational effectiveness.
Key words: Internet advertising, Albanian companies, effectiveness,
empirical analysis, sample, data.
Internet advertising contribution to the company’s effectiveness
The need for measuring and evaluating internet advertising effectiveness has
grown in the past 20 years. In 1997, there was a first academic attempt to
find a uniform standard for measuring and evaluating internet advertising
effectiveness. Since the first attempt, the attention on measurement of
internet advertising effectiveness has been increased Furthermore, as
many internet advertising practitioners and scholars have agreed internet
advertising a management role, many researchers have come to recognize
the need for evaluation and measurement of internet advertising
The goal of internet advertising is to help an organization to achieve its
business objectives goal. Getting a clear understanding of an organization’s
business goals is the first step of internet advertising activities to set
measurable objectives for a communication program. If internet advertising
managers don’t understand business goals, they can’t achieve
effectiveness. Difficulties in link internet advertising to
company’s effectiveness can be found in the position of internet
advertising managers in the organizations, because internet advertising
managers don’t take part in setting company’s objectives.
Research questions and methodology
Purpose of the research
The main thrust of the paper concerns internet advertising factors affecting
the company's effectiveness, which can be viewed as factors related to
managing and implementing internet advertising.
The dominant proposition of this paper is that internet advertising may be
playing a greater role in terms of emphasis at corporate performance
and effectiveness. Empirical evidence supporting this enhanced role at
company's effectiveness level will be presented. Accordingly, we make
the following research hypothesis:
H: There is an association and positive relationship between internet
advertising and company’s effectiveness in Albania
For the purposes of our research, the following measures for
constructs were developed, drawing from the conceptual work in the
public relations and company's effectiveness context.
Internet advertising description
The internet advertising scale captures the following statements: the
primary function of internet advertising is to increase the company’s
reputation. Internet Advertising construct consists of interval scale
questions. Answers were given on a Likert-scale format (7= I strongly
agree and 1= I strongly disagree).
Company's effectiveness description
Company's effectiveness construct can be operationalized in different
ways. Many authors are agreeing that internet advertising have an impact
on company's effectiveness We used a multi-item measure of eleven
items to investigate the company’s effectiveness
market and other types of company’s effectiveness. This variable was
composed of three types of company’s effectiveness: market, financial
and other type; we calculated the mean score for each type of company’s
effectiveness as a sum of all mean scores averages. Company’s
effectiveness construct consists of interval scale questions. Answers were
given on a Likert-scale format (7= I strongly agree and 1= I strongly
Data gathering and characteristics of the sample
The main research instrument for empirical investigation, e.g. a
questionnaire, was developed on the derived theoretical basis. The
covering letters with questionnaires were mailed to the corporate
directors, marketing directors or director of 120 the Albanian
enterprises. We choose the convenience sample. The survey was conducted
in December, 2010. A total of 75 useful responses were received and
that gave the response rate of 62.5 %. The results present in this article are
related to the sample of 50 respondents. The collected empirical data were
processed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), where the
emphasis was given to descriptive statistical analysis.
The relevant data of the companies were provided mainly by marketing
directors (32 % of cases), followed by company's directors with 28 %,
members of top managers (18 %), business consultants (10 %) and head
executives (6 %). Members of the managing boards, heads of internet
advertising offices and counseling specialists answered in 2 %. Other
respondents appeared in 4 % of cases.
Company size was determined regarding the number of employees.
The sample consists of 46 % small companies, 24 % middle sized
companies and 30,0 % of large companies.
The companies included in the sample are distributed according to
industries as follows. 40,0 % of respondents belong to production oriented
companies, 30 % of respondents belong to service oriented companies
and 30 % were trade oriented companies.
Both the constructs,
internet advertising factors and company's
effectiveness were measured on the Likert scale. The respondents had to
indicate their agreement with the statements on the 7-point Likert (1
strongly disagree to 7 strongly agree) scales.
One of the objectives of the case stuty is concerned about the correlation
between different statement of internet advertising and company's
effectiveness exists. Accordingly, we make the hypothesis as follows:
Null hypothesis H0: There is no correlation between internet advertising
and company's effectiveness.
Alternative hypothesis H1: There is a correlation between internet
advertising and company’s effectiveness.
Table 4: Relationship between
Independent Dependent 2
variable (x) variable (y) R
internet advertising and company’s
Company’s 0.125 0.120
y=2.250+0.245 x 0,000
We assume that, in addition to internet advertising impact on the company's
effectiveness, other unexplained effects which are not the subject of
this research may have and impact on company's effectiveness. Many
authors have studied the impact of different constructs on company's
effectiveness. However, it we can conclude that the percentage of
explained variance (12%) of internet advertising in company's effectiveness
is high if excluding other influences.
Although the empirical results do not provide a high level of support to
the conclusion, we believe that the positive relationship between the
internet advertising and its company's effectiveness can be still accepted on
the basis of the available data.
We argued and documented empirically that the internet advertising had
a significant impact on company's effectiveness in the sample of
Albanian companies. Additionally, each company may choose to have a
unique internet advertising strategy but it should consider its unique
programs. We identified these characteristics as internet advertising factors
which can affect the company's effectiveness.
Limitations and future research
There may be a concern that used measures for internet advertising will not
represent the whole spectrum of internet advertising activity. The absence of
validity and reliability of tested concept in the literature, we have been
viewed and measured internet advertising concept as the management
a mutually beneficial
relationship between an organization and its publics. A qualitative
research with internet advertising professionals and academicians would
be helpful to develop a theoretical framework for finding the most
effective measure for internet advertising concept.
The article provides a perspective of how to analyze the factors
affecting the overall company’s effectiveness. The guidelines that
emerge from this approach should be particularly relevant for internet
advertising managers in industry.
How to make sure your rich media ad is performing
Digital ads are a pull. The user is in control, and interactivity with digital
ads is important. Users are more likely to interact with rich media ads
because they have animation, video, sound, and interactive options that
appeal to them. Advertisers can use this technology to convey emotion
within their ad messaging. As an advertiser, your goal is to motivate users to
purchase your product. Here are some pointers to consider when you're
measuring your progress.
Only track what's important
The agency and client should agree on the goals and set key performance
indicators (KPIs) before a campaign begins. KPIs are metric building blocks
that allow you to gauge the effectiveness of your campaign. How else can
you determine if your ads are successful or not?
Integrate your metrics
However, before you can set KPIs you'll need to understand the basic
building blocks these metrics come from. In order to measure the
effectiveness of rich media advertising we usually look at two components - media metrics and web metrics (site traffic referred by online media). This
is based on the assumption that a user click routes you to a client's website.
Raw media metrics are usually provided through your ad server (Dart,
EyeWonder, or Pointroll) and include rich media impressions, rich media
interactions, delivered traffic, actions, and leads. Raw web metrics (site
traffic referred by online media) are usually provided by either Google
Analytics or Omniture and include visits, single page visits, page views,
visits shorter than one minute, visits longer than 10 minutes, online sales
from new customers, and order value from new customers.
Look at basic metric building blocks
When analyzing display advertising, begin by looking at rich media
impressions. These impressions, which are passive, tell you how many
people are exposed to your rich media ads. When a rich media ad is served,
it is counted as a rich media impression.
Since you have a rich media ad, take a look at rich media interactions. They
tell you how many users played with your ad -- from mousing over it, to
playing with the ad buttons. The rich media interaction rate equals
interactions divided by impressions. According to Dart, the 2009 industry
average was 2.54 percent.
The purpose of someone seeing your ad is to entice them to visit your
website. In order to visit your website, a customer interaction such as a click
is usually needed. The click sends a customer to a company website. Once a
customer arrives at the designated website, it is considered delivered traffic.
Delivered traffic can be defined as a user click that results in a website visit
after exposure to an ad.
How is your ad performing? Is the ad getting customers to visit your site? A
quick media metric to use is delivered traffic rate (DTR). DTR is total
delivered traffic divided by impressions served. If your DTR is 2 percent or
more, you have been effective at getting people to your website. A 2 percent
DTR indicates the robustness of your ad and is a general rule of thumb.
What are customers doing once they reach your site?
A good web metric to look at is bounce rate. It lets you know if the user
experience is a good one that encourages engagement and future visits, or if
visitors are bouncing off your website after viewing one page. The bounce
rate can be calculated by looking at single page visits and dividing that by
Other good metrics (which can be either media or web metrics, depending
on how your client's site is tagged) include actions and leads. An action is a
way a customer can express interest in a product or service on your website.
A lead is usually a customer whose interest in a product or service is
expressed by electronically submitting personal contact information.
The unofficial relationship between actions and leads is 6-to-1. In other
words, every six actions should net you one lead.
Action rate and lead rate determine how well customers are interacting with
a website. Action rate is defined as total actions divided by delivered traffic.
The action rate speaks to the robustness of a site. The higher your action
rate, the more people interact with your site. The lead rate can be defined as
leads divided by delivered traffic. It allows you to see the relationship
between leads and delivered traffic. It is a funnel effect. A customer cannot
submit a lead unless they are at a website. A customer arrives at a website as
delivered traffic. The final metrics to look at are cost-per-action and costper-lead. Cost-per-action is total cost divided by total actions. Cost-per-lead
is total cost divided by total leads. These metrics let you know how much
each action and lead cost. They both vary by vertical.
Setting KPIs -- agency and client agreement
If the agency and client agree that the goal of a new campaign is to drive
qualified traffic to the client's website and increase online sales, two KPIs to
look at include committed visitor share (calculated by dividing the number
of visits lasting longer than 10 minutes by visits) and the average online
sales from new customers.
By setting modest goals and putting KPIs in place at the beginning of a
campaign, an agency protects itself from unreasonable client expectations.
A client and agency might initially agree that the goal of a campaign is to
drive qualified traffic to the client's website. However, once the campaign is
over, the client might change its mind and say it really wanted the campaign
to drive online sales. When an agency looks at online sales, it's unlikely that
the sales will be robust.
Plan, measure, optimize
If an agency has put a benchmark in place at the beginning of a campaign, it
can go back to the client and say that the benchmark was the purpose of the
campaign, that the agency delivered on that purpose, and that the creative
was geared toward driving qualified traffic. However, if the client wants to
increase online sales, a new campaign needs to be set up with that purpose.
By understanding media metrics such as impressions, delivered traffic rate,
action rate, and lead rate, along with web metrics such as bounce rate, you
can build KPIs that determine how successful your ads are and avoid
distasteful conversations with clients.
Understand Web Traffics – Hits, Pageviews,
There are various of terms when it comes to calculation of web traffics.
Some statistics give you report in terms of daily and monthly unique
visitors; some provides more – Pageviews, Hits, etc. You could have heard
webmasters claiming their sites to have more than 1 million hits a month.
But how big is 1 million hits, does that means they have 1 million visitors
every month? Here’s a brief explanations for those who are confuse how
figures in these web statistic terms are generated.
Measuring traffics in hits usually returns you a proudly large number. Hits is
also known as request and it’s the total number of files loaded when a single
page is requested from the web server. So how hits are calculated? Picture
this – a single web page with 20 images (transparent.gif, headerbackground.gif, etc)is loaded, that’s 20 hits for starters. The web page has
10 photos (jammie.jpg, group-photo.jpg, etc), that’s another 10 hits. if you
web page is loaded, it can easily build up more than 50 hits. If you clear
cache, reload the page, another 50+ hits again.
Hits are rarely used to to judge a website’s traffic nowadays as they are not
really accurate. The numbers are big and certainly cool, but generally
Pageviews is a calculation of how many times a page is viewed. Say a
visitor lands on your main page, that’s 1 pageview. Same visitor clicks to
About Us page, that’s another pageview. By dividing total pageviews with
total unique visitors, you can get an idea how many pageviews each visitor
Impression is more or less a marketing term, normally calculated in bulk of
1000. It counts how many times a element (image, text, video) appears on a
web page. If a advertisement network is paying $3/CPM (Cost Per
Thousand Impressions), that means you are getting paid $3 when the banner
appears 1000 times on your web page. Here’s 21 ad networks that pays you
based on CPM ads.
Visits / Unique Visitors
Visits is normally equivalent to unique visitors. Think of it as the number of
different people (different IP) that visits your web page. Visits or unique
visitors are the most essential numbers of all, when it comes to determine
the traffic of a specific site.
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COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT IN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
Gloria Harusha, Msc
University of Shkodra
Arjeta Anamali, Msc
University of Shkodra
Armela Anamali, Msc
“Aleksander Moisiu” University
Tourism in developing countries is a crucial agent for development and
indeed an ideal economic alternative to traditional sectors. Nevertheless, as
destinations exploit their tourism potentials, they have to realize that the
involvement of the tourist host communities in tourism development
projects is vital. There is no correlative study analyzing the characteristics of
community involvement, during the course of development. Travelling is a
kind of action between different communities. Since the first traveler came
into a community, it means this community began to involve into tourism
inevitably. To gain a rich understanding of the context of the research, the
study employs a case study approach, which enables a project realized in
Kelmendi commune. It lays emphasis on how the local people have been
involved in tourism development in this commune, and how such
integration have been used as a mean to win the obviously needed local
community’s support for the industry. Therefore, our study aim is to give
the importance and the appropriate roles of community involvement in local
tourism development, the factors and barriers that influence in the
community involvement and finally to demonstrate the public sector and
NGO’s initiatives and some recommendations for this topic.
Key words: host community, tourism development, involvement, NGO’s.
Community: A social group whose members reside in a specific locality,
and who share a government and often have a common cultural and
Community involvement: Community involvement is a process, which
engages people within a local area in organization and development, where
generally, development means improvement in a country’s economic and
social conditions. On a specific note, it refers to improve management
techniques of an area’s natural and human resources in order to improve
peoples’ lives. Development can, however, be considered in terms of human
or economic development, and development indicators are ways of
measuring it. Tourism development is, however defined as a long-term
process of preparing for the arrival of tourists. It entails planning, building,
and managing attractions, transportation, services, and facilities that serve
tourists (Khan, 2005:9).
In the context of this study, tourism will mean community involvement in
the tourism activities in their area. They can be involved in the supply of
final goods and services to tourists.
⇒ Community involvement and participation in the tourism
Tourism defined by McIntosh, Goelder and Ritchie (1995) is the sum of the
phenomenon and relationships arising from the interaction of tourists,
business suppliers, host governments, and host communities in the process
of attracting and hosting these tourists and other visitors.
Figure 1: Groups subjected to
the effects of tourism development
Source: Tourism Recreation Research
and Education Centre, May 2006
Numerous studies have examined the involvement of community
participation in the tourism development process (Tosun, 2000; Tosun,
2006; Li, 2005; Li, 2004; Timothy, 1999). The process of tourism
development as pointed out in the works of Doxey (1976); Butler (1976);
Butler (1980); Keller (1984) as cited in Simmons (1994) and Tosun (2000),
appears to suggest that there is a high degree of dependence on residents for
their acceptance of the industry before it starts in a particular destination.
This is to say, initial adequate involvement of local communities is
fundamental to enable the initial stage of tourism development (Simmons,
1994; Tosun, 2000), which Butler (1980) called the exploration stage.
While community participation is a highly desirable element of
development, it is important to note that active involvement and
participation of the local community in tourism, especially at the exploration
stage is crucial, these because at this initial stage of tourism development
there is normally little or no tourism infrastructure in the area. Therefore,
local people, after accepting the idea of introduction of tourism in their area,
usually start, own and operate small-scale guesthouses, economy class
hotels or souvenir shops, and supply the workforce for the industry
especially in many developing countries (Tosun, 2000). In adition,
providing local communities with the opportunities to own and operate
tourism facilities is thought to increase their tolerance to tourist activities in
the area (D’Amore, 1983 as cited in Timothy, 1999) and eventually creates a
sense of ownership, feeling of responsibility and practical involvement in
tourism (Simpson, 2008). The literature seems to acknowledge the fact that
local community participation is vital in the tourism development process.
⇒ Community Based Tourism
Pondocorp and Wilson (1998:1) define community-based tourism as:
Tourism in which a significant number of local people are involved in
providing services to tourists and the tourism industry, and in which local
people have meaningful ownership, power and participation in the various
tourism and related enterprises. Community based tourism should offer
some form of benefit to local people not directly involved in the tourists
enterprises, for example through improved education or infrastructure.
This definition complements the community participation concept, which
advocates the involvement of the community in all public work related
projects of social and economic development.
⇒ Typologies of Community participation
Various scholars have attempted to develop useful models that
conceptualize community participation in the context of development
studies in general (Arnstein, 1969 as cited in Tosun, 2004; Pretty, 1995;
Tosun (1999) examined community participation in the tourism industry and
designed a model that can be applied specifically to the tourism industry.
His model suggested three forms (typologies) of participation which
“contextualizes community participation as a categorical term that allows
participation of people, citizens or a host community in their affairs at
different levels: local, regional or national” (p.494). These are spontaneous
community participation, coercive community participation and induced
community participation (Figure 2). Tosun (2006) compares his three forms
of community participation to those proposed by Pretty (1995) and Arnstein
(1971). Each of his levels of community participation in the tourism
industry are discussed separately in details in the following paragraphs.
Figure 2: Normative typologies of community participation
Source: Tosun (2006)
From Figure 2, spontaneous community participation in Tosun’s model,
which emphasizes provision of full managerial responsibility and authority
to the host community, suggests an ideal mode of community participation
in tourism which is similar to degrees of citizen power in Arnstein’s model
and to self-mobilization and interactive participation in Pretty’s model.
Induced community tourism in Tosun’s model, in which the host
community has a voice regarding tourism development process through an
opportunity to hear and to be heard, is similar to the degree of citizen
tokenism in Arnstein’s model and to functional participation by consultation
or participation for material incentives in Pretty’s typology.
In coercive community, participation of the host community is not as fully
involved in the decision-making process as it is in induced participation.
However, some decisions are made specifically “to meet basic needs of host
communities so as to avoid potential socio-political risks for tourists and
tourism development” (Tosun, 2006, p.495). It is probably important to
insist from here that a key consideration in tourism development is
sustainability, which cannot be achieved without community support
(Vincent and Thompson, 2002). It is probably within this context that
sustainable tourism and community participation is being increasingly
⇒ Sustainable tourism development - Community
If tourism is to be sustainable, it must improve the lives of local people,
protect their environment and health, and offer them a better future
(UNCSD NGO Steering Committee). In many instances, tourism can be
seen as a vehicle to empower local communities and protect the
environment through the development of new employment opportunities,
the enhancement of local economies, preservation of indigenous knowledge
and practices, public awareness and education. Sustainable tourism can
create positive opportunities for community development in remote areas.
The business sector can choose sustainable tourism over other more
polluting ventures. Long and short-term development plans should be
developed so that tourism and its benefits are spread within the area. To
develop tourism in a sustainable manner, it is necessary to define optimal
tourism destinations in local areas and regions, ensuring enjoyment for the
tourist and minimum impact or disruption for the environment and local
⇒ Barriers of community participation in tourism in developing
Various researchers have identified a number of inter-related barriers that
prevent effective local communities involvement and participation in the
tourism industry (Tosun, 2000; Manyara and Jones, 2007; Cole, 2006). The
overall outcome of such barriers is often the communities’ limited
enthusiasm towards the industry (Manyara and Jones, 2007).
Tosun (2000) identified a wide range of obstacles to community
participation in the context of developing countries. He categorised these
obstacles into operational, cultural and structural limitations. Those
categorized as operational limitations include the centralization of public
administration of tourism development, lack of co-ordination between
involved parties and lack of information made available to the local people
of the tourist destination as attributed to, but not limited to, insufficient data
and poor dissemination of information. Those categorized as structural
impediments include institutional, power structure, legislative, and
economic systems. They mostly affect negatively on the emergence and
implementation of the participatory tourism development approach. In
addition, those identified as cultural limitations include limited capacity of
the poor to effectively handle development.
Cole (2006), while focusing on spontaneous community participation,
which is the highest level of community participation (Figure 2), identified a
number of barriers that make active local community participation hard to
achieve in the tourism industry. Lack of ownership, capital, skills,
knowledge and resources all constrain the ability of communities to control
their participation in tourism development. In addition to lack of skills,
knowledge, ownership of tourism resources, Manyara and Jones (2007)
further identified that elitism, empowerment and involvement, leakage of
revenue, partnerships, access to tourists, transparency in benefit-sharing, and
lack of an appropriate policy framework to support the development of
community initiatives have significant impacts on community participation
in the industry. Nonetheless, one approach to ensure that local communities
can overcome those barriers and ultimately participate actively in tourism
development is to empower them (Van der Duim et al, 2006; Zhao and
Ritchie, 2007; Tosun, 2000).
The present study aims to give the importance and the appropriate roles of
community involvement in tourism development, and to give a concrete
case study of community based tourism in Kelmendi commune.
“Community based tourism affects in better development of destination.”
Secondary data consist on finding relevant literature on this topic, such as books, previous
studies in this field, and materials from the internet. We made the selection of data
according to the scope of our study.
Primary research consists in an in-depth interview realized with the
coordinator (Mrs. Pier Paolo Ambrosi) of VIS Albania NGO, which worked
directly in a project, for the development of tourism in Kelmendi commune.
CASE STUDY “Commune of Kelmendi”
To provide a concretization of the theoretical material we have discussed
above, in this part of the study we will present a successful project realized
by VIS Albania NGO in collaborations with MADA (State agency), BESA
Fund (in providing micro-credit), PfD, Commune Council, etc., in the
commune of Kelmendi (part of Shkodra region), about tourism development
based on host community.
The commune of Kelmendi consists on nine- villages (Tamara, Nikç, Brojë,
Vukël, Selcë, Kozhnje, Grabon, Lepusha, and Vermoshi), which
are characterized by mountains, where the height above the sea level ranges
from 210-2554 m, also of wide and close valleys rich of forests, etc. The
number of population permanently resident arise 3270, which of these 683
are under the age of 14 years old and 454 are pensioners, and in total, the
commune has a number of 798 families (Data collected from a research
done by the NGO at the beginning of the project.). This area has a
very homogeneous population, population living there for centuries with a
very strong character and identity. The community is very quiet and has a
social cohesion. As we said above, the area has strong traditions, where we
can mention the peculiar food, their particular life style, traditional
costumes, etc. The economy of the area obliges low standards living
condition. The main activities are cattle breeding and agriculture, which
involve the great part of people and more exactly 2.696 people 82, 4% of
total people. Regarding to the social aspect, in this area we found such a
mentality were: hospitality is the first and most important thing that
characterizes man and being so, every person who knocks at the door of
their house is considered a friend and he should be respected in the best
possible way. Nevertheless, if we refer to the infrastructure of the
commune we can say that it is an obstacle for the area. To reach the
Commune of Kelmend, firstly we can stand in Tamara (distance from
Shkodra to this destination should be 2 hours by car) where the road is
overwhelming, but fortunately recently some works over the construction
the remaining 40 km from Tamara to Vermosh,
take 2 hours too by car. This part of road in winter is unused due to the
also problems with electricity, and mobile
At the area there were less initiatives for the tourism development,
practically we can mention two of them. As the area is very interesting,
there were some foreigners groups, such as speleologists who have seen this
area interesting to study. Consequently, some families tried to offer
a kind of service, which was in very weak levels. Other initiatives also were
taken from the parish of the area that tried to organize with some families a
hosting service. These two initiatives were only occasional.
Notwithstanding that, Kelmendi Commune is considered a poor destination
because of scarce infrastructure, poor base education, health services and
economic activities; but this area had physical-geographical, cultural and
social features, which return in values for this destination and a very strong
reason for starting a project for the development of this destination.
Targeting tourism (agro-tourism, family tourism) can be a very good way to
improve the current situation of local economy.
Tourism is that industry through which, the three above-mentioned values
actually will be evaluated, which becomes a good way to keep the
local population in this territory having enough income to make a good life.
Therefore, the general objective of this project is:
The improvement of the living conditions for the population of
Income growth and expansion of population activities and initiatives,
- Better access to local market products;
- Environmental shield;
- Increase of new manufacturing activities.
The first concrete project steps consisted in different meetings realized with
Community Leaders, individuals (that represents various interests for the
community as the mayor), teachers, associations and with the people living
there, which have offer many ideas arising from their own evaluation. Based
on these ideas and the objectives of the VIS project, tourism development
was perceived as the most reasonable also considering that, the territory
offers good conditions for tourism development, and that tourism is an
industry that includes many other industries. This was the phase of project,
which lasted more. For its implementation, NGO VIS asked Shkodra Ragion
to be active in organizing a meeting with the stakeholders operating in the
area to understand their opinions connecting to the project scope, and to
construct relationships with the aim to insert a new inclusive model for the
Therefore, the main activities taken during the project were the realization
of trainings for every aspect of community life; trainings for tourist guides,
first aid, hygiene, kitchen, environment protection, etc. Training is
considered an activity that continues to provide new skills to people directly
employed in tourism industry. In addition, the need to continue with the
trainings is based on the need to help people to learn to adapt the personal
skills to the need of the world, which lives around.
Taking over the consideration their mentality about the term tourist-friend,
it raises the idea to construct guesthouses, that are private and every owner
manages the own one. The number of them is about 30, whose capacity
ranges from 2-20 beds. It is also constructed a Tourist Information office,
provides and supports the various types of initiatives. Other investments
where done for the clearance of about 20 pathways and installment of the
necessary touristic signals, with the aim to achieve a more sustainable and
long-term tourism. Local community participated in all of these initiatives in
different ways ex. working to construct these structures. It also has been a
big work, which continues too, to aware, and convinces the population to
maintain and evaluate the characteristics of the area. Now days, 20% of the
population is directly engaged in tourism industry, and then the entire
community has indirect benefits from this project.
Now the structures of the project are evident and people are willing to
continue to engage and collaborate. It is thus increase their awareness, that
each one should do its work within a common project.
The important means of this project is creation of a brand, which put
together all the “little things and realities” (guesthouses, local products,
traditional clothes, particularities of natural environment), because if every
“little thing” work together for the same purpose, although small
individuality, together they can become e value. To have a brand value, it
must be equipped with quality, so it is necessary that each “small entity” to
equips itself with quality standards, and accomplish them for a sustainable
Figure 3: Components of tourism
One of the most widely accepted principles of sustainable tourism is the
idea that tourism is only sustainable if the local community is involved in
tourism planning and management, so involvement of the tourist host
communities in tourism development projects is vital.
Notwithstanding different authors try to give normative typologies of
community involvement, there is no correlative study analyzing the
characteristics of community involvement, during the course of
Community based tourism can be improved by public sector, NGO’s
initiatives or as a partnership of all the interested groups. Community based
tourism is the best form of development, because it brings goods such as for
the host community such as for the tourists.
Involving community in tourism development, increase people’s
predisposition to defend and increase sustainable development.
- To suggest practical applications for improving the conditions for a
community, whether within tourism or other developments, is complex
since the conditions are dependent and influenced by its contextual setting.
- The success of tourism development should not be measured merely in
terms of increased numbers of tourist arrivals and gross tourism revenues,
but should also be evaluated according to how the industry benefits local
communities at a grassroots level.
- The leadership either from private institution or government has to play a
role of leading community through the right channels so as to be able to
- Tourism activities should be appropriately planned, monitored and
managed to ensure that they do not conflict with conservation and
sustainable use of resources, as well as compromise the livelihood of local
- The empowerment of the disadvantaged communities through skills
training, economic support and otherwise, will ensure that the
transformation process is done successfully in order for the communities to
participate actively in their own development.
- To create mimimal standarts, when these are set, to provide diferent and
continuos trainigs for the community to offer a quality according to the
- To involve the community in providing ideas for the tourism development.
1. Claiborne. P, (2010), Community participation in tourism
development and the value of social capital.
2. Mametja. M, (2006), Local community participation in tourism in the
case of the Manyeleti Game Reserve, Limpopo Province and South
3. Mazibuko.N, (2000), Community participation in tourism development
4. Michael. M, (2009), Community involvement and participation in
tourism development in Tanzania.
5. Nsabimana. E, (2010), The extent of community involvement in
tourism development and conservation activities in eastern Rwanda.
6. UNCSD NGO Stering Commiteee, (2001), Sustainable Tourism: A
non-governmental organization perspective.
PROMOTION OF PEACE TOURISM AND SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT – WEST BALKANS’S PERSPECTIVE
Dr. Andriela Vitić - ćetković, Ass’t professor
University of Montenegro
Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management
With its global presence nowadays, tourism has got a vital role in
contributing to sustainable development and the alleviation of poverty
worldwide. At the other side, tourism becomes an increasingly important
factor of regional stability, sustainable development, cross-border and post –
conflict cooperation. Beyond the marketing component, tourism companies,
institutions, tourists and host communities may be considered as peace and
After conflict in West Balkans in 90’s, some of the countries, including
Montenegro, underlined orientation to tourism as development tool. Recent
conflict history of Western Balkans and variety of natural and cultural
tourism attractions offers many possibilities for peace tourism development,
including creation of peace parks. Although some West Balkans countries
(Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro) have more than 50 years international tourism
tradition, peace tourism concept is almost unknown in the region, while
there are very small number of initiatives that may lead to different related
Based on different methods, including case studies, this paper is supposed
Explore modalities of mobilizing peace tourism as a force for
regional cooperation and poverty reduction in West Balkans
Suggest initiatives that may help development of stable &
sustainable regional development trough tourism
Identify needs to be met in fostering tourism initiatives which
contribute to West Balkans’ understanding & cooperation
Expected results should relate to identification of directions and initiatives
for peace tourism promotion in West Balkans, which includes cross-border
co- operation, rural and community based development that may link
developing West Balkans economies with EU and emerging economies.
Key words: Promotion, Peace Tourism, Sustanable development, West
Concept of peace tourism is relatively new and aims to “negotiate for
tourism as a way of creating a social force, promoting ecological and
economic protection and enhancing cultural understanding.” 33 Accordingly,
every traveler is potentially an Ambassador for Peace.
Peace parks represent trans-boundary protected areas that are formally
dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity and of
natural and associated cultural resources, but also promotion of peace and
cross- border co-operation. (Alli, S, 2008). Peace park development in a
post-conflict destinations is not a new model. The first Peace Park was
created almost a century ago (1914) at Morokulian between Norway and
Sweden. Another one, the Waterton Glacier USA/Canada park exists for 76
years 34. Almost all peace parks have specific dedication to peace and
cooperation between states.
There are some institutions which tend to promote peace tourism and
responsible tourism globally. For example, the International Institute for
Peace through Tourism (IIPT) is an organization dedicated to fostering and
facilitating tourism initiatives which contribute to international
understanding and cooperation, an improved quality of environment, the
preservation of heritage and through these initiatives, helping to bring about
a peaceful and sustainable world 35. A primary goal of IIPT is to mobilize the
travel and tourism industry as a leading force for poverty reduction.
In the era of globalization, some of the previous borders became a heritage
sites (Moufakkir, O, Kelly, I.). For instance, border between East and West
Berlin became tourist attraction. Therefore, we may explore if the West
Balkans, where some of the countries have quite a long tourism history may
focus on the peace tourism as a tool for repositioning the region.
1. ISSUES AND CHALLENEGES OF PEACE PARKS
DEVELOPMENT IN AND DESTINATIONS’ REPOSITIONING
Peace parks bring many economic benefits to destinations, but also theirs
society and local community. They promote peace and regional cooperation
between countries by creating a protected area on their borders. They foster
environmental protection and support effective exchange of information and
research and sometimes joint management. Main economic benefit peace
parks have trough tourism. The visits of educational travelers and ecotourists lead to understanding history of conflict in the region. Another
benefit relates to the more effective prevention and treatment of pollution
and illegal cross-border activities.
Peace parks may represent a good solution for regional cooperation and
stability in West Balkans, but also poverty elimination in mainly rural crossborder areas (Brainard, L, Chollet, D, 2007) After conflict in West Balkans
in 90’s, some of the countries, including Montenegro, underlined orientation
to tourism as development tool. Recent conflict history of Western Balkans
and variety of natural and cultural tourism attractions offers many
possibilities to attract for educational and cultural travelers, what gives
opportunities for creation of peace parks.
Creation of the peace park in a post-conflict may lead to regional
cooperation in several area: intergovernmental, managerial, educational
scientific, public-private etc. (Adams, 2001). Some of the main cooperation
activities that can be strengthening trough the Peace parks development are:
Education in trans-boundary peace park region
Economic impact of the Peace parks in regional economies
More effective legal mechanisms and arrangements for transboundary conservation
Collaborative initiatives for trans-boundary management
Effective engagement of local communities and other stakeholders in
trans-boundary protected areas
Engagement of indigenous peoples in trans-boundary peace parks
Apart from environmental and economic incentives which lead to joint
prosperity of local communities, trans-boundary cooperation trough peace
tourism can increase border security in mainly rural areas.
2. PROMOTION OF PEACE TOURISM, PEACE PARKS
AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
- WEST BALKANS’S PERSPECTIVE
The idea of Balkan Peace Park is formed after conflict in former Yugoslavia
in 90’s. However, up to now, it is not yet realized. The idea is to include 3
national parks: Prokletije – Montenegro, Theth – Albania and Rugova Kosovo 36.
The area is mountainous, with natural resources like caves and rocky peaks
they may give excellent opportunities for climbing and scrambling. The
higher peaks include Jezerca 2693m in Albania, Djeravica 2656m in
Kosovo and Karanfil 2480 m in Prokletije 37. The area offer good
possibilities for trekking on ancient tracks linking villages and valleys.
Future Balkan Peace Park area consists of one of Europe's last great
wilderness, while it is still unknown by international tourists. However, it
has been tourist destination for domestic tourists. The aim may be to support
community development, so that many peace parks visitors stay in local
people's homes and use local people as guides.
In all the Balkan Peace Park region there has been a serious depopulation
for decades. So, peace park should be created to enable the local people to
continue to live in post-conflict rural destination.
Cross-border cooperation in one of the most undiscovered mountainous area
of Europe, can meet the needs of the local communities by the joint effort in
creation of Balkan Peace Park. Some of them are:
Cconsultations and agreements with populations living close to or
within the park
Attracting interested stakeholders – government bodies, private
sector, funding agencies, donors, media to participate in creating and
managing peace parks
Producing educational program to raise awareness and promote
Balkan Peace Park
Creating scenarios for international research which can include
ecotourism and cultural tourism products development in the transboundary region as a strategy for poverty elimination
Peace tourism as a force of sustainable development in the Balkan peace
park region requires population that is aware of the goals of a sustainable
community and has the knowledge and skills to contribute to those goals.
So, promotion of peace tourism model in the region should include
awareness of its practicices and expected contribution to sustanable
Peace parks as a tool of peace tourism have a vital role in contributing
reconciliation and sustainable development and the alleviation of poverty
worldwide. At the other side, fostering peace tourism and creation of peace
parks may become an increasingly important factor of regional stability and
post – conflict cooperation. Apart from peace and stability promotion, there
is a marketing component of peace parks given in the increasing visits of
eco-tourists, educational travelers and cultural tourist.
Developing Peace Park in Balkans should be based on idea of creating a
trans-national, cross-border region between Kosovo, Montenegro and
Albania as a symbol of peace and cooperation in order to:
promote environmental conservation
stimulate local employment in rural area
promote educational travel and sustainable visitors’ activities in the
Developing peace parks in rural post-conflict region by the given model
may help to link West Balkans economies with EU and emerging
economies. Peace park in the Balkan as a recent conflict area may be a great
case to confirm that tourists may be ambassadors of peace, while tourism
diplomacy is a vital social concept.
1. Adams, W.M. (2001): Green Development: Environment and
Sustainability in the Third World. Routledge, London and New
2. Ali, Saleem H. (2008): Peace Parks - Conservation and Conflict
Resolution, the MIT Press, Cambridge, MA
3. Backhaus, Norman (2005): Tourism and Nature Conservation in
Malaysian National Parks (Kultur, Gesellschaft, Umwelt), Lit
4. Brainard, L, Chollet, D (2007): Too Poor for Peace?: Global
Poverty, Conflict, and Security in the 21st Century, the Brookings
Institution, Washington, D.C.
5. Moufakkir, Omar, Kelly, Ian (2010): Tourism, Progress and Peace,
Cabi International, Oxfodshire, UK
6. Radis A.M: The Role of Resource Sharing Initiatives in PeaceBuilding: the Case of Peace Parks
7. Spring, V, Kirkendall, T (2003): Glacier-Waterton International
Peace Park, The Mountaineers Books, Seattle
8. Vitić-Ćetković, A.: Globalni marketing pristup konceptu
odgovornog turizma, Hotellink br. 13-14, VI/10, Časopis za teoriju i
praksu hotelijerstva (UDK 640.4), Beograd, Srbija, 2009, p. 371375., ISSN 1451 – 5113
INFLUENCE OF TOURISM SECTOR
IN ALBANIAN GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT
During last years, tourism sector has significantly increased in Albania,
since after year 1990 Albania has passed from a centralized economy to a
liberal one. Tourism sector plays an important role in economic and social
development. The contributions of this sector reflect directly to the
generation of national income. The two main components matching the
tourism movements are the number of tourists and the number of overnights
in hotels. Investments done in this sector could be expected to have high
positive influence in the country’s GDP.
This study seeks to identify the influence of tourists, their overnights in
hotels and capital investment spending by all sectors directly involved in
tourism sector on tourism total contribution to gross domestic product of
Albania during 1996-2009. A regression analysis has been performed taking
as dependent variable GDP generated by tourism sector and as independent
variables, capital investment, tourist number and overnights in hotels. Even
if all the variables are founded to have positive relationship, as expected, the
variable ‘overnights of foreigners and Albanians in hotels’ is not statistically
Keywords: Tourism sector, capital investment, regression analysis, Albania.
In general, tourism is considered one of the largest industries in the
economy. It is seen as the key promoter of both economic growth and social
Lecturer at Epoka University, Banking and Finance Department, firstname.lastname@example.org
development because of its potential to promote understanding and
international relationships. Tourism is a mixture of natural resources such
as, climate, natural beauty and environment, and a favorable climate putted
up by governmental structures, habitants’ good willingness toward tourism
development and appropriate infrastructure. The Albanian Riviera is
considered very rich and special compared to the modest surface of the
Albanian territories. The main difficulties that Albania is facing in the
tourism sector are the issues that have to do with the infrastructure. Even if
in these last years the government has invested in it, the infrastructure
condition is pretty humble compared to the other countries.
Tourism development is closely connected to investment and employment.
In this context during the years 2009-2010, the restaurant, bar-restaurants,
shopping centers, transportation and construction of various infrastructure,
have increased their activity39, having positive impact also in the increase in
the employment level in tourist areas. The generated income from tourism
sector is used in the development of important areas. During 2010, the
number of foreigners who have visited Albania has increased by 30.2 per
cent compared to 2009, mostly from Kosovo, Macedonia and Montenegro
and the number of clients accommodated in hotels increased by 13.8 percent
in 2010 compared with the previous year. Average night staying in hotels
for 2010 was 2.5 40.
This study aims to find out the main components positively influencing in
the contribution to the total gross domestic product of Albania. The
econometric model used in this study uses three variables, which are
supposed to explain the tourism contribution to GDP. Capital investment
and arrivals of foreigners by means of transport result as significant for the
applied model, whereas overnights of foreigners and Albanians in hotels is
insignificant. This is probably because there exist a considerable number of
private hosting homes in Albania that “act” as hotel without being officially
registered as hotels, which are much cheaper and as a consequence, much
Albanian Institute of Statistics (INSTAT), www.instat.gov.al
II. Data and Methodology
It is of great importance to analyze the variables path through the time. The
period used for the variables trend is 1995-2010 since there are no available
data before year 1995. The GDP generated by direct travel and tourism
industries 41 and capital investment spending by all sectors directly involved
in the travel and tourism industries 42 are taken from the World Travel &
Tourism Council (WTTC). Whereas, the data for two other variables,
precisely arrivals of foreigners by means of transport and overnights of
foreigners and Albanians in hotels are taken from official website of
Albanian Institute of Statistics (INSTAT). All the data are included in the
Appendix, Table 1.
Based on the graph below, the travel and tourism total contribution to GDP
is found to have a positive and almost constant trend from year to year.
Capital investment has experienced stagnation during 1995-2000 and 20032010, showing up the only immediate increase during 2000-2003. Based on
this configuration, is can be strongly support the fact that the Albanian
economy did not generate the same incomes through the years in the
tourism sector. The third variable, arrivals of foreigner by means of
transport, shows a fall down in year 1997, corresponding with the political
problems in Albania during this year. Beginning from 1998 and on, the
arrivals of foreigners has increased slowly and just after 2005 this variable
has significantly increase. The last variable, the overnights of foreigners and
Albanians in hotel, show up a more complicated trend. In year 1997, 2004
and 2008 the overnights of tourist in hotels have experienced significant
decline. However, year 2010 shows the largest number of tourists in the
hotels inside Albania.
Definition: GDP generated by direct travel and tourism industries plus the indirect and
induced contributions, including the contribution of capital investment spending.
Definition: Capital investment spending by all sectors directly involved in the travel and
tourism industries. This also constitutes investment spending by other industries on specific
tourism assets such as new visitor accommodation, passenger transportation equipment, as
well as restaurants and leisure facilities for specific tourism use.
Multiple regression is a technique that allows more than one factor to enter
the analysis separately so that the effect of each can be estimated. This
method gives the opportunity to identify the impact of various simultaneous
influences upon a single dependent variable. There are five assumptions that
must be met in multiple regression and correlation: linearity,
homoscedasticity, normality, multicollinearity and autocorrelation. Based on
graph 2, the first two assumptions can be confirmed as fulfilled conditions.
The normality and the autocorrelation assumptions also held for our
The only problematic issue can be evident in the multicollinearity
assumption, which exists when the independent variables are correlated. For
this reason the correlation matrix between variables has been constructed
(Table 2). According to the results, the most powerful correlation exists
between arrivals of foreigners by mean of transports and overnights of
foreigners and Albanians in hotels since it has the value of 0.762. The
second strong correlation exists between arrivals of foreigners by mean of
transports and capital investment that is 0.703 and finally the correlation
between capital investment and overnights of foreigners and Albanians in
hotels which is 0.642. According to different authors, there is no a special
problem in case the correlation coefficient between the independent
variables vary from +0.70 to -.070. The first correlation can be assumed to
be pretty near to this interval. Hence no special problem is related to our
model referring the multicollinearity assumption.
Table 2. Correlation matrix between variables
to GDP (in
by Means of
GDP (in billion
the Regression Model
In this study, the multiple regression equation includes 3 independent
variables, such as X1, X2, and X3.
Y is travel and tourism total contribution to GDP.
X1 is capital investment.
X2 is arrivals of foreigners by means of transport.
X3 is overnights of foreigners and Albanians in hotels.
a is the Y-intercept, the value of Y when all the X’s are zero.
bj is the net change in Y for each unit change in Xj, holding all other X’s
The values of b1, b2 and b3 are called the regression coefficients. They
indicate the change in the estimated value of the dependent variable for a
unit change in one of the independent variables, when the other independent
variables are held constant. By using the coefficients, the regression
equation is as below:
Table 3 gives a clear picture of the regression of GDP generated by tourism
sector and capital investment, arrivals of foreigners and tourists’ overnights
Table 3. OLS Regression of GDP generated by tourism sector and 3 independent variables
Arrivals of Foreigners
by Means of
Notes: 1- *Significant at the 5%
2- The values in
Overnights of Foreigners
and Albanians in Hotels
brackets are t-values.
The ANOVA Table
A convenient means of showing the regression output is to use an ANOVA
table. The variation in the dependent variable is separated into two
components: the explained variation and unexplained variation.
The column headed "DF" refers to the degrees of freedom associated with
each category. The total degrees of freedom is (n − 1) = 15. The degrees of
freedom for regression is k, the number of independent variables. The
degrees of freedom associated with the error term is n − (k + 1) = 12. The
SS in the middle of the top row of the ANOVA table refers to the sum of
squares, or the variation.
Total variation = total = Y − Y )
Regression variation =SSR = Y − Y ) = Total − SSE )
Error variation = = Y − Y
The column headed MS refers to the mean square and is obtained by
dividing the SS term by the df term. Thus, MSR, the mean square
regression, is equal to SSR/k, and MSE equals SSE/ [n − (k + 1)]. The
results of ANOVA table are as below:
Analysis of Variance
It is likely that the estimation can include some error. The error in the
predicted value of the dependent variable is measured by the multiple
standard error of estimate.
Another measure of the effectiveness of the regression equation is the
coefficient of multiple determination, which is the proportion of the
variation in the dependent variable, Y, that is explained by the set of
independent variables x1, x2, x3,…xk
The coefficient of multiple determination, R 2, take the values from 0 to 1,
which is the percent of the variation explained by the regression. The closer
R2 is to 1, the stronger the association between Y and the set of independent
variables, x1, x2, x3,…xk .
The ANOVA table is used to calculate the coefficient of multiple
determination. It is the sum of squares due to the regression divided by the
sum of squares total.
In our regression model, the coefficient of multiple determination is 0.98,
indicating that the three independent variables, considered jointly, explain
98 percent of the variation in billions of tourism sector contribution to GDP.
Adjusted Coefficient of Determination
As the number of independent variables in the regression model increases,
the coefficient of multiple determination increases. Even if the additional
independent variable is not a good predictor, its inclusion in the model
decreases SSE which in turn increases SSR and R2. In this case Radj is used
to measure the effectiveness of multiple regression model.
Global Test: Testing Whether the Multiple Regression Model is Valid
The overall ability of the independent variables X1 ,X2, . . . Xk , to explain the
behavior of the dependent variable Y can be tested. Two tests of hypotheses
are considered. The first one is called the global test, which investigates the
possibility that all the regression coefficients are equal to zero.
It tests the overall ability of the set of independent variables to explain
differences in the dependent variable. The null and the alternative
hypothesis are as below:
H0: b1 = b 2 = b3 = 0
H1: Not all the bs = 0
The test statistic used is the F distribution is calculated to be the
following which corresponds also with table 3.
The critical value of F is found to be 3.12 (the significance level equal to
0.05, degree of freedom at nominator 3 and degree of freedom at
denominator 12). By comparing F-stat to critical value of F, the null
hypothesis is rejected, meaning that not all the regression coefficient is
equal to zero. Hence, at least one or more of independent variables is useful
in explaining differences in the dependent variable, without identifying
which regression coefficients are not zero and how many.
Evaluating Individual Regression Coefficients
The second test of hypothesis identifies which of the set of independent
variables are significant predictors of the dependent variable. That is, it tests
the independent variables individually rather than as a unit. This test is
useful because unimportant variables can be eliminated from the regression
model. The null and the alternative hypothesis are as below:
H0: b2 = 0
H1: b2 ≠ 0
The test statistic is the Student t distribution with n − (k + 1) degrees of
freedom. In this study the degree of freedom is equal to 12. The critical
value for alpha equal to 0.05, two-tailed test, is then equal to +/-2.179. in
order to find out if the null hypothesis should be rejected or not, the critical
value is compared to student test, which is computed by the software and
founded in table 3. The results of student tests are as below:
In the case of the first and the second variable, the null hypothesis is
rejected, whereas in the third variable, the hypothesis test finds that the null
hypothesis cannot be rejected. Hence, the variable should be dropped from
the model. Based also in table 3, if the first two variables are founded
significant at 0.05 significance level, the third variable is not significant
even for 0.1 significance level. After the variable “overnights of foreigners
and Albanians in hotels” is removed from the model, a new regression
model is constructed using the other two remaining variables. The
remaining variables are both significant and the new model is explained
Table 4. OLS Regression of GDP generated by tourism sector and 2
Arrivals of Foreigners by Means
of Transport (in thousands)
Notes: 1- *Significant at the 5% level
2- The values in brackets are
After running the regression equation the following results showed up:
1. The most powerful correlation of independent variables is founded
between arrivals of foreigners by mean of transports and overnights
of foreigners and Albanians in hotels of 0.762.
2. During 1995-2010, the independent variables, ‘capital investment’ and
‘arrivals of foreigners by mean of transports’ are significant
predictors for the dependent variable ‘travel and tourism total
contribution to GDP’.
3. The independent variable, overnights of foreigners and Albanians in
hotels, is insignificant to explain the contribution to GDP coming
from tourism sector.
As a consequence, the model helps us to identify the impact factors in the
contribution of GDP in tourism sector. An intense emphasizes should be
provided to the capital investment in tourism sector since high level of
investment in this sector and smartly defined the pivotal parts of the
Albanian tourism would lead to higher incomes from tourism sector. The
second issue to underline is that both, the foreigner and the Albanians are
potential tourists. It is crucial the establishment of different strategies, new
techniques and innovative ideas for tourism marketing inside and outside
Table 1. Main economic indicators in tourism sector for the period 19952010
GDP (in billion
Albanians in Hotels
Albanian Institute of Statistics (INSTAT), www.instat.gov.al
Chow, G. (1989). Econometrics, McGraw Hill, New York
Dougherty, Ch. (2007). Introduction to Econometrics, Oxford University
Hannan, E.J., Deistler, M. (1988). The Statistical Theory of Linear Systems,
New York Wiley
Reinsel, G.C. (1997). Elements of Multivariate Time Series Analysis,
Springer Varleg, New York
Wonnacott, T.H., Wonnacott, R.J. (1990). Introductory Statistics for
Business and Economics, New York Wiley
World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC), www.wttc.org
TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN ALBANIA
PA. (Candidat Dr.) Bashkim Berberi
Public Administration Department,
Business Administration Faculty,
Kristal University, Tirana
MSc. (Candidat Dr.) Ledjon Shahini
Head of Synthesis of National Accounts Sector,
Institute of Statistics “INSTAT”, Tirana
The tourism economy is rated as one of the main branches of economic
development of Albania.
Albania's tourist resources are abundant and diversified. The presence of
two seas in almost a third of the length of the boundary of the Albanian state
is one of the famous tourist resources and traditionally used in Albania.
Almost in the same resource group can be entered two lakes: the Prespa and
Shkodra. Both lakes are simultaneously accessible to beaches, for
navigation and for development of sport fishing.
The existence of several navigable rivers creates good opportunities for
tourism of various kinds. Some of the banks of rivers have historically been
used for beaches. Some rivers, especially recently, have been used to
develop sports rowing, fishing etc..
Albania is about three-quarters of its surface a mountainous and hilly
country. Its rugged geography creates great opportunities for tourism
development of different types during the four seasons of the year.
The geographical proximity of the two opposite situations geographical –
the Mediterranean coast and continental geographical relief - creates also
considerable tourist resources in Albania. Albania is a country with ancient
history and culture. Within the administrative territory of the Albanian state
to detect and are still detected several dozens of large and small by
historical, cultural and museum.
These and numerous other factors make the country a land of boundless
potential of tourism resources. Using the current values and development
potential of those resources to create also a major financial income and
resources for the overall development of the Albanian state and nation, not
only economically, but also other areas of cultural, technological and
technical, historical, political etc.. Targeted use of these resources can and
should be done through clear policies and strategies of short-term and longterm government institutions and agencies and other public and private
tourism development. In these policies and strategies should occupy their
proper place the direct and indirect investments in tourism which impact on
tourism providing a condition for development. Such investments are to be
made in the field of transport infrastructure, communications, in training
employees of various public and non public administration, in the field of
The growth that tourism has achieved in recent years makes us believe that
Albania is on the path towards making tourism an active generator of
economic development. However, what has been done is not enough. This
leads as to the result that if Albania could use its resources to the interest of
tourism, it could be much more developed that it actually is. Tourism holds
excellent potential as a catalyst for economic growth and is therefore
considered as a key sector at a macro-economic level.
In the analysis of tourism, there are many issues that have been discussed,
but there is one issue that economists have paid more attention to:
forecasting inbound tourism demand. In this context, the most frequent
approach is to build economic models and to analyze time-series data for
variables that have impact in tourism demand. The models of demands are
the most common methodology applied to understand the scale and
underlying determinants of tourism on a national level. Within this
approach, the most common determinants of demand are income,
investments, price levels, international trade, etc.
According to theoretical point of view, the independent or explanatory
variables for tourism can be grouped in three categories: Socio-economic
and demographic factors, qualitative factors, and price factors. Each of these
broad determinants can be broken down into specific factors directly
applicable to tourism. In the first part of the material it will be given a
theoretical analyze of the factors that impact the tourism demand.
In the second part it will be analyzed an economic model for the case of
Albania for some of the variables that are more significant in tourism.
Economic and demographic explanatory variables could include from
income per capita, investments per capita, level of education, etc. However,
must be considered the fact that not all of these are either insignificant or
meaningless at an aggregate national level.
The income in generally referees “per-capita income” to present the capacity
of household to spend in tourism. The relation between incomes per capita
and tourism is explained by the economic theory. As per-capita incomes
rise, average disposable incomes will increase, along with the ability to
afford the time and money expenses for tourism. According to the theory,
there is a positive relation between them. As incomes rise, a smaller share of
consumer budgets must be devoted to necessities such as food, clothing, and
housing, with more available income and leisure for expenditures such as
Investments, especially in roads and buildings (hotels), tell the possibility
that the country offer for tourists 43. In the case when we are interested more
in the factors that impact the tourism attraction the value of investments per
capita is significant in the number of tourists. From macro economy theory
is known that:
GDP = C + I + G + Nx
The number of tourists arriving at a destination from a specific country of origin per
annum represents the amount of tourism. Numbers of international tourist arrivals are based
on the organization’s description of an international tourist. International tourism is strictly
defined as the activities of visitors who temporarily visit countries outside of their usual
places of work and residence for greater than 24 hours. In other words, the dependent
variable of tourism demand represents the arrivals in Albania for at least one full day.
It can be seen that economic relation between income and investments is
very strong so in the model it will be included only one of these tow
There are many factors like simple availability and quality of tourism
services in a given country that influences international tourism demand.
Even they are very important, are also nearly impossible to quantify. These
factors qualify as one possible factor influencing the willingness for tourists
to travel to a particular country. However, if demand for tourism to a
country existed unfulfilled, willing investors would meet any possible
opportunity for profit by expanding local infrastructure and accessibility,
assuming open markets.
There are some other underlying determinants of demand that explain most
tourism development, or lack thereof. Of extreme importance is tourist
appeal of cultural landmarks, protected endowments of cherished national
resources, etc. There are just a few of the assets countries claim in differing
degrees that may draw an individual tourist to one country rather than
another. Although they are important for the tourism development these
qualitative resources elude any attempts at quantification for present
analyses. These are merely intangibles that, while they might influence
demand for given countries, will remain forever relegated to the error term
of any econometric study.
This study seeks to illuminate the impact of one particular qualitative factor,
the political situation of host countries, on the demand for international
tourism. The impacts of the political variable have to be considerate because
countries with more authoritarian political regimes and heavily controlled
economies can be expected to exhibit greater social instability and therefore,
be less attractive as tourist destinations. For example, changing preferences
over time periods can be exhibited by the ebb and flow of tourists to a
particular nation as its political regime changes.
Countries with political problems and economic mismanagement will be
less likely to have well-developed tourist infrastructure, further hampering
demand. As a result political effects should be significant in any given year
because tourists will be more likely to visit nations with greater freedoms.
Countries characterized by unstable political conditions are more likely to
be susceptible to terrorist attacks, which further hamper demand, as has
been shown in numerous previous studies. The deleterious effect of
political strife on tourism has to be taken in consideration because it could
harm tourism and reduce demand.
One of the price variables is transport costs, or the costs of traveling to a
destination country by land, sea, and air. While important theoretically, as
the price of airfares can vary wildly (the most common means of
international travel), it is nonetheless usually omitted from models of
demand. Usually, the exclusion of transport costs from a model is justified
on the basis of data limitations. For one, meaningful transport cost variables
are nearly impossible to construct owing to the complexities of fare
structures (Syriopolus and Sinclair, 1993). These might include different
prices for seat classes, air carriers, means of transport, or discounted bargain
fares, which are relatively important for tourist flows to certain markets.
Even rudimentary averages of fare prices that approximate at least some of
these unique characteristics are simply unavailable in time-series data.
Furthermore, merely measuring the prices of airfare, even if done precisely,
would be inadequate representations of the cost of transport.
Transportation also includes economic costs including long, uncomfortable,
and impractical flights. It is reasonable to assume that travelers confronted
with a hypothetical situation of equal fare prices across the globe would
choose more convenient destinations, all else held constant.
Flights to distant continents are both more time-consuming and expensive,
so it means of transportation to a given destination can be diverse.
Therefore, both the prices and economic costs of international transport
serve as hindrances for long-distance international travel. Thus, to only
account for airline data would ignore important alternative means of travel
which would vary in importance depending on the location and its prices.
Hence, because of the inaccessibility of adequate data, it is frequently
necessary to merely ignore the influence of transport costs in a model of
tourism demand. This tendency is reinforced here, especially since past
models that have been able to approximate changes in transport costs
indicate that they do not appear as significant determinants of demand
Secondly, the price of other costs like accommodations, food, drink, tour
services, souvenirs, and entertainment, among many others. As is indicated
by the aforementioned list of common tourist expenditures, the economic
activities of travelers are subject to the prices of many different markets.
Furthermore, the expenses of travelers may vary significantly among chosen
Thus, a consistent and representative “Tourism Price Index” based on a
well-defined basket of goods consumed by tourists is not available, nor does
it seem likely that one could ever be formulated that would be satisfactory
for a wide variety of nations and individuals. Any such price index would
likely either underestimate the number of commodity markets that tourists
interact with, or would be subject to skewed comparisons among
destinations with different attributes.
A more inclusive approach to measuring international in-country prices is to
construct a Price Competitive Index (PCI). The first task io manufacture a
PCI, is to obtain the general overall price level of an economy. According to
Divisekera (2003), the implicit assumption underlying the use of general
price levels is that “prices of tourism goods and services tend to move in the
same direction as overall consumer prices” (32). However, merely using
national Consumer Price Indices (CPIs) or other measures of general price
levels are meaningless for international analyses, as different base years,
inflationary pressures, and exchange rates preclude direct comparisons of
relative prices across destinations. Hence, one must calculate Purchasing
Power Parities (PPPs), which indicate the levels of expenditure required in
different countries to consume the same general basket of goods and
services. To complete the Price Competitive Index (PCI), one must adjust
for the effects of exchange rate variations in PPPs, so as to obtain an
objective index standard for comparing relative prices among countries, and
then multiply by 100, as follows:
PCI = (ExchangeRate / PPP) * 100
In so doing, a general basis for comparing the relative prices of staying in
competing destinations is obtained.
Economic Model for Albania
Given the aforementioned independent and dependent variables, a
preliminary functional form for the tourism demand model is as follows,
TOURpc = f (GFCFpc, PCI , Trade)
• TOURpc => International tourism per capita: International inbound
tourists are the number of visitors who travel to a country other than that
where they have their usual residence for a period not exceeding 12
months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity
remunerated from within the country visited.
• GFCFpc => Gross Fixe Capital Formation per capita: investment includes
land improvements plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the
construction of roads, railways, and the like, including commercial and
industrial buildings, offices, schools, hospitals, and private residential
dwellings. Data are in constant local currency.
• PCI => Price calculated as the ratio between the official exchange rate44
and purchasing power parity conversion factor (PPP 45).
• TRADE => Trade measured as a share of exports and imports measured in
current LEK divided by the value of GDP.
The correct functional form for the econometric analysis should be chosen
based upon economic theory rather than the best statistical fit. In a simple
linear regression model, the slopes of the relationships between independent
variables X and a dependent variable Y are assumed to be constant. On the
other hand, the elasticity of Y with respect to X, or the change in the
dependent variable given a one percent increase in the independent variable,
is not constant. Yet, according to prevailing economic theory, product
demand models are presumed to have constant elasticities and non-constant
slopes. The most accepted way to model constant elasticities is to use a
double-log transformation, where the natural log of Y is the dependent
variable and the natural logs of the X’s are the explanatory variables. In a
double-log model, each coefficient on an independent variable is interpreted
as the percentage change in Y attributable to a one-percent change in X.
Thus, the demand curve is bowed towards the origin, such that slopes may
vary but elasticities are the same at any point along the curve. In general,
using this economic framework, the model for tourism demand from one
Official exchange rate refers to the actual, principal exchange rate and is an annual
average based on monthly averages.
The PPP is the number of units of a country’s currency required to buy the same amounts
of goods and services in the domestic market as $1 would buy in the United States.
country of origin to one destination would look as follows after a double-log
LnTOURpc = β1 LnGFCFpc + β 2 PCI + β3 LnTrade
After we apply the transformation we take the relation given below with
respective coefficients for our model.
LnTOURpc = + 1.223LnGFCFpc + 1986 PCI + 1.895LnTrade
From the summary table, we can see that R2 = 95.3 %, so the model is well
explained with the variables that have been taken in consideration. But for
models with more than one independent variable it is better to consider the
revised R2 for the evaluation of the models that have a value: R = 93.9% .
Table 1: Model Summary(b)
Std. Error of
a Predictors: (Constant), LnTrade, LnPrice, LnGFCFpc
b Dependent Variable: LnTOURpc
In the ANOVA table are presented the degrees of freedom for each case. To
see if our model is important or not, are made different tests. Most well
known is Fisher-Test which tells if our model is statistical significant or not.
This test considers the importance of the entire model without testing the
particular variables. We get from the ANOVA table the observed Fisher
value, while critical Fisher can be found from the statistical tables for the
level of significance α = 5% and degree of freedom (k-1) and (n-k).
Fv =67.292 > Fk-1
,α / 2
From the ANOVA table, we see that the significant is less than 0.05, which
proves what our model is statistically significant.
Table 2: ANOVA(b)
a Predictors: (Constant), LnTrade, LnPrice, LnGFCFpc
b Dependent Variable: LnTOURpc
In the same time we are interested even for the importance for each of
coefficients for the model. In this case is used t-test where we compare
observed tobserved value taken from the table below with tcritic.
t= 6.565 > = 2.16
tvβ2 2.954 > = 2.16
t= 2.654 > = 2.16
For all the coefficients we see that to is higher that tc which means that each
of the variables is statistically significant in the model.
Table 3: Coefficients(a)
a Dependent Variable: LnTOURpc
Based on the results we saw above that our model was statistically
significant and all the coefficient were significant we have to make some
other tests before we give final results. In the case when independent
variables have a total linear relationship with each other we say that our
model has perfect multicollinearity. Originally it meant the existence of a
“perfect,” or exact, linear relationship among some or all explanatory
variables of a regression model. For the k-variable regression involving
explanatory variable X1, X2, . . . , Xk (where X1 = 1 for all observations to
allow for the intercept term), an exact linear relationship is said to exist if
the following condition is satisfied:
λ1 X 1 + λ2 X 2 + ........ + λk X k =
where λk are constant and at least one of them is diferent from 0
To see if we have the problem of multicollinearity we have to see if R2 is
high. In our case it is R2 = 0.95, which is very high. Another moment is to
test each of the coefficients which in our model are significant. So from this
point of view we can’t say that in our model we have the presence of
multicolinearity. For this reason we make another test Klein-test. Based on
this test R2 is compared with partial correlation taken from the table below.
Table 4: Correlations
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
R = 0.939 > rx1x2 = 0.776
R = 0.939 > rx1x3 = 0.614
R = 0.939 > rx2 x3 = 0.501
If R2 is higher than partial correlation we say that our model don’t have the
presence of multikolinearity, the case of our model.
Another test is Farrar-Glauber test which consist in estimation of the
determinant for partial correlation coefficients. We built hypothesis:
H 0 : D = 1 (colinearity doesn't exist)
H a : D = 0 (colinearity exist)
In the first step we estimate the determinant as follow:
rx1x2 rx1x3 1
D = 0.881 1
rx x rx x
1 0.784 0.708 1
In the second step we test the significant of the deter
χ v2 =− n − 1 − (2k + 5) ln D =− 14 − 1 − (2 * 4 + 5) * ln(0.333) =
χ v2 χ k2 → χ v2 χα ; 1
k ( k −1)
→ χ v2 = 11.9 < χ k2 = 12.53 → H 0 ↑
So even from this test we conclude that our model doesn’t suffer from
Another important assumption of the classical linear regression model is
that the disturbances ui appearing in the population regression function are
homoscedastic. This means that they all have the same variance. If this
condition is not fulfilled we have a phenomena known as heteroscedasticity.
To know if in model we have the presence of heteroscedasticity we can
make graphic analyzes to see if residual squared u i exhibit any systematic
pattern. In Figure 1, u i are plotted against i . Idea is to find out whether
the estimated mean value of Y is systematically related to the squared
residual. In Figure 1 we see that there is no systematic pattern between the
two variables, suggesting that perhaps no heteroscedasticity is present in the
Fig 1: Relationship between residual squared and Tourist per capita
Except graphical analyses there are many test that can be done for this
porpoise. One of them is White’s General Heteroscedasticity Test which is
easy to implement. Firstly we have to estimate and obtain the residuals,
u i and after that ran the following regression:
ui = + α X + α X + α X + α X 2 + α X 2 + α X 2 + α X * X + α X * X + α X * X + v
Where: X corresponds with the variables of our model.
After that we build hypothesis
H 0 : α i = (there is no heteroscedasticity)
H a : α i ≠ 0 (there is heteroscedasticity)
In the next step we test each of the coefficients if are statistical significant
with t-test. From the table below we see that none of the coefficient is
important, which means that we don’t have the presence of
Table 5: Coefficients(a)
a Dependent Variable: lnu2
In the end we have to se even if in our data excist a correlation over time,
which is called autocorrelation. Firstly we have to se graphical data of errors
over time where we can see that there are no relation in time.
Fig 2: Errors term over time
Another way is to make a test for this purpose, Durbin-Watson Test which
is the most celebrated test for detecting serial correlation. The value of the
test is taken from the tab 1, DW = 1.844 which is near 2, that mean no
autocorrelation. To be surer we take from DW table the d1 and d2 values.
Based on these values, if DW value is higher then d2 and less than 4-d2 we
conclude that our model doesn’t suffer from autocorrelation.
For α = 0.05, n=14 and k=3
From the table 1 we see that DW=1.844
d2=1.779 < DW=1.844 < 4 - d2=1.779 → H 0 ↑
So we don’t have the presence of autocorrelation in our model.
- In the case of Albania from the model build we can conclude that the
variables that are significant in tourism growth are Investments,
exchange rate and foreign trade.
- As we have to do with time series data, which in case of Albania
consists in 14 years only, we have done all the tests that our OLS
model to be significant.
- Because our independent variables are related with each other to
eliminate the colinearity problems we have done the double log
- The relation between tourism and three independent variables is
- Michael Brakke, “International Tourism, Demand, and GDP
Implications: A Background and Empirical Analysis”, St. John's
- Mohd Hafiz Mohd Hanafiah and Mohd Fauzi Mohd Harun, “Tourism
Demand in Malaysia: A cross-sectional pool time-series analysis”,
International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, Vol. 1, No.
1, June, 2010 2010-023X
- Nikolaos Dritsakis and Spiros Athanasiadis, “An Econometric Model
of Tourist Demand”: The Case of Greece (2004)
- White, K. An International Travel Demand Model: US Travel to
Western Europe. Annals of Tourism Research, 12(1985), 529-545.
- Jeremy J. Foster, 1998, 2001, “Data Analysis Using SPSS for
Windows Versions 8 to 10 A Beginner’s Guide”.
THE INFLUENCE OF PREVIOUS VISITATION ON
CUSTOMER’S EVALUATION OF A TOURISM DESTINATION
Prof. Dr. Jovan Stojanoski
Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality, Ohrid, Macedonia
Klime Poposki, PhD
Insurance Supervision Agency of Republic of Macedonia
Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality, Ohrid, Macedonia
Prof Dr. Liljana Elmazi
Head of Marketing Department, Faculty of Economics, University of
The paper investigates the customer’s perspective on a tourism destination
brand through four proposed dimensions: awareness, image, quality and
loyalty dimension. In addition to the brand’s dimensions evaluation, the
influence of previous visitation on each proposed dimension is presented.
The main purpose of this paper is to present the customer’s perspective on
destination brand evaluation and to confirm (or reject) the influence of
previous visitation on the process of brand evaluation. The evaluation of a
tourism destination brand Albania in the minds of Macedonian and Kosovon
respondents will serve us as an investigated example.
In addition to an evaluation for each investigated dimensions’ variables for
destination Albania as perceived by Macedonian and Kosovon respondents,
the study confirms also the influence of previous visitation on brand
In the investigated example, previous visitation is recognized as the
improvement factor in Albania’s evaluation in the minds of Macedonian and
Key Words: customer’s evaluation, tourism destination, brand, previous
A significant amount of effort has been devoted to presenting the customer’s
perspective on brand concept (Aaker 1991; Keller 1993). Those analyses
have not been oriented only toward evaluation of products (Yoo t al. 2000;
Faircloth et al. 2001), services (de Chernatony and Dall’Olmo Riley 1999)
and organizational brands (Dowling 2002), but also towards evaluation of a
destination brands (Cai 2002; Morgan and Pritchard 2002; Olins 2002;
Konecnik 2004). The entry of many new destinations into the market is
forcing all destinations to compete in the battle to win more tourists
(Konecnik 2002). The role of smaller destinations is even more emphasized
because the vast majority of tourists (70%) visit just ten main countries
(Morgan et al. 2002). To achieve their goals, destinations are doing their
best to remain competitive in the international market (Baloglu and
McCleary 1999; Gomezelj Omerzel 2006). Within the last few years,
attention has been oriented towards the development of a destination brand,
which should have a strong and unique position in the mind of potential
Many empirical studies about tourism destination evaluation stress the
important role of previous visitation, which is treated as an improvement
(Fakeye and Crompton 1991; Milman and Pizam 1995; Baloglu and
McCleary 1999) or realistic (Hu and Ritchie 1993; Mackay and Fesenmaier
1997) factor in destination evaluation. Regardless of its positive or even
negative effect on the tourist’s evaluation of a destination, previous
visitation was recognized as an important factor in the process of tourists’
evaluation of a destination brand.
The main purpose of this paper is to present the customer’s perspective on
destination brand evaluation and to confirm (or reject) the influence of
previous visitation on the process of brand evaluation. The evaluation of a
tourism destination brand Albania in the minds of Macedonian and Kosovon
respondents will serve us as an investigated example.
Customer’s Evaluation of a Tourism- Destination
Customer’s evaluation of a tourism destination phenomenon has attracted
enormous interest among tourism research lines. Within this demand-side
perspective on the tourism destination phenomenon, mostly the concept of
tourism destination image has been investigated (Hunt 1975; Crompton
1979; Gartner 1986; 1993; Echtner and Ritchie 1993; Baloglu and
McCleary 1999; Baloglu 2001; Brezovec 2001; Brezovec et al. 2004;
Gallarza et al. 2002; Pike 2002). Although the numerous empirical studies
have stressed the important role of the image concept in destination brand
evaluation, the marketing researchers argue that a customer’s perspective on
the brand equity phenomenon should incorporate a more comprehensive
measure for its evaluation (Faircloth et al. 2001; Yoo and Donthu 2001).
The so proposed customer’s perspective on brand evaluation was introduced
through the concept of customer-based brand equity (Aaker 1991; Keller
1993; Yoo and Donthu 2001). As a relatively newly developed construct,
the concept has attracted great interest in the last fifteen years (Barwise
1993; Vazquez et al. 2002). Till now, no consensus has been reached as to
which dimensions constitute the customer’s perspective on brand. On the
contrary, there is some evidence leading to an adjustment of brand equity
dimensions. These steps are evident in analyses (Faircloth et al. 2001; Yoo
and Donthu 2001) based on Aaker (1991) and Keller’s (1993)
categorization. Combining both approaches of the leading authors; we
follow the line of researchers (Aaker 1991; Yoo and Donthu 2001) who
claim that the customer’s evaluation of a brand comprises awareness, image,
quality and loyalty dimensions.
Similarly as in the previous group of authors, we argue that a customer’s
(tourist’s) perspective on the tourism destination phenomenon consists of
tourism destination awareness, tourism destination image and quality
dimensions, as well as tourist’s loyalty toward the investigated destination.
Numerous studies have already proposed a spectrum of variables which
incorporates a dimension of the tourism destination image concept (Gartner
1989; Echtner and Ritchie 1993; Gallarza et al. 2002). During our review we
came to the conclusion that the previous tourism destination image studies
could possibly also include a quality dimension (Koneˇcnik 2005a).
In contrast to numerous studies dealing with the tourism destination image
concept (which also include a quality dimension), the other two dimensions
have been less intensively studied. Tourism destination awareness has
mostly been investigated within the topic of the destination selection
process (Woodside and Sherrell 1977; Moutinho 1987). These studies argue
that awareness is a first and necessary step leading to destination visitation,
but it is not a sufficient one (Milman and Pizam 1995). Tourism destination
loyalty has only attracted some interest within the tourism destination brand.
Oppermann (2000) shares the same opinion in his seminal work on tourism
destination loyalty, in which he argues that the loyalty dimension should
also not be neglected for a tourism destination. Some previous studies about
a tourism destination have only partly incorporated the loyalty dimensions
(Gitelson and Crompton 1984; Fakeye and Crompton 1991; Bigne et al.
The previous visitation phenomenon has attracted significant attention
within tourism destination investigations. There are at least three content
areas for investigation. First, the topic has been extensively investigated in
connection with a tourism destination’s image (Hunt 1975; Fakeye and
Crompton 1991; Hu and Ritchie 1993; Milman and Pizam 1995; Baloglu
and McCleary 1999; Baloglu 2001); second, it has been recognized as an
important dimension in the content of tourist information sources (Gartner
1993); and, third, it represents one part of the whole destination choice
process (Woodside and Sherrell 1977;Woodside and Lysonski 1989;
Moutinho 1987; Um and Crompton 1990; Goodall 1993). However, it is not
surprising that expressions such as direct or previous experience (Baloglu
2001), internal information-search process (Gitelson and
Crompton 1983; Gartner and Bachri 1994) or significative stimuli (Um and
Crompton 1990) are treated as synonyms. Although the majority of
empirical studies treated previous visitation as an improvement factor in the
formation of a tourism destination image (Fakeye and Crompton 1991;
Milman and Pizam 1995; Baloglu and McCleary 1999; Konecnik 2002;
2005b), some researchers have recognized it as a realistic factor (Hu and
Ritchie 1993; Mackay and Fesenmaier 1997) in image evaluation.
Image as a realistic factor could either improve the visitor’s opinion about a
destination (in order the destination exceed his expectations) or even
negatively influence his/her opinion about the visited destination (in case
personal expectations regarding the visited destination were not met).
Without taking into consideration which group of authors we are following,
previous visitation has been recognized as an important factor in a tourist’s
image-formation process. In addition, previous studies also confirm its
important role in the tourism destination awareness dimension and a
tourist’s interest in visiting a destination (Milman and Pizam 1995).
-Hypothesis 1: Tourists’ previous visitations significantly influence their
perceptions of the destination evaluation.
-Hypothesis 1a: Tourism destination awareness differs between tourists
who have visited an investigated destination compared to those who
-Hypothesis 1b: Tourism destination image differs between tourists who
have visited an investigated destination compared to those who have
-Hypothesis 1c: A tourist’s perceived quality of destination differs
between tourists who have visited an investigated destination
compared to those who have not.
-Hypothesis 1d: Tourism destination loyalty differs between tourists
- who have visited an investigated destination compared to those who have
Data were collected using the computer-assisted telephone interviewing
(cati) method, which was selected due to the method’s possibility of
ensuring simple random samples (srs). Individuals aged older than 18 years
were invited to participate in the study. These individuals represent the
potential tourist population of our analysed brand Albania. In 2009,
Macedonian and Kosovon tourists had around a 57% market share in
foreign tourists’ arrivals and around a 20% market share in foreign
overnight stays, which represented the most important group of tourists in
The research was conducted in June and July 2009. The telephone
interviews were performed by a Macedonian and Kosovon professional
research agency. A total of 1437 people were contacted and the response
rate was 42.9%. The final sample consisted of 402 respondents. The
operationalisation of variables followed previous research findings and
suggestions for the development of scales (Churchill 1979).
To operationalise the awareness variables, the suggestions by Milman and
Pizam (1995) as well as Yoo and Donthu (2001) studies were employed.
The tourism destination image, which also included the quality dimension,
has been the subject of many empirical studies in tourism research.
Therefore, the operationalisation of image and quality variables was
achieved according to the suggestions of leading authors in this area: Hunt
(1975), Echtner and Ritchie (1993), Gartner (1986; 1989), Baloglu and
McCleary (1999), Gallarza et al. (2002). Finally, earlier research findings
about the brand loyalty dimension (Oliver 1996) and its application to the
tourism destination level (Fakeye and Crompton 1991; Oppermann 2000;
Bigne et al. 2001) were employed in operationalising the variables for
tourism destination loyalty. Content analyses from the qualitative research
were an additional source used for this purpose.
First, we relied on findings from the in-depth interviews with potential
tourists, which divided traditionally proposed image attribute-based
variables into variables presenting the image and the quality dimension.
Second, the results of the qualitative experience survey research among
destination managers and marketers were considered.
Finally, scale refinement in line with experts’ opinions represents an
additional source of information. The dimensions (awareness, image,
perceived quality and loyalty) for the tourism destination Albania as well
questions describing the travel profiles of respondents and their sociodemographic characteristics. The study instrument only employed closed
questions. For each proposed dimension a set of variables was employed
(five awareness, sixteen image, ten quality and four loyalty variables for
investigating each of the four proposed dimensions). The variables
aremeasured on a unipolar 5-point Likert scale, whereby 1 = ‘strongly
disagree’ and 5 = ‘strongly agree’. All scales included a neutral mean.
Generally, all variables were measured in positive directions. Only three
variables (one for the awareness dimension, the second for image and the
third for the quality dimension) had a negative direction (Spector 1994). In
further analysis, these variables were properly reverse scored. Respondents
had the possibility to choose one of several answers offered. data analysis
With the aim of presenting the Macedonian and Kosovons’ perception about
the proposed dimension for Albania as a tourism destination, univariate
statistics (means and standard deviations) for each of the proposed variables
of dimensions will be presented. In this example, analyses will be done on
the whole sample of respondents. Further, all respondents will be separated
into 2 conceptual groups, regarding the dividing criteria needed for
hypotheses testing. The first group of respondents represents those
Macedonian and Kosovons who had already visited Albania in the past (so
called visitors), while the second group of respondents represents those
Macedonian and Kosovons, who had not visited Albania in the past (so
called non-visitors). For confirmation or rejection of the proposed
hypotheses, the independent sample t-test procedure (Sharma 1996; Rovan
and Turk 2001) will be used to show significant differences for each
investigated variable of four proposed dimensions: awareness, image,
perceived quality and loyalty. In these analyses, because the significance
value for the Levene test was high, the equality of variances was
assumed.We will present the mean for each group of respondents, t-tests
between the groups and the statistically significance only for those variables
where statistical significant differences between the investigated groups will
The final sample consists of 402 Macedonian and Kosovon respondents. We
were able to ensure simple random samples (srs) due to the way of
interviewing (cati method). Therefore, we suspect that the sociodemographic characteristics of respondents reflect the characteristi