Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Second international conference    “challenges of sustainable tourism development”   shkodër, 04 november 2011
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.


Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Second international conference “challenges of sustainable tourism development” shkodër, 04 november 2011


Published on

Second International Conference …

Second International Conference
“Challenges of Sustainable Tourism Development”
Shkodër, 04 November 2011

Published in: Travel, Business

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi” Economic Faculty Second International Conference “Challenges of Sustainable Tourism Development” Shkodër, 04 November 2011 1
  • 2. Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi” Economic Faculty Second International Conference “Challenges of Sustainable Tourism Development” Shkodër, 04 November 2011 2
  • 3. Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi” Economic Faculty Second International Conference “Challenges of Sustainable Tourism Development” Shkodër, 04 November 2011 SESSION 1 3
  • 4. Copyright ©2011 Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi”, Economic Faculty All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of any part of this work beyond that permitted by author without permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Disclaimer: While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, contained in this publication, the Scientific Committee and Scientific Reviewers will not assume liability for writing and any use made of the proceedings and the presentations of the participating institutions concerning the legal status of any country, territory or area. “This project has been funded with Support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein." ISBN: 978-9928-4011-6-8 Botues: Universiteti i Shkodrës “Luigj Gurakuqi” 4
  • 5. CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS Parallel Sessions Session1: Management and sustainable tourism development Session 2: Financial and legal reforms in sustainable tourism Scientific Committee 1. Prof. Dr. Dhori Kule, Tirana University, Albania 2. Prof.Dr.Sara Santoro, University “G.d’Annunzio” Chieti-Pescara, Italy 3. Prof. Dr. Massimo Bianchi, Bologna University, Italy 4. Prof. Dr. Fausto De Salvo, Bologna University, Italy 5. Prof. Dr. Mahir Hoti, Shkodra University, Albania 6. Prof. Dr. Andrea Pieroni, University of Gastronomic Sciences, Italy 7. Prof. Dr. Andrea Kagermeier, University of Trier, Germany 8. Prof. Dr. Sulo Haderi, Tirana University, Albania 9. Prof. Dr. Fatmir Memaj, Tirana University, Albania 10. Prof. Dr. Liljana Elmazi,Tirana University, Albania 11. Prof. Dr. Vjollca Bakiu, Tirana University, Albania 12. Prof. As. Dr. Servete Gruda, Albanian Competition Institution 13. Prof. As. Dr. Kozeta Sevrani, Tirana University, Albania 14. Prof. As. Dr. Arjeta Troshani, Shkodra University, Albania 15. Prof. As. Dr. Drita Kruja, Shkodra University, Albania 16. Adriana Galvani, PhD, Bologna Univeristy, Italy 17. Dr. Armand Krasniqi, Prishtina University, Kosovo 18. Dr. Blerta Dragusha, Shkodra University, Albania 19. Dr. Albana Begani, Shkodra University, Albania 20. Dr. Brilanda Bushati, Shkodra University, Albania 21. Dr. Mirjam Dibra, Shkodra University, Albania 22. Ted Oelfke, MBA Sandhills College, USA 5
  • 6. Organizing Committee: Prof. As. Dr. Arjeta Troshani - Dean of Economic Faculty, Shkodra University Dr. Brilanda Bushati - Tourism Department, Economic Faculty, Shkodra University Alkida Hasaj, MMK - Tourism Department, Economic Faculty, Shkodra University 6
  • 7. CONTENT PREFACE ..................................................................................................11 OPENING SPEECH ..................................................................................13 Session 1: “Management and Sustainable tourism development” 1. Prof. Dr.Massimo Bianchi, Laura Tampieri, Bologna University, Master and Doctoral studies in Cultural Tourism. Problems and perspectives in Western Balkans ...........................................................21 2. Prof. As.Dr. Arjeta Troshani, Shkodra University, Ted Oelfke, MBA Sandhills College USA, Maintenance and Control of Public Use Land in Albania’s Shkoder Lake and Velipoja Beach Areas ..........................39 3. Prof. Dr. Perikli Qiriazi, Msc.Blerta Avdia Geography, University of Tirana Evaluation And Management Of Monuments of our Nature Tourism ..................................................................................................54 4. Dr. Mirjam Dibra, Shkodra University, Ted Oelfke, MBA Sandhills College USA, Integration of the Concept of Sustainable Tourism within the Higher Education Curriculum: An Albanian Case Study ................62 5. Hoxha, Dr.Sokol Mengjezi, Faculty of Law UT, Extra contracting responsibility of tourist entrepreneur for damages caused to health, security and property of client-An instrument of importance for development of tourism industry ..................................90 6. Dr. Alketa Vangjeli, Faculty of Economy University “Aleksandër Xhuvani”, Elbasan Problems And Prospects Of Sustainable Tourism Development In Albania ......................................................................104 7. Matilda LIKAJ PhD Cand Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences Epoka University Globalization dimensions and Globalization of Culture: Development of Tourism in perspective of Albanian Culture Case .........................................................................117 8. Dr. Ilir Kaduku, Agricultural University of Tirana, The Past, the Present and the Future of the Albanian Tourism .................................132 7
  • 8. 9. Dr. Brilanda Bushati, Dr. Fatbardha Molla (Beqiri), Shkodra University, Prof. Dr. Arjan Abazi, University of Tirana, IT in tourism and reservation systems ..........................................................152 10. Msc. Shqiponja Nallbani, University of Prishtina, Peje, The role of cross-border management and its impact on regional tourism development in the areas of Accursed Mountains (UES) - The role of the Kosovar institutions- ............................................................................165 11. Rovena TROPLINI MSc, Adela ÇAFULI MSc Tourism as a responsibility for growing Albanian economy ..................................178 12. Msc. Blerim KOLA, Msc. Dorian KRISTIQI, University Aleksander Moisiu Durres, The role of internet advertising to the Companies in Albania ..........................................................................194 13. Gloria Harusha Msc, Arjeta Anamali Msc, Shkodra University, Armela Anamali Msc, University Aleksander Moisiu Durres. Community involvement in tourism development ..............................205 14. Dr. Andriela Vitić – ćetković Ass’t professor University of Montenegro Kotor, Promotion of peace tourism and sustainable development – West Balkans’s perspective .........................................217 15. Eglantina Hysa, Epoka University, Influence of Tourism Sector in Albanian Gross Domestic Product .......................................................224 16. Bashkim Berberi, MPA. (Candidat Dr.), Kristal University, Tirana, Ledjon Shahini MSC. (Candidat Dr.) “INSTAT”, Tirana,Tourism development in Albania .......................................................................236 17. Prof. Dr. Jovan Stojanoski, Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality, Ohrid, Macedonia,Klime Poposki, PhD, Insurance Supervision Agency of Republic of Macedonia, Stevco Meceski, Msc, Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality, Ohrid, Macedonia, Prof Dr. Liljana Elmazi, University of Tirana, The Influence of Previous Visitation on Customer’s Evaluation of a Tourism Destination ................................250 18. MSc. Rudina RAMAJ (Lipi), University Kristal, Prof. Dr. Fatmir MEMAJ, University of Tirana, Tourist SME-s And Financial Management Practices .........................................................................266 19. Prof. As. Servete Gruda, Competition Authority Albania, Pranvera Beqiri, MSc, Prof. As. Albana Hashorva University of Tirana, Impact of promotion on increasing the competitiveness of tourism in Northern Albania .................................................................................277 8
  • 9. 20. Dr. Arjola DERGJINI, Dr. Albana BORIÇI (BEGANI), Dr. Ardita BORIÇI, Shkodra University, Management Of Change In Shkodra Hotels ...................................................................................................291 21. Alkida Hasa MMK, Candidate PhD, Shkodra University, Forcim Kola, Candidate PhD,UAM Durres, Innovation Approach for the Tourism Enterprise in Albania .............................................................307 22. Romina Dhora, PhD candidate, Shkodra University, Plarent Bala, MA, The historical houses of the “Gjuhadol” street in Shkodra city. The application of a multidisciplinary support system for tourism planning and the development of sustainable cultural tourism ...........................321 23. Bujar Leskaj, PhD, Ilir ELMAZI, PhD student, University of Tirana, Adoption of customer relation management in travel industry. the barriers and perspectives from its implementation. the case of Albania .................................................................................................328 24. Mersida Bala, PhD candidate, Shkodra University, Marsel Fregjaj, Msc, Models of sustainable tourism development. The management organization of Razma destination ......................................................343 25. Brunilda Liçaj, Candidate PhD, Fatbardha Kadiu, Candidate PhD, UAM Durres, Local System Of Touristic Offer (Lsto) ......................353 26. Helga Vukaj,PhD,University of Tirana, Evelina Bazini, PhD, University of Vlora , Prof. Dr. Liljana Elmazi University of Tirana, Influencing Consumer Behavior To Promote Sustainable Tourism In Viewpoint Of Local Authority Perspective ……….…………………365 27. Fabjana MAKSUTAJ, MA, PhD. Candidate, Tirana University, Faculty of Sociology.Prof.Dr. Vjollca BAKIU, Tirana University, Faculty of Economy Tourist Behavior and Tourist Product Adaptation: For a Sustainable Tourism Development .............................................378 28. Zhaneta Ndregjoni, Ph.D student, Mimoza Kalia, PhD student, Economic Faculty, Tirana University, E- Marketing And ITCSupported Tourist Destination Management In Global Recession ......393 29. Oli Pero, Rozafa Alibali MMK,Economic Faculty Shkodra University, Developing successful marketing strategies for heritage attractions in Shkodra ..........................................................................406 30. MA. Albana Madhi, MSC.Marsida Ashiku (Ranxha), University of Elbasan, Promotion and economic development of the Castle of Elbasan, turning into a tourist destination ...........................................419 9
  • 10. 31. Dr.Ilirjan Lipi, University of Vlora “Ismail Qemali”, The Role Of Education And Qualification Of Workforce For Sustainable Development Of Albanian Tourism ....................................................432 32. MSc. Arbi Agalliu, Problems and challenges of tourism in Albania 443 33. Dorina Hoxha, Phd Candidate, Dr. Kristinka Jance, University of Tirana, Criminal Law Protection on Cultural Heritage Tourism .......453 34. Dr. Florian Nepravishta, Polytechnic University of Tirana, Preservation and restoration of the historical center of Shkodra an added value for elite tourism ..........................................................................466 35. Dr.Ing. Shkëlqim GJEVORI, Ministry of Public of Works and Transport, Dr. Gjergj SHQAU, University "Alexander Xhuvani" Elbasan, Alternatives for the development of sustainable tourism Shkodra case study ...............................................................................482 36. Lorenc KOÇIU MSc , Robert ÇELO MBA, Irena BOBOLI MSc, “Eqrem Çabej” University, Gjirokastra The development of rural areas through agro tourism (Gjirokastra region) ..................................494 37. Irena BOBOLI, Doc. Msc. Drita LUZO, MBA. Robert Çelo, University “Eqrem Çabej” Gjirokaster. Tourism Development In Gjirokastra District ..............................................................................507 10
  • 11. PREFACE This year the topic of the conference that Economic Faculty of Shkodra University has organized was about tourism because this has become a prioritary sector of economic development of our country and especially for the Northern Albania. During these last years there is a great interest shown on the respect to culture and nature conservation and sustainable development model has been launched as the best model for tourism development in a global level. Tourism has been recognized as one of the driving forces of Albania’s economy - providing jobs and income to thousands of families. And travel and tourism affects all sectors of Albania’s economy, stimulating the growth of small and medium-sized enterprises in other sectors– creating more jobs and income along the way. According to the 2008 World Travel & Tourism Council report, Albania’s travel and tourism economy directly and indirectly accounted for $1.8 billion, equivalent to almost 15 % of the Albania’s GDP, and employed almost 150,000 jobs or 12% of the total employment. The public sector and the private sector have helped attract foreign tourists with the completion of the new international Rinas airport, with representation in international travel fairs, with investment in a multi-media advertising campaign for CNN, BBC and with the development of a state-of-the art website for the National Tourism Agency—all important tools that contribute to placing Albania on the map as an international tourism destination. In the strategy, the principle of sustainable tourism development is stated as the guiding principle to build the sector. In doing so, Albania has chosen a difficult path, but the right one, that in the long-term will preserve Albania’s cultural heritage, conserve natural resources, protect precious archeological and historical monuments, and improve livelihoods. That is way several papers of this international conference has presented the eminent problem of environment protection and management, waste management, global dimension of tourism development grouped at session 1. Meanwhile on the session 2 are presented papers with regard to financial reforms, legal aspects of tourism, and applying new European standards on certification and environment protection. 11
  • 12. Among the last achievements of Economic Faculty was the participation as partner in TEMPUS project 2011 – 2014 in collaboration with the main grantholder of this project Chieti University “G.d’Annunzio” of Pescara, Italy titled “Network for Post Graduate Masters in Cultural Heritage and Tourism Management in Balkan Countries”. This project will aim opening of a Master in Cultural Heritage creating in this way greater qualification opportunities for the students of Economic Faculty adding value to this year opened Masters in Finance, Accounting and BusinessAdministration and existing Master in Sustainable Tourism. The titles of the two sessions of our second international tourism conference have been as following: Session1: Management and sustainable tourism development Session 2: Financial and legal reforms in sustainable tourism We hope that this conference will motivate Economic Faculty of Shkodra University as one of the promoters of economic development of Northern Albania and especially of the sustainable tourism development at this region. Prof.As.Dr.Arjeta Troshani Dean of Economic Faculty Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi” 12
  • 13. OPENING SPEECH Prof. Dr. Sara Santoro University “G.d’Annunzio” Chieti-Pescara, Italy Dear Minister, Authorities, Rectors, Dear guests and colleagues, ladies and gentlemen, It’s my personal proud and pleasure today to speak, in the context of this important International conference, organized by the Faculty of Economics on the theme of Changing in development of sustainable; it also constitutes the Opening Conference of a European Tempus IV (Four) Joint Project, which I have the honor to present You as Grant Holder. The CHTMBAL - Network for Post Graduate Masters in Cultural Heritage and Tourism Management in Balkan Countries, is a Joint Project selected by the European Agency over two thousand of the IV(Fourth) Tempus application call, with an important grant of budget, classifying 59th over 560 approved projects. You well know that the main objectives of the Tempus program are: •to build up the capacity of higher education institutions in the partner countries and the EU, in particular for international cooperation and for a permanent modernization process, and to assist them in opening themselves up to society at large; •to enhance networking among higher education institutions and research institutions across the Partner Countries and EU Member States. •to enhance mutual understanding between peoples and cultures of the EU and of the partner countries More specifically, our Joint Project CHTMBAL, aims at enhancing the cultural heritage management and sustainable tourism in Albania and Kosovo. The main objective of this project is to create a university network for Post Graduate Masters in Cultural Heritage and Tourism Management, which will allow sharing knowledge, methods and tools between the European Countries and the Partner Countries. Through the creation of an interuniversity network the Scientific Committee will review, reform and 13
  • 14. update the present curricula of the Partners Countries, helping them applying the Bologna Process. As a concrete implementation of this Network, the creation of two Pilot Master Courses (one in Albania and one in Kosovo) is foreseen. The goal of this Master is to create a group of young professionals well trained in this field and to help them enter in the labor market; at the same time we will work on teacher training to allow the project to self-sustain. The Master Pilot will take place in the University of Shkoder and in the University of Prizren, involving twenty students per university. Albania and Kosovo are two countries rich in history, arts, ancient and noble traditions, with wonderful seascapes, lakes and mountains. Until a few years ago they were little known in Europe and this adds charm to their discover. A brilliant advertisement, a few years ago, promoted tourism in Albania defining it “the last secret land of Europe”. In the past these countries played an important role in the history of Europe: since the Iron Age, the princes of these areas enriched by metals, agriculture and breeding, kept strong relationships with the Mediterranean world and that is manifested by the treasures of their tombs. In the Roman and Byzantine Age different emperors were born and walked in these lands, founded cities, built roads, bridges, amphitheaters. Peoples of these lands formed for centuries the heroic barrier of the Christian Europe toward the Turkish invasion. Recently these countries have been an example of pacific cohabitation between different religions and beliefs. All these cultural, historical, landscape values form the fundament of national identities and at the same time a new resource, in times of great people mobility, when travel becomes the discovery of new places and ancient times, a chance to meet persons and cultures Actually the number of tourists is quickly increasing in Albania and Kosovo; with that, the request for cultural and sustainable tourism is increasing too. Sustainable tourism is the only solution to avoid the reckless exploitation of the resources of these two countries; and there is no sustainable tourism without the awareness, knowledge, fruition and development of the cultural heritage. The Master course implemented by the Project will focus on the key concepts of cultural tourism and heritage management: resource definition, destination planning, work instruments (Key Informant Interviews, Internet, and surveys) and key institution involvement, providing all the resources needed to reach the goal. 14
  • 15. As a premise there are several problems and limitations to the implementation of higher education courses in Balkan transition countries. Specifically in Albania and Kosovo, the high education situation saw an increasing number of private universities, many of them completely unreliable, and many public universities which already existed but with limited resources and committed to the effort of adjustment to the bologna process and international standards (the north American one more than European). The existing laws don’t clearly state the degree and that allowed the private universities market to grow; these results in many people paying consistent fees without really attending the courses. For these reasons, the Albanian and Kosovo’s universities selected as partners of our project are just state universities. But we see a restricted autonomy of these Universities as it concerns the accreditation process. No coordination or dialog with Ministerial structures to exchange information and to make more flexible and up to dated the process of certification. We see also several difficulties in the beneficiaries’ universities in establishing a sustainable cycle of Master/Doctorate owing to limited resources available to fund Masters and Doctorates and to the scarce demand of this level from local private companies and stakeholders. We see also a scarce level of students and also of professors due to a local origin of most of them: many Eastern students come to Europe and USA to obtain certificate to spent at home for more prestigious jobs or work positions. On the basis of this considerations, the Master course implemented by the Project will be a professional master, and it will be a first level master, with ninety 90 ECTS, 60 sixty of which recognizable in the university master of science degree. The master of the project is focused on the key concepts of cultural tourism and heritage management: resource definition, destination planning, work instruments (Key Informant Interviews, Internet, and surveys) and key institution involvement, providing all the resources needed to reach the goal. Actually, issues related on the real labor market receptivity of this professional, both from enterprises and institutions, are still debated. So it becomes crucial a meeting with them, and a proper evaluation of the admitted number of students and on the type of Master (first level, second level, PhD). There is also the need to understand if so little countries can 15
  • 16. support this education offer every year or if a multiyear program changing is needed in order to make this professional profiles useful. The theoretical part of the courses will focus on three main fields: humanities (history, archeology, anthropology, folklore, and human geography), management (tourism-based market, event creation, economical strategies for tourism, sustainable tourism development, marketing) and law and administrative studies (Cultural heritage laws, tourism policies, cultural policies, administration and organization guidelines). Also it will be paid great attention not only on e-learning but also on the effective use of esources for tourism, cultural management and event creation (websites, research engines, advertising on internet and so on.) During the project many agreements with local institutions and enterprises will be established, in order to create stages where the students can apply what they have learnt and help them enter in the labor market. The project will also provide teachers and administration training thanks to the experience and the shared knowledge of the EU partners Direct beneficiaries of the project are Universities, faculties, professors and students from Albania and Kosovo. Professors will benefit from the curriculum and syllabi which will give them the chance to upgrade their teaching skills, implement new teaching methods and methodology and prepare the handouts for the courses lecturing. The master students will benefit from their study visit and established communication with highly respective European educational institutions. This will provide them with competencies and will increase their competitiveness on the labor market with end result in contribution to the development of the economy in the beneficiaries’ countries both in the institutions and enterprises of Albania and Kosovo. Along with the partnership with the universities of Shkoder and Prizren, also the University of Durres will be involved in the project. The support from the local institutions will be granted by the Cultural Monument Institute of Albania (the state institution which manage the architectonical, archaeological and artistic heritage of the Albanian Republic) and by the World University Service of Kosovo (an NGO with the assignment of higher education rebuilding in Kosovo). A solid scientific background is guaranteed by the Institut Català d'Arqueologia Classica and the Archaeology Department of Warsaw University, which has worked for many years in excavation and development of the Balkan archaeological 16
  • 17. Heritage. For what concerns my University G. D’Annunzio of Chieti Pescara, Grant Holder of the project and here represented by the Dean of Humanities on behalf of the Rector, has a long tradition of archeological and historical studies on the balkan area and intensive relationships with the Cultural Heritage institutions: as holder of the Italian Archaelogical Mission in Durres, we have a ten years long collaboration for a better knowledge of the history of the city through the implementation of urban management tool, like the archaeological risk plan, the collaboration to urban plans, technical and scientific support to development-led excavations, the study, excavation and development of the roman amphitheater Many other Italian universities are involved and more specifically: Alma Mater Bologna University (Faculty of Economics – Rimini, renown for Tourism Economy), SVIMAP, (Public Management Development Network) and “Leonardo da Vinci" e-University for the e-learning platform. Together with this partners and with the help and support of national and local institutions and enterprises, we are certain that this project will result in important outcomes for the development of methodological tools and for the scientific and cultural growth of both local and european partners Thank you for your kind attention. To everybody, you and us the best wishes for a good job. 17
  • 18. 18
  • 20. 20
  • 21. MASTER AND DOCTORAL STUDIES IN CULTURAL TOURISM. PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES IN WESTERN BALKANS ∗. Prof. Massimo Bianchi Laura Tampieri University of Bologna Forlì Faculty of Economics Abstract The paper analyses and discusses the problems and perspectives in preparing and managing didactical programs, methodologies and syllabi of Cultural Tourism in Higher Education courses. The Cultural Tourism is an interdisciplinary topic for Higher Education courses and, although the interest connected to the priorities in Balkans governmental policies and international projects, it could be a challenge for Master and PhD programs. The paper considers some projects managed by Bologna University in Western Balkans with the aim of creating Master and Doctoral studies in the Cultural Tourism sector underlining the structure and process aspects linked to the teaching. The analysis will point out the relevance of this sector in the University system and in the international programmes by considering the didactical offer (Master and PhD) realized on this topic in Western Balkans countries and particularly in Albania, Macedonia and Kosovo. Moreover the results are connected to the description of detailed programs, methodologies and syllabi of teaching at University level in the Cultural Tourism field. Another topic refers to the involvement of local systems and small businesses for implementing the Cultural Tourism offer in the international market. To this purpose a particular focus is set on the distance learning, and particularly on the Simulimpresa methodology, that could be considered as a ∗ Although this paper is the result of a joint collaboration, paragraphs 2 and 4 are attributed to M. Bianchi, par. 1, 3 and 5 to L. Tampieri. 21
  • 22. relevant tool of teaching to be adopted in Universities for the development of entrepreneurial and managerial competencies, mainly those linked to small business. Key words: Cultural Tourism, TEMPUS, Master, PhD, Simulimpresa 1. The TEMPUS programme for Master courses and PhD programme development The paper wants to highlight the problems and perspectives linked to the didactical programs, methodologies and syllabus in Master courses and PhD programs on Cultural Tourism by considering the experiences of Bologna University in two TEMPUS projects: DOCSMES “Regional Joint Doctoral Programme in Entrepreneurship and SME Management for Western Balkan Countries” and CHTMBAL “Network for Post Graduate Masters in Cultural Heritage and Tourism Management in Balkan Countries” (Fig.1). Both initiatives aim to enforce the Reform of Higher Education with particular focus on the structure and the process of didactical programmes implementation through also distance learning methodologies such as the enterprise simulation called “Simulimpresa”. Simulipresa represents an innovative didactical tool based on the learning by doing principle in which the participants create in a classroom a virtual enterprise developing managerial competencies mainly linked to business management (Tampieri 2011a). The Reform of Higher Education through International University Cooperation is a well recognized priority in many national and international programmes such as the Tempus 1 managed by the European Commission (Bianchi, Tampieri 2011). This is the longest-standing EU initiative that has a strong focus on institutional cooperation. Since its inception in 1990, University cooperation under the Tempus programme has contributed successfully to enforce the sustainable University partnerships as well as to enhance mutual understanding between academic worlds of the European Union and the Western Balkans. The Tempus programme contributes to the creation of an area of cooperation in the field of higher education involving European Union and 1 22
  • 23. Western Balkans. Tempus is implemented in close coordination with the Erasmus Mundus programme which provides scholarships to third country students allowing them to participate in top-level master courses and doctorate programmes inside EU (Tampieri 2009). Fig.1 – The profile of DOCSMES and CHTMBAL. Applicant Consortium Partner Duration EU Grant Wider Objectives Specific Project Objectives: Activities: DOCSMES University of Bologna Dardania University, Agency for promotion of entrepreneurship of the RM, Macedonian Chambers of Commerce, Seavus dooel Skopje, Konfederata e Industrive te Shqiperise-Albanian Confederation, University St. Kliment Ohridski Bitola, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, University of Tirana, University of Nice – Sophia Antipolis, Agricultural University of Tirana, South East European University 15/10/2010 – 14/10/2013 762.549,00 Euro Development and implementation of a joint doctoral programme in Entrepreneurship and SME Management in order to complete the three cycled HE system in accordance with Bologna Process and key EHEA/ERA goals. -Developing the structure, curriculum and modalities of the Doctoral Programme in Entrepreneurship and SME Management harmonized with EU standards; - Enhancing the exchanging of experience and best practices with EU partner universities, through mobility of academic and administrative staff and doctoral students; Developing new teaching methodologies including Distance Learning tools; Enforcing stakeholders’ involvement in both curriculum development and research activities; - Establishing Standards in Doctoral studies and Providing Quality assurance; - Improving capacities of the Western Balkans countries' Universities; Pilot Programme implementation; Sustainability; - Dissemination. - Kick-off meeting, developing the first phase-curriculum courses; enforcing the stakeholders involvement in curricula development and realization; developing syllabi; developing new teaching methods, doctoral dissertation phase; trainining on distance learning mode; training of supervisors; - Training of administrative 23 CHTMBAL University “G.d’Annunzio” Chieti-Pescara University of Durres, Institut Català D’Arqueologia Classica, Instituti I monumenteve te kultures “Gani Strazimiri”, Antiquity of Southeastern Europe Res. Centre, University of Warsaw, University Luigj Gurakuqi”, SVIMAP Network, World University Service Kosova, University of Prizren, Università Telematica “Leonardo da Vinci”, Bologna University 15/10/2011 – 14/10/2014 706.843,37 Euro Development of a Network for Post Graduate Masters in Cultural Heritage and Tourism Management in the Balkan Countries; Creation of two pilot master courses in Partners Countries - Creation of a interuniversity network for an educational system oriented to the development of proficiencies for the cultural heritage management, events creation and sustainable tourism; - Review and reform of PC curricula Normalization of PC curricula to the Bologna Process and ECTS; - Sharing and improving the EU experience through mobility and teacher training; - Involvement of key institutions and enterprises; -Development of new teaching methods; -Development of modules for MSc degrees; - Start-up and implementation of pilot Msc degrees in Cultural Heritage and Tourism Management; Establishment of Quality standards; Dissemination of the results and sustainability of the project -Kick-off meeting; Project teams establishment: Creation of the Scientific Committee, Evaluation Committee and Project Management Board (PMB); - Reporting and budgeting; - Regular PMB meetings; - Review of the Partner curricula to the Bologna Process and of policies on cultural heritage and cultural management; - Meeting with local key
  • 24. staff; - intra-country general meetings; preparation of the pilot doctoral program, enrolling the first generation of doctoral students; starting the first semester courses/lectures, seminars and workshops; starting the second semester lectures, seminars and workshops; Mobility of students; the third and fourth semester pilot research work and doctoral thesis proposal; - purchasing and applying the IT equipment and software related to the programme; - Conferences and workshops; Web site designing and updating; Teaching methods and distance learning mode dissemination; International Conference for the dissemination of final results; - Ceating quality control standards and processes in line with EU relevant standards; quality control implementation; creation of quality control body related to the doctoral programme; Monitoring the quality procedures implementation; - Establishment of the Communication Body; Supporting the research activities by business Output -Developing and structuring doctoral programme in Entrepreneurship and SME Management as a third cycle programme in English; - Doctoral programme implementation; Dissemination; - Management of the Project; -Quality Control and Monitoring; Exploitation and Sustainability institutions and enterprises for the definition of a professional profile; - Development of the syllabi; Development of the new teaching methods (distance learning); -Training courses and visits (mobility) of teachers and administrators for the preparation of MSc curricula; -Creation of agreements with local institutions and enterprises and stages database; -Training on distance learning modes; Preparation of the pilot program; - Starting of the 1st semester courses/lectures; - Starting of the 2nd semester courses/lectures; -Mobility of students; - 3rd /4th semester accomplishment; Improving the programme facilities infrastructure; Evaluation of modules and new teaching methods at the end of the master pilot; - Creation of intelligent platform to Interuniversity Network; - Development of intelligent tutoring system and student knowledge assessment system; - Conferences and Workshops; Website; - Publications; Creation of quality control standards; Quality control implementations; - Monitoring the quality procedures implementation; Recommendations;- Agreements with local institutions and enterprises; -Sustainability -Kick-off meeting; Project teams establishment; - Reporting; - Regular Project Management Board meetings; - Review and update of curricula and policies; -Agreements with local enterprises and institutions; -Teacher training; - Training on distance learning modes; preparation of the Pilot Master Programme; Starting of 1st / 2nd semester of lessons; Mobility of students; - The 3th and 4th semester accomplishing; - Improving the program facilities infrastructures; -Development of the Intelligent Interuniversity Network; - Creation of an Intelligent Interuniversity Network; Development of intelligent tutoring system; Conferences and Workshops; Website designing and updating; Creating Quality Control Standards; Quality control implementation; Scientific Committee and Peer-Review Team Meetings; Monitoring the quality procedures implementation; Exploitation and sustainability; Tutoring of implementation of the courses; Agreements with local institutions and enterprises These projects face the emerging challenges in Western Balkans: - dramatic demographic changes (number of people potentially having access to higher education, age structure, migration flows), - increasing global competition, leading to a considerable shift in the distribution of the economic power at 24
  • 25. world level, - changes in science and technology but notably the growing importance of organisational and societal innovation rather than purely technological innovation and - challenges of societies in transition (social cohesion, human rights, etc.). The Higher education institutions are the key actors in such programme needed for the successful transition to a knowledge-based economy and society and for the training of a new generation of leaders. In EU the modernisation of higher education has been acknowledged as a core condition for the success of the Lisbon Strategy and more recently the Europe 2020 strategy which aim at restructuring the economic and social systems within EU. At the same time, Western Balkans Universities have expressed interest in the harmonisation of their higher education systems, inspired by the developments made in this respect within Europe. The Tempus programme has supported Western Balkans Universities in reforming their higher education systems in line with the principles of the "Bologna process" (Tampieri 2010) which aims at creating a "European Area for Higher Education" and is becoming a common reference point for both EU Member States and Western Balkans. 2. The accreditation process “The western society is a society of organizations” quoted Amitai Etzioni (1964) in his Modernn Ortganizations referring to The Organization Society (Presthus 1962). He told us that the western countries, in this time opposite to the Eastern Soviet Blosk, has a particular feature in conflict with a totalitary approach that simplifies the society in an authoritative and unified perspective. After the collapse of this regime, in the international arena the category of Transition Countries, that tried to apply a democratic way of life, emerged. The political and governance revolution undertaken by those countries appears today easier comparing the evolution of the societal texture of the society that, till now, showed many problems of development. There are almost three topics that characterized this boundaries of the democratization: the diffusion of small business, till now limited by the scarce culture of entrepreneurship, self achievement and personal initiative that affect transition countries and particularly western Balkans. The second 25
  • 26. topics concerns the role of local governments in the development of local systems and in the improvement of their competitive attraction. The last one refers to the system appointed to produce innovation, scientific perspectives and high professional preparation; in few words, new generations in condition to be masters for the future society. The western society, in despite of the present crisis, connected to the complexity of the society structure that reached a dimension that needs a higher level of dynamic control, could be understood only in a perspective of process and of networking. It means that, particularly in the management of Masters and Doctorate, the network and the process are the basis. Without those premises, the applying of Master and Doctorate Models maintains the characteristic of a bureaucratic tool with a poor motivation connected to the supply of a title to new generation and a formal recognition of a learning that didn’t exist or only partially exists. Fig. 2 – Basic framework of High Education Courses in Italian Universities. Master’s Degree 2nd cycle 120 ECTS/2 years MASTER 1st level 60 ECTS/1 year Ph. D 3rd cycle minimum 3 years MASTER 2nd level 60 ECTS/1 year DEGREE Secondary Higher School Bachelor’s Degree 1st cycle 180 ECTS/3 years The problem of the establishment of Masters and Doctorates in Western Balkans Universities could be summarized in those structural problems that would be overcome but only with a clear perspective and a strong motivation to apply a correct methodology. 26
  • 27. First of all, when we examine Masters, Doctorates and PhDs, we have to consider that, although the increasing diffusion of those courses of studies, quite frequently they have a wide variety of definitions. Furthermore, some of them didn’t correspond to a correct definition of their identity owing to commercial or easy practices. To this purpose we want to clarify the framework within we are moving. The Bologna Process, with its distinctions between the first three years of graduation and the two following ones of specialized master (called Laurea Magistralis) with the doctorate and post doctorate studies, is applied in Italian Universities with a path (Fig. 2). As it’s easy to see the Master Level could be considered as a parallel educational perspective, mainly related to professional purposes quietly free from the structure of courses recognized to obtain the graduation (Undergraduate degree) or the Laurea magistralis (Specialized degree – Called also Master Degree) according to the legal value attributed to them in Italy. For the creation of a 1st or 2nd Level Master, the proposal is submitted to the Academic Authorities of Universities, a process that isn’t applied to no institutional courses managed by non academic organizations as Local Government, Non Profit Organizations, Associations or Private Companies. For instance, in district of Rimini – famous in the world - and particularly in Eastern Countries, for its attitude in Tourism and Leasure Activities, the main Masters funded by Emilia Romagna Region move freely on different and specialized subjects as it happens with the: - Master in Congress Tourism - Master in New Hospitality Management - Master Executive in Web Marketing for Tourism Enterprise - Master Executive in Meeting Planning and Event Organization - Master Executive in Hotel Management Each of them, in respective fields, contains Modules on different topics as: Project Management, Management of Logistics and Congress Services, Marketing and Event Promotion, Quality Management and Corporate Responsibility. The teaching is mainly oriented to practical and applied knowledge and the teaching staff is composed mainly by professionals or sector operators that couldn’t have necessarily an academic degree. Their participation in the 27
  • 28. teaching staff is motivated by their professional experience, so their recruitment is not based on their educational degree. The final official result is a Diploma that could be considered to enrich the CV of participants and could have a relevance for the search of an employment. Master managed by Universities, distinguished in First and Second Level, accordingly with the framework of Fig. 2, has a legal value and is programmed within the academic structure of official courses with Credits recognized in the ECTS. Some of the modules, if the participant will participate, in the future, to the Degree process, are recognized in the official curricula. In University Master, normally, the accreditation process is submitted to the Council of the Faculty that promotes the master and to the Department competent as it concerns the Scientific Content. Once obtained this approval, the Academic Senate will authorize the Master. Main condition, besides the studies program is the responsibility of the Master that has to be in charge to a Full Professor of the Promoter University authorized to this purpose. Moreover, for each Master Subjects, distinguished on the basis of the Academic Scientific Group established by the Ministry for the Recruitment process of Researchers and Professors, is requested a responsible Full Professor appointed in the University that manages the Project. As it concerns Doctorate problems, these are similar although in European and particularly in Italian Universities the Doctorate is mainly oriented to Research targets and will be defined PHD only after an Accreditation Process which considers the participation in the Teaching Staff of Foreign Professors and Researchers as an essential condition. 3. The sustainability of Master and PhD The exploitation of the sustainability in the project activities implementation is one of the key element evaluated by the European Commission for delivering grants and also a condition needed for the maintenance and development of project benefits and results. The sustainability is ensured through a wide variety of tools: the creation of an incentives system for academic and administrative staff of project consortium units, the involvement of stakeholders in curricula development 28
  • 29. and in supporting the research of the students and the dissemination of results in international conferences and workshops. Moreover in many cases, to ensure the sustainability, mainly from the organizational perspective, the management of Masters and PhD is assigned to public entities as Scientific-Didactical Pole 2, to consortia managed by private law among public entities as Ser. In. Ar 3 and other consortia among University and Foundations, as Alma Graduate School 4, that are able to ensure more flexibility, autonomy and possibilities to gather external financial resources from sponsors (Bianchi 1999a,b). Considering the case of PhD implementation in Macedonia, the development of the sustainability took into consideration the following academic, institutional and socioeconomic factors: - doctoral program in entrepreneurship can have, as a background, developed second cycle (master programme) in entrepreneurship which already exists in most of project consortium Universities. In such way some of the courses can be run parallel for the master and doctoral students; - available and experienced local academic staff for the new cycles implementation of the doctoral programme; - established network between the world of business and Universities that can be recognized as a relevant basis for further cooperation in order to gain common benefits; - distance learning methodology, as an innovative way of teaching, can enable joint programmes to be accomplished minimizing the costs of stay; - establishment of the Communication Body consisted of the representatives from the both sides (universities and business community) - diffusion of the PhD Programme in other Universities that can decide to organize their PhDs with the continuity of professors and students mobility. From the financial perspective alternative sources, rather than TEMPUS, can refer to: 2 4 3 29
  • 30. - Companies that can give some financial support to the doctoral students and will enable students to do research; State scholarship; Universities scholarship for the involvement of the students in teaching activities; Self-financing of the students. A particular focus is set on the detailed budget of the doctoral programme of three years in Macedonia, built on the basis of the following items: 1) Courses of the didactical frame 2) Printing & publishing 3) Management 4) Research 5) Students mobility Fig.3 – An hypothesis of general budget frame for a doctoral programme implementation. Category Organization 1) Courses Travel Costs Professor Lecturer Name & Surname Number Salary of working rate 5 days (€) [A] [B] Total Staff Costs (€) Costs of Stay Total (€) (€) (€) [D] [E] [F] [C] University of Bologna Entrepreneurship and SME Management xxxxx 20 332 6640 600 2000 9240 University of Bologna The Role of SMEs in Networks and Clusters xxxxx 15 332 4980 600 1000 6580 …………… ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. ……………… … 2) Printing and publishing 1.000 3) Management 24000 4) Research 45000 TOTAL 5 6000 5) Students mobility 162000 It is per day and is indicated by the European Commission guidelines. 30
  • 31. The calculation of the costs related to the two courses managed by University of Bologna (Fig.3), taken as examples for all the other courses of the doctoral programme, can be summarized as follows: 1) [C] = [A] * [B] and 2) [F]= [C] + [D] + [E]. As it regards the item 2,3,4 and 5, the cost per year on the basis of the three years programme respectively is: 4000 Euro (12000/3), 8000 Euro (24000/3), 2000 Euro (6000/3) and 15000 Euro (45000/3). To cover the mentioned cost items, the financial sources, summarized in Fig.4, highlight that about the 90% is covered by TEMPUS, 5 % by self – cofinancing and 5 % by other resources as companies and other organizations. Fig.4 – The financing frame. Total Covered by TEMPUS Self cofinancing Other resources [Companies] TOTAL 1) Courses 75000 70000 3000 2000 75000 2) Printing and publishing 12000 12000 3) Management 24000 21000 4) Research 6000 5) Students mobility 45000 43000 2000 162000 146000 8000 8000 162000 0,90 0,05 0,05 1,00 Cost items TOTAL 12000 3000 24000 6000 % 31 6000 45000
  • 32. Fig. 5 - The main determinants of the sustainability. More cycles Sholarship Students fee Financial and academic Sustainability Co-financing Sponsorship Agreements between business community and university Master and PhD managed by autonomous bodies generated by Universities In other terms, the main determinants of the sustainability, as indicated in Fig.4, can refer to the institution of more cycles, the delivering of scholarship for the best students, the determination of an adequate enrolment fee, the usage of co-financing, other financial resources from other companies in the sense of sponsorships and the involvement of autonomous bodies generated by Universities for the Master and PhD management. 4. Syllabi and Teachers Profile Each University Master has a Scientific Committee generally composed by representatives of Faculties or Departments that with their Full Professors are responsible of the Master Scientific Group. The Scientific Committee is in charge to approve the Program and the Syllabi. To this purpose is essential to decide about the Master Orientation as in Scientific or in Professional. 32
  • 33. In Masters concerning Tourism this choice will be crossed with another dimension that is the Economic or Technical One. For example, as it concerns Managerial Subjects, there is one criterion connected to the Management itself in its different degrees or specializations as: Governance, Strategy, Programming, Resource Management, Logistics etc. with the structure of a Tourism Organization with main functions as Service Units of : Location, Restoration, Welcome and Reception, Room Services, Administration, Room Make Up, Laundry, Supply and purchasing. In each of those organizational area, particularly as it concerns Master with Professional Orientation, the technology used and its knowledge are strictly linked to organizational and economic problems. In many Masters in Tourism the knowledge of Local Systems and Cultural Heritage together with Museums and Cultural Institution Management is a teaching subject that gives to the learning the necessary coverage of applied activities. The relationship with the environment is essential for the Master adequacy to requested professionalism. In Fig. 6 we show some main determinants of the Master Syllabi Profile. Fig. 6 - The impact of environmental structures on Master and Doctoral Orientations. Small Enterprises Big enterprises Science and Technics Management and economics Less Specialize d Skills More specialized skills It means that, according to this hypothesis, if the local system is based, in the particular sector of Tourism, on Small Enterprises, the interest would be 33
  • 34. focused on Less Specialized Skills with the content of the teaching more oriented to management and economics while the prevailing diffusion of big business will encourage more specialized skills and the use of technology. 5. The implementation of Distance Learning in Master and PhD courses One of the operative usage of distance learning methodology is the enterprise simulation defined by the European Commission – Directorate Enterprises (2004) as a best practice to promote attitudes and managerial competencies in the education field. A simulated enterprise is a centre of vocational learning that runs like a "real" business silhouetting a "real" firm's business procedures, products and services. The simulated enterprise is undertaken by students that insert this program in their business studies and they create, in a classroom and under the supervision of teachers/tutors, a virtual enterprise, trading virtual products and services in a simulated business environment. In this money is fictitious while the business decisions, activities and documentations are strictly linked to the real business world (Moore 2004). The “Simulimpresa” methodology 6 is based on the learning by doing principle allowing participants to acquire transversal skills enforcing their individual peculiarities. Therefore they learn a job by doing the related activities and duties (Gualdi 2001). Another feature is the management by objectives as each participant acquires competencies related to a specific role in the enterprise carrying out duties and tasks planned for each single organizational position and on the basis of the assigned targets provided at the beginning of each simulation session. In the cultural sector a relevant start up experience of simulation refers to Elbasan Renaissance Tour (ERT) in the Professional Education Centre (CFP) of Elbasan within the project “Start up of professional education in Elbasan area with particular regard for weak categories (Albania, 20072009, Project Emilia-Romagna Region Law 24 June 2002, n. 12)”. This case has been analyzed in previous researches (Tampieri 2011b) underling the structure and process aspects of the experimentation. 6 34
  • 35. Summarizing the main features: the duration of the start up was 4 days involving 13 participants grouped in three business areas: Marketing, front office and administration / accounting. This simulated agency operates in the cultural tourism sector as the mission is to promote the historical, cultural and traditional value of Elbasan region and Albania. The services are: - Organization of events, travelling and cultural/touristic tour with specific regard to Elbasan region; - Promotion of cultural and historic value of Albania and Elbasan region; - Tourist guide assisted by professional staff; - Enhancement of collaboration with other agencies that work in the same sector in Elbasan region and - Interpretation services. The participants, working in team, realized the following targets/ activities: Definition of the enterprise, typology and mission; - Creation of the organizational structure, register of presence, GANTT of activities; Definition of budget; - Creation of enterprise mail; -Individuation of logo; Design of depliant (in Italian and English) and catalogue; - Organization of a pilot cultural tourism tour in Albania. Through this experience, the participants acquired practical knowledge about how a real enterprise operates. The general results would be the development of new entrepreneurial initiatives with an international view. Thus the Simulimpresa implementation in Master and PhD courses would be a very relevant tool by which participants can apply, in a practical way, the knowledge acquired during their studies reaching an advanced level of learning. 6. Conclusions: the Master and Doctorate in Western Balkans In the two mentioned projects, having the purpose of creating a Doctorate Decree in Western Balkans, the main issues to be considered, on the basis of previous experiences in transition countries are : - Too restricted autonomy of Universities as it concerns the accreditation process. - Difficulties in establishing a sustainable cycle of Master/Doctorate owing to the scarce demand of this level from companies. 35
  • 36. - Limited resources available to fund Masters and Doctorates that, owing to the scarce demand of this level of education and the essential local origin of participants ( it’s difficult to have partners from Western Countries while many Eastern students come to Europe and USA ) with the purpose of obtaining a certificate to spent at home for prestigious jobs or work positions. - Traditional methodology of approach to studies and final thesis that foster general subjects and wide fields of research to restricted and specialized ones and prefer theoretical and historical dissertations (also in managerial subjects) to case studies. - Scientific support to dissertations mainly oriented to local quotations with limited citations and references to international Authors and mainstreams in discussion in the international arena. - Limited knowledge of foreign languages and particular of English one, as the basis of managerial teaching. This it refers not only to students but also to local teachers that prefer to use their own language. This is a serious limit to the internationalization of the knowledge and to the quality assurance and international chartering of Masters and Doctorates. - Limited or not existent involvement of the local system (stakeholders) in the Management and Funding. - No coordination or dialogue with Ministerial structures to exchange information and to make more flexible and up to dated the process of certification. One useful tool to overcome some of those limits is that the Master and the Doctorate would be managed by a Consortium of Universities or with Universities as major partners. This will allow to reach a critic mass of resources, financial, scientific and organizational. It will also foster the involvement of extra university partners like private companies that could ensure resources and relevant inputs as it concerns actual needs of employers in the particular aspects of professional profiles. The partnership of foreign Universities to the consortium, although difficulties of a Double or Joint Master of PHD to coordinate different rules and Ministerial constraints, could be a path that has to be explored in the 36
  • 37. future to ensure the diffusion and implementation of Masters and Doctoral Studies in Western Balkan Countries. References Bianchi M., Tampieri L., (2011) Performance determinants in international projects. The case of 2005 - 2010 Tempus submissions, in Albertini S., Bergami M., D’Atri A., De Marco M., De Vita P., Ferrara M., Rossignoli C, Salvemini S., Generazioni e Ri Generazioni nei processi organizzativi. Conference Proceedings. Bianchi M., (1999a) Multi Campus Model and Quality Approach in the Organization of Big Universities, to international conference “T.Q.M. for Higher Education Institutions”, Università di Verona, Université ToulonVar Verona, 30-31 August 1999 Bianchi M., (1999b) “L’università multicampus: Un modello possibile ? L’esperienza dell’ Ateneo Bolognese” Sinergie, CUEIM, Verona, n. 48, Gennaio-Aprile 1999, pp. 219-229. Etzioni A., (1964) Modern Organizations, Prentice Hall New Jersey European Commission – Directorate Enterprises (2004), Contribuire a creare una cultura imprenditoriale, Bruxelles: Commissione europea, 1- 56. Gualdi, D. (2001). L’impresa simulata. Varese: Paravia Bruno Mondadori. Moore A. (2004) The Challenge of the Practice Firm: Simulating a Business Environment in the UAE Fourth European GIS Education Seminar, Villach, Austria 02nd- 05th September 2004. Presthus R., (1962) The Organizational Society, Knopf, New York Tampieri L., (2011a) Second Life and enterprise simulation in SME’s start up of fashion sector: the cases ETNI, KK Personal Robe and NFP, in D’Atri A., Ferrara M., George J.F., Spagnoletti P (eds), Information Technology and Innovation trends in organizations, Physica-Verlag, Springer (pp. 523530). Tampieri L., (2011b) The enterprise simulation in small business start up. The case of cooperation projects between Italy and Albania. 3^ Workshop I processi innovativi nelle piccole imprese. La sfida altre la crisi. Urbino 1617 Settembre 2011. Tampieri L., (2010) The Bologna process: problems and perspectives of realization, Proocedings of Foundation of the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Advisory of Young Scientist University of International Business “Young People in the Science 2010” 3rd International Forum. 1437
  • 38. 15 Maggio 2010 Almaty (Kazakhstan), pp. 3-9, Foundation of the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Tampieri L., (2009) The international project management for the Reform of Higher Education in transition countries. Some experiences from the University of Bologna", in Symposium Proceedings - Third International Symposium on the development of public administration in Southeast Europe. Public Administration in the context of financial crisis and economic slowdown. P. Pevcin, S. Setnikar Cankar, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Administration 18 - 19 June 2009, pp. 1-14. 38
  • 39. MAINTENANCE AND CONTROL OF PUBLIC USE LAND IN ALBANIA’S SHKODER LAKE AND VELIPOJA BEACH AREAS Prof.As.Dr.Arjeta Troshani Dean of Economic Faculty Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi” Ted Oelfke MS, FMP, CHE, CFE Professor and Department Chair of Hospitality and Culinary Arts Sandhills Community College, NC, USA Abstract The paper will focus on the control of refuse and use of two prime touristic locations in Northern Albania Shkoder Lake and the Velipoja beach area. Currently conditions are not only terrible to look at the conditions could lead to serious sanitation issues and contamination of surrounding soil and water supplies. As conditions deteriorate during the summer months the impression of foreign travelers of Albania and indeed Albanians themselves is negatively impacted. Additionally, local residents will resent the very tourists that support the local economy as they witness their pristine recreational areas laid to waste. This paper will attempt to find methods of clean-up and maintenance and for the payment that are acceptable to local residents, businessmen, government officials and tourists alike. Further this paper will determine the attitudes of various groups towards volunteerism as a means of maintaining public property. Finally, the paper will explore the desires of tourists, businessmen and tourists regarding any restrictions that should be placed on beach use. For instance should motor vehicles and glass bottles be allowed on the beach. Surveys of tourists, local businessmen, governmental officials and residents will be conducted in order to reach conclusions and recommendations on the uses and maintenance and Albanian’s attitude toward volunteerism as a means of maintaining the areas of Velapoja Beach, and the public area bordering Shkodra Lake. If the surveys indicate a preference to provide the service through taxing of tourists staying in hotels or eating in restaurants further studies will be conducted to develop recommendations for implementation of such a tax. 39
  • 40. Key words: Sanitary, Tourism Development, Destination Management, Control, Taxes, and Strategy. 1.Background 1.1 Tourism in the city of Shkodra The city is connected with the other cities and Europe with railways and motor transport. The foreign visitors, passing from the AlbanianYugoslavian border at the customs of Hanna i Hotit, will reach Shkodra soon after 35 km, and 117 km after leaving Tirana. The seaside beach (Velipoja) is 32 km far. This sandy beach (14 km long) is almost pristine. The very fine and sand along with the warm water are curative for a lot of diseases (esp.rheumatism). Just nearby the beach, there is a hunting spot full of wild animals and fowls. West side of Shkodra Lake, 6 km from the city, at the bottom of Tarabosh mountain, it is situated Shiroka picturesque village, known not only for the beach, but also for the good and curative climate that heals asthma and different allergies, and it has a good impact on children growth. The Lake of Shkodra and the River of Buna are very suitable to exercise water sports, especially rowing. If the visitor likes mountain-climbing, speleology or skiing, he must be directed to the picturesque village of Razma (41 km ), and if he would like to add to these sports that of trout fishing or enjoying the characteristic noise and freshness of the waterfalls, he should go right in the middle of Alps, to the attracted village of Thethi (76 km). It is surrounded by peaks higher than 2000 m, with the slopes covered with eternal forests. This village is not the unique to enjoy this natural privilege. Nearby, there are a lot of other rival villages like Vermoshi (110 km), Lepusha (90 km), Boga (54 km), Black Field, Vukli etc. The city offers even institutions which acquaint you with its history and various traditions. There are 90 cultural monuments. Next to the main hotel “Rozafa”, there is the City Museum, and just a few meters further, there is “Migjeni” Theater. One can visit even museum houses which recall important events, dedicated to famous personalities of the city. You can satisfy the curiosity, for the old history of the city, going to visit the city castle “Rozafa” and its museum. From the castle, you can see at the bottom of the hill, the castle is situated, the Lead Mosque, a monument of the XVIII 40
  • 41. century, around it the rivers and the lake and the city in the middle of them. & km from the city, there is another monument belonging to the XVIII century, the Bridge of Mesi, built completely with stone arches 132 m long. At the top of it, you can view the crystal waters of Kiri River and the trout shoals moving against the flow Shkodra is the very place where the Albanian hospitality is proverbial. Once, one could find, embroidery, in the guest’s room of the houses of Shkodra which read: “Welcome dear guests !” Today Shkodra echoes back to the guests this greeting...! 1.2. The conditions of developing tourism in the city The God has donated to Shkodra of lot of rich picturesque resources, beginning with the seaside (14 km length), the picturesque lake (and nice villages like Shiroka, Zogaj,the side of the Water etc.), the rivers that surround the city in three parts ( and the city itself is a typical touristic centre, where a good investment to serve to the touristic can be set up ), along with the gorgeous Alps hiding tens of picturesque villages with healthy climate (as Thethi, Razma, Boga etc. ) that attract the visitor and invite him to enjoy these relaxing and curative beauties. The seaside of Velipoja is a marvelous beauty of the Albanian nature, where you can find at the same time the sea, the river, the beach, the forest, the mountain and the marsh, with a clean and pristine sand, clear water, the hunting spot 694.5 ha and the Viluni bay 900 ha. The visitor can swim at the same time in the river and the sea, can pass the time playing at the sports ground that can be set up, exercise water sports, can walk on foot or by horse at the beautiful nature, can hunt for wild pigs or rabbits, fox and jackal, goose and wild duck etc. Thus, it is a natural real beauty that would bring a good profit to the one that invests as soon as possible. Another picturesque place is the side of the lake that is included in the road from Buna Bridge - Shiroka - Zogaj. The optimal climatic conditions, the curative characteristics of the nature, the warm water, Taraboshi Mountain, the fishing etc. make this region be known for nice touristic peculiarities. This region is frequented by the inhabitants of 41
  • 42. Shkodra for short holidays, because the condition for longer holidays is missed. There are other regions with touristic characteristics as Thethi, Razma, Vermoshi-Lepushe-Qafa e Bordolecit, but owning a different peculiarity from that of Velipoja and Shiroka. You can notice here the best characteristics of the highland Albanian nature. The forests full of pine and beech trees, the lawns and summer pastures, the fresh temperature in summer and snow in winter, the good mountains panorama and characteristic caves, the wild beasts and medicinal plants, the proper places for the excursions and the possibility for the skiing places, give to these regions the required values searched by the Albanian and foreign visitors. The tourism is a powerful resource for the development of a country and a resource for profits as well. There are a lot of cities and even states that manage to live perfectly only with this activity. We can mention only Ulqin that is only 15 km far from Velipoja, has been developed through tourism, nevertheless it misses the beauties of Velipoja. Now it has reached high living standards. But it is obvious that the development according to the modern level of life of the infrastructure determines the intensive well-being of tourism, apart from the precious values of the tourism the district possesses. Considering every thing it is necessary to do something to make efficient these riches, the help of the foreign investors has got great and undeniable value. This help will bring a lot of profits that will be a kind of mirror of the investment done. The investments are various and enormous. They include the construction of the new streets and the mending of the existing ones, setting of the different buildings in conformity with the relief, building of the electric stations and water providing ones, setting up of the post office and telephone services according to the demands of the number of visitors that will frequent these places. Parallel with all the judicial high institutions and different organizations (Albanian State, European Bank, World Bank and different other financial institutions) that in a very near future will enter in these investments, native or foreign investors should not let this opportunity pass by. Even with modest investments in this direction the investor will reach good profits. The application of a 42
  • 43. precise research plan, including even the adding investments that complete the lack of infrastructure, to even satisfy the interests of the visitors and tourists, will present a very favorable chance to get a lot of profits. It would be better not to delay and act before the others will start this activity in wide scale. 1.3. International experience I think that the city of Shkodra has many similar natural characteristics with Ulcinj which is in Montenegro along the sea side (Adriatic Sea). As a matter of this fact I think that developed tourism in Ulcinj could be a good example for situation in Shkodra to proceed. Here I would like to present some characteristics and information’s about Ulcinj. Ulcinj a small town in the very south of the Yugoslav Adriatic coast, known in former times as a pirate stronghold, offers special pleasures to antiquarians thanks to it´s numerous well preserved cultural and historical monuments in the old part of the town. There is an extremely mild climate, beautiful sand beaches, the longest in Yugoslavia, make it a very popular and attractive holiday resort. A famous souvenir and antique market is especially interesting for guest from the entire world. The impressive number of 217 sunny days annually enables a very long bathing season - from April to November. In the immediate vicinity of the picturesque of old town, in a pine forest over the rocks below which the sea foams, is located an “A” class hotel “GALEB”. Looking towards the sun and the endless blue water-front “Galeb” is the place where everything is submitted to your resting and enjoying. Hotel “Galeb” carries it`s “A” class mark with pride. Besides beautifully arranged rooms, luxurious apartments with great terraces viewing the sea and the old town, as well as 5 luxuriously equipped villas in apartment type, with 60 beds, it offers numerous sports and recreational facilities to it`s guests. In addition there are several salons and social activities rooms, indoor swimming pools, table tennis hall, bowling, a modern discotheque, trimming hall and a medical surgery. The hotel complex provides tennis courts while the own beach is well equipped with chatters and parasols as well as other water-sports equipment : wind-surfing, sandolines, water skis, sailing boats and small motor boats suitable for taking off to underwater fishing. Next to the 43
  • 44. entrance of the beach is a terraced Belvedere - an ideal place for spending the last hours of another unique day of the holiday to the sounds of folk and dancing music, resting your eyes on the silhouettes of the old town. 1.4. Special rights and incentives for tourism • • • • • Foreign investors in tourism in the Priority Tourism Zones shall enjoy the following rights (for full details refer to the Law on Tourism Development): to freely import funds in foreign exchange needed to cover investment and operating costs, and to export funds in foreign exchange to pay interest and principal of loans, as well as the dividends; to keep an account in foreign exchange and operate it to pay the interest and principal of loans as well as the export of dividends; to transfer abroad: amounts arising from total or partial selling of the investment as well as shares, bonds and other securities; net profits, determined in accordance with current tax laws; license fees and royalties payable to persons ordinarily resident outside Albania; and earnings of foreign nationals; to offset losses incurred in the first five years against profits in the following five years; to employ foreign nationals for the performance of specialized tasks, provided they train a number of Albanians in the tourism business (at least one-third of staff in the first three years, at least one-fifth in the following two years). They shall also enjoy the following tax exemptions and holidays: • from tax on dividends and interest on loans paid to a financial institution; • for three years from customs and excise duties on goods and merchandise imported solely for the investment, provided they are not available in Albania at the same quality, quantity and price; • from profit tax for five years from the end of the development period; profit tax is payable at 50 per cent of the full rate(which is 30 per cent) during the following five years, but this will be reduced by 40 per cent if the profit is reinvested in Albania. 44
  • 45. 2.0 Why the Study? First, Professor Oelfke has made 14 trips to Albania since 2005, 11 of those trips have been to Shkodra and surrounding regions additionally he has made three trips to Velipoja Beach and has firsthand knowledge of the maintenance/garbage problems facing local residents, businesses, regional tourists and international tourists alike. Without addressing garbage issues Shkodra and Velipoja beach could easily face the problems similar to Naples Italy as reported by the BBC in 2007. “The US embassy in Rome has warned American tourists that they may face health risks if they travel to Naples, because of the city's rubbish crisis. The US embassy warns that fires lit by local citizens to try and get rid of the rubbish may give off toxic fumes.” Or worse yet the the March 2009 Reuters report: “ Maione's Hotel Vesuvio — where a room overlooking the Bay of Naples costs 220 euros ($345) in low season — closed one of its two restaurants, the renowned Caruso, as business dried up. The hotel expects occupancy of no more than 30 per cent this year compared with 50 per cent in 2007 and a far cry from the fat years around 2002 when some 80 per cent of its rooms were full.” Secondly, Dr. Troshani not only owns property at Velipoja she found herself in the unenviable position of asking first time visitors to Albania not to go to Velipoja because of “Garbages” and the embarrassment associated with the request. 2.1 Hypothesis: A single source of funding to clean and maintain lands open to the public does not exist that meets the needs desires of all stakeholders: local residents, tourists, business owners, and governmental officials. 3.1 Research design: Because this paper seeks to identify the methods for public use land clean-up and maintenance preferred by residents a Zoomerang Questionnaire was developed to collect data from various demographic groups from the region. The survey is attachment A. 3.2 Survey Results: First and foremost when asked what they disliked about Velipoja beach over 50% of the respondents cited garbage/sanitary conditions. To be sure Velipoja is popular with over 40% or respondents visiting 10 or more times a year. While the results were filtered a variety of 45
  • 46. ways age was selected for analysis because it showed the greatest amount of diversity in results. Fully 70% of the respondents fell into the 18-30 year-old age category so they would be considering their preferences for several years to come the age groups of the respondents were as follows: Under 18 18-30 31-45 46-Over 2% 70% 19% 9% Not surprisingly respondents under 31 utilized the beach more often than those over 31 which helps to explain other survey results. When asked “How often do you visit Velipoja beach” the various age groups responded as follows: Age <18 18-30 31-45 >46 ALL <2 times 20% 25% 75% 26% a year 2-9 37% 62% 25% 40% 10-19 17% 0% 0% 12% > 20 100% 27% 12% 0% 23% Results of the survey (90%) clearly indicate that the preference for responsibility to maintain public lands should remain at the local or regional level. When asked who should be responsible for maintenance the various age groups responded as follows: Age <18 18-30 31-45 >46 ALL Local Gvt. Regional Gvt. National Gvt. Private Citizens 70% 100% 75% 50% 67% 20% 25% 25% 23% 7% 0% 25% 7% 3% 0% 0% 2% 46
  • 47. Respondents in below 45 were much more apt to use the public beach compared to their older counterparts. Respondents to the survey were asked “When visiting Velipoja Beach, which areas do you use”? Age Always private Always public Public 50% Public 50% <18 18-30 31-45 >46 ALL 27% 38% 50% 30% 30% 38% 25% 30% < 17% 12% 0% 14% > 100% 27% 12% 25% 26% How should the clean-up and maintenance of public areas be paid for? Age <18 18-30 31-45 >46 ALL Admission fee 23% 39% 0% 23% Hotel tax 13% 12% 25% 14% Business licensing 13% 12% 25% 14% fee Income taxes 100% 47% 25% 25% 42% Other 3% 12% 25% 7% Income distribution of respondents. Age <18 18-30 < 300 Euro-month 100% 53% 31-45 12% 300-499 Euro-month 30% 38% 500-699 Euro-month 7% 12% >46 700-900 Euro-month >1000 Euro-month 28% 25% 12% 10% 47 25% ALL 42% 9% 2% 75% 19%
  • 48. Employment status of respondents: Age Business owner Government official Tourist Student Other <18 18-30 7% 7% >46 12% 25% ALL 5% 9% 3% 47% 37% 100% 31-45 12% 75% 5% 33% 49% 75% NOTE: Among those indicating other are included: professors, bankers, Peace Corps Volunteer, NGO representative, travel agents, unemployed, researcher, and cashier Education level of respondents: Age Primary only Secondary only Some college Bachelor degree Masters degree PHD <18 18-30 31-45 100% 7% 14% 40% 7% 12% 25% 62% >46 ALL 100% 5% 35% 35% 26% NOTE: 95% of the respondents are college graduates What percentage of Velipoja beach should be reserved for public use: Age 100% 75% 50% 25% < 25% <18 100% 18-30 3% 53% 40% 3% 31-45 38% 38% 25% >46 75% 25% ALL 9% 44% 37% 9% Which are your main motivation when you visit a touristic destination? Age <18 18-30 31-45 >46 ALL Health and sport 27% 12% 50% 26% Relax and recreation 100% 83% 88% 75% 84% Clean environment 7% 25% 50% 14% Cultural traditions 13% 14% NOTE: Respondents were allowed to select more than one as their main motivation the reason for the totals adding up to over 100% 48
  • 49. Which are the information means you use most with the regard to touristic destination environment? Age Written media Visual media Internet Relatives Science books <18 100% 100% 18-30 10% 60% 60% 23% 3% 31-45 >46 25% 50% 38% ALL 7% 51% 60% 23% 2% 25% 75% Note: Respondents were allowed to select more than one source of information: On two separate occasions the authors Dr. Troshani and Professor Oelfke sought to organize volunteer groups to augment local officials in combating growing garbage problems at Velipoja beach and Lake Shkodra. The group who volunteered (25 at Velipoja) fewer than 10 for Lake Shkodra consisted entirely of existing students at Shkodra University no businessmen, government officials or other university representatives volunteered. The questionnaire contained two questions concerning volunteerism with the following results. The first question “How likely are you to volunteer to perform any type of community service” Age Very likely Somewhat unlikely Very unlikely Would not volunteer Don’t know <18 100% 18-30 60% 27% 31-45 62% 25% 12% >46 25% 25% 25% 25% 13% ALL 53% 28% 5% 2% 12% The second question “How likely are you to organize volunteers to perform any type of community service” Age Very likely Somewhat unlikely Very unlikely Would not organize volunteers Don’t know <18 18-30 60% 27% 31-45 62% 25% 12% >46 25% 25% 50% 13% ALL 58% 26% 2% 5% 9% 49
  • 50. 3.3 Conclusions: The majority of all respondents seek out touristic destinations for the purpose of relaxation and recreation and receive their information from visual sources 51% and the internet61% of the time. A visit to the English website depicts a beautiful “clean” beach free from garbage and trash. I should mention here that the website needs someone to edit the English “Velibojaofferes holiday makers the ability to have funin a seaside line with very clean water and very rich sand, but it is not all it is rich with natural unique values in which are Plazhi madh 14 km long and 200 meters wide,with rich and clean sand. The residents call it “”the sand of well doing””for its virtue of cure. The beach generates every year of its up bringing of the waves,. Making the percentage if sale very high, the beach is surrounded by forest with pine trees and other type of wood,. With yellow bushes, water plant valleys, denes etc.” Unfortunately, to over promise and under deliver is not a good practice in the tourism industry. The consensus of the respondents is that responsibility for the maintenance of public use lands should remain at the local or regional governmental level. Not surprisingly as respondent’s income levels rose and their use of private beach areas increased their support for any type of income tax to pay for the maintenance for public use lands diminished as did their desire to have areas reserved for public use. The largest # of respondents (18-30) year olds and those most likely to use public beaches support the use of income taxes 43% of the time and an admission fee 23% of the time. The next largest group (31-45) year olds supported an admission fee 39% of the time and income taxes 25% of the time. All age groups supported (over 12%) all various means to pay for clean-up and maintenance with one exception that those over 46 years old did not support an admission fee. To rely on income tax alone would result in a significant burden on people making less than 300 euro per month and cause resentment toward tourists from neighboring regions and countries who would not be subject to the tax. The survey asked two questions where respondents were asked what they liked most and least about Velipoja beach. As previously stated garbage was the number one dislike followed by the infrastructure (roads, public bathrooms, sanitary facilities) and by overcrowding. For the things respondents liked most the sand and the sea were most often mentioned only one respondent mentioned the hospitality and one person the “clean environment” Clearly the sea and the sand need to be protected from garbage and pollution if Velepoja beach is to remain a tourist destination. 50
  • 51. While placing a tax on visitors when they visit rent a hotel room is often viewed in a very popular light in the United States because the burden for payment is placed entirely on people renting rooms this method of payment did not appear so popular with the respondents. Fortunately none of the age groups supported this method of paying for maintenance and clean-up more than 25%. This indicates that while some of the burden for clean-up and maintenance should rest with people renting rooms however local residents appear prepared to “pay their fair share”. Taxing businesses was viewed in much the same light as taxing hotel guests while viewed as appropriate by 14% of the respondents that leaves 86% who believe that another means should be used to collect revenue to maintain land for public use. In summary as stated in the hypothesis the means by which needed funds for the use of maintenance are collected can be a vexing issue facing. However, if the people with differing ideas can reach a consensus and use a variety of methods no one group need bear the entire burden for this complex issue. 4.0 Recommendations: 1. A citizen led business/citizen/government task force should be formed to study the following: A. The imposition of an economic impact fee on all new construction in the village of Velipoja. This process is widely used in the United States when improvements to infrastructure will be needed as a result of the construction. B. The feasibility of charging a modest admission fee to Velipoja beach not to exceed 10 euro for a season (the amount currently charged to “private beaches” per year per meter). Or 1 euro for a two day pass. C. The imposition of a modest hotel room tax and/or a tax on local restaurant sales. D. The study on the feasibility of using an income tax to provide some funding to preserve the national treasure know as Velipoja Beach. I will mention here that this could increase problems of “black” employment. 51
  • 52. E. The expansion of the “private” beach season from the current June, July, August to include the months of May and September where “private” beach leases must maintain sanitation standards. 2. Local and Regional governments take any steps necessary to ensure at least 50% of the “prime” Velipoja beach areas remain public. 3. The University of Shkodra and other Private Universities should consider the use of a Community Service Learning Component for students having difficulty obtaining employment in their field of study. For instance a Tourism student would organize volunteers or proof read the velipoja guide web site for grammatical errors, or even assist restaurants with their translation of their menus to English. 4. The authors of this paper should continue to collaborate to continue what they have started! 5.0 References: 1. 2. 3. Dr. Arjeta Troshani “Touristic Destination Development” (4 December 2009) published in Albanian economic magazine named Economies in Transition 5.1 Author Ted Oelfke’s personal perspective. Having traveled throughout the world for nearly 40 years I have never been to a more hospitable place with warmer more gracious people than I have found in Albania. I marvel at the progress that I have witnessed with regard to infrastructure since I first travel to Albania in 2005. On my first trip to Albania my fellow travelers were amazed at the beauty of the country, warmth of the people, rich history, and unfortunately, the amount of uncollected garbage to be found throughout. I personally could have cried the first time I visited Velipoja beach in 2008. I will never forget that early May afternoon I knew I was visiting one of Albania’s treasures but for the garbage seen. I am also aware that the solution must come from the people of Albania when it comes to public lands, taxation, business fees etc. only Albanian’s have their history, culture, political background, and attitudes from which to draw. While models for the maintenance, use, and clean-up 52
  • 53. of public, exist in other parts of the world be it the French Riviera or nearby Montenegro it is ultimately the Albanian people who must come to a consensus. In preparing this report I googled “Naples Italy Garbage” there were 991,000 returns fortunately, a search for “Velipoja Beach Garbage” did not yield the same results. I wish the people of Albania much luck in the future as they continue to make improvements and stand ready to assist in any way I can. 53
  • 54. EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT OF MONUMENTS OF NATURE TOURISM OUR Prof. Dr. PERIKLI QIRIAZI Msc. BLERTA AVDIA Geography, University of Tirana Tirana, Albania "We abuse them by nature, because we see it as a commodity that belongs to us,as we shall see nature as a commodity to which we belong, then we can begin to love and respect it" Aldo Leopold 1.1Understanding the natural heritage and nature monuments Natural heritage is unique and special value of biotic and abiotic environment andtransmitted to generations. It consists of all objects around us, habitat, specialecosystems, tw values rare, unique, relict, edemike or vulnerable to disappearing. These special values are preserved and protected by laws applicable to naturalheritage, but by special laws. Human activity consists in evdiendimin, assessmentand managemen. The value of natural heritage could have national significance and is considered as a National Natural Heritage, protected as natural heritage and protected byinternational rules "International Convention on Cultural and Natural Heritage” Protected areas do not have the same value and are not equally populated. For a better management of their values and are classified in different categories ofprotection, to which the character of human activity. Accepted classification systemin our country is under the IUCN (The World Center of Nature conservation Union). This system consists of 6 categories: a) Strict Natural Reserves Scientific, b)National Parks, c) Nature Monuments, d) Managed Natural Reserve, e) Landscapeand Marine Protected Land, f) Protected Area of Managed Resources. 54
  • 55. On this basis, the Protected Area is considered "land space, water resources, withspecial values of biodiversity, natural resources and cultural landscape, protected by law special rules limiting the presence and human activity and management with scientific methods." A special place in this article shall pay a third category of protected areas Natural Landmark. Nature Monuments is a living facility and not living with one or more of outstanding scientific value, ecological, cultural, historical, aesthetic, didactic, religious, a habitat of a rare, threatened or of special value important scientific area to 50 hectares. natyre monuments enjoy the protection of the first category according to which are forbidden: the alienation of values for any purpose economic exploitation, work or changing character veprimatri monument or the flow of evolution. Nature monuments and offer unique value to our nature irreversible: the source of information for the various sciences, scientific information resource, cultural resource for people of different professions and the natyës passionate, didactic resource for pupils, students, valuable resource ecological information. Some monunente nature are closely related to the spiritual world to convey the traditions and customs of the local population, with the sides of which visitors understand and enjoy their values. In a we of the taste of the beauty of the canyon are the highest or Valbona, the waters of a well known or Sotira, Thethi, carst landscapes (Arrni of carst or black cave). Beets, trees in the center of the village or town are turned into symbols of their identity for residents. These have played important role in establishing and developing center city, village, under the shadow of their conversations were held, meetings, assemblies, where decisions are rwndwsishme. Strange form of Landmark Nature has often drawn attention to the man who in the inability to explain scientifically the effect they have worn on natural, turning to religious objects such as cave Kruje Sarisatllekut the Muslim faith, caves Mokra Llongës Orthodox faith, the cave of St. Anthony in the Catholic faith Lac. Objects assume the status of Nature Monuments thanks to the unique values that are, are only creature of nature, habiatat / objects of this specific area (50 ha), be without injured by man or other natural factors or by chance rejuvenation. 55
  • 56. Natural wealth is preserved in generations should be managed for scientific, ecological, cultural, curative, didactic, religious on one side and simultaneously help in achieving Sustainable Development. Using the mass of natural resources, ensuring their continuity, disaster prevention, strengthening spiritual connections to nature monuments population to help achieve this goal. Sustainable develop capital requires a harmony between economic policies, social and environmental, on the other hand local community plays an important role as a leading actor in the decision making process for designing and implementing management programs, integrated management of Natural Monuments. In the study of values and management of natural heritage has occupied a leading place, and science and geography, in the identification, evaluation and preparation of management plans in general and Natural Heritage monuments of nature in particular. In terms of today's global trend is observed ecotourism development. Tourists are looking for educational experiences tw culture, history, and local nature. To be consistent with global trends, we need to develop strategy and policy development in line with this trend. The first work to be done is to identify, study, scientific assessment and management of monuments of nature, the value of their advertising to become part of the tourist market, increasing competitiveness. Ecotourism, green tourism, and rural landscape today are the global trend of tourist movement where we have to adapt. 1.2. The distribution, status and problems encountered in Nature Monuments Albania incredibly diverse nature extremely complex and evolution of relief is very rich in nature monuments. Nature Monuments numbered 697, of which: gjeomonumente 291 or 41.6%; biomonumente 308 or 44.8%; hidromonumente 98 ose 14. Nature monuments have an unequal distribution by region which is the following statement on concretizing followingstatement on concretizing. 56
  • 57. Tab.1 .Monuments of Natyres by counties, districts of Albania Nr. Countrie district 1. Berat Qarku Berat Skrapar Qarku Diber Mat Bulqize Qarku Durres Kruje Qarku Elbasan Gramsh Librazhd Peqin Qarku Fier 2. Diber 3. Durres 4. Elbasan 5. Fier Hidrological SITES 1 1 19 12 2 5 1 1 14 3 5 6 3 1 2 9 4 2 3 Biological Sites Total Lushnje Qarku Gjirokaster Tepelene Permet Geological Sites 16 1 15 29 17 7 5 7 4 3 20 3 7 9 1 8 2 2 4 42 13 16 3 21 7 14 37 11 19 7 7 2 5 36 13 7 11 5 20 2 10 8 48 25 10 13 38 8 30 85 40 28 17 15 6 9 70 19 19 26 6 31 4 13 14 99 42 28 29 Qarku Korce Kolonje Devolle Pogradec 28 8 7 3 10 7 2 3 2 41 17 14 5 5 76 27 24 8 17 16 5 2 9 16 5 6 4 31 11 10 10 4 3 1 32 20 4 8 697 52 16 9 27 32 11 12 9 90 41 32 17 23 13 10 86 50 19 19 Mallakaster 6. Gjirokaster 7. Korce 8. Kukes Qarku 22 14 Kukes 7 4 Has 4 3 Tropoje 11 7 9. Lezhe Qarku 13 4 Lezhe 4 2 Kurbin 5 1 Mirdite 4 1 10. Shkoder Qarku 47 12 Shkoder 23 7 Mal. Madhe 18 4 Puke 6 1 11. Tirane Qarku 17 2 Tirane 10 Kavaje 7 2 12. Vlorw Qarku 42 12 Vlore 25 3 Sarande 10 5 Delvine 7 4 Vendi 291 98 308 Source: P. Qiriazi, S. Sala "Natural Monuments in Albania" pg.19 57
  • 58. Albanian diverse nature and evolution of complex emergency, there are many more still unknown to deserve this status, it is the duty of scholars, experts and environmentalists to natyrws our country to take, the initiative is the recognition of study content for the panjohuar detailed values of nature, according to the law you propose for the status they deserve. State of Nature Monuments their mass destruction after 1990 and especially the concept of narrow specialists and scholars troubled nature in Albania. With this concern citizen they began work on the study, appreciation and application of today's concept of Natural Monuments by IUCN. Important step in recognizing the protection of marks studying Monuments of Nature "Nature Monuments - cadastre, protection and preservation of their" precise definition of the concepts of Nature Monuments and expansion in the involvement in the status of objects of nature alive and not alive , sensitization of public opinion for their values. Played a significant contribution and support institutional and legal framework for protected areas where differentiated according to the nature and genesis (Geological Sites, Hidrological SITES, Biological Sites). Were published a major study mumber for Nature Monuments to put them in the service of process, educational, cultural, patriotic, ecological and service to the tourism development. Our country has a wealth of natural, diverse, which may well become an important part of the tourism sector, but it requires a perfect up to the ideal management of this property. Despite the achievements of the nature monuments remain many problems of scientific nature, the legislative institution. State of the monuments of nature in our country faces a problem that should not avoid, but rather to say that you evidenting stop: - Licensing private firms use of raw materials, hurting and alienating their values Skrapar - Denatured nature of Monuments of Nature as a result of use without scientific criteria and respect the laws on human activities as sources of Glina (Gjirokaster), sources in the district Devoll Pogrit - Illegal constructions on the beach chaotic Gen - Lack of appropriate infrastructure and orientation symbols - Their lack of Tourist Guide, the lack of information from the local population All these problems are the result of political deficiencies, strategies for preservation and protection of monuments of our nature. Lack of 58
  • 59. cooperation on a national, regional and local, required a full integration of veprimatrive government in this regard in cooperation and strong support to the local population. 3. Rating tourism and tourism management of natural monuments Albania is a country rich in natural resources and has about 12.58% of area protected area. Albania has large number of Monuments to Nature, classified according to their importance in Geological Sites, Hidrological SITES, Biological Sites, with an unequal distribution, but with great value. Nature monuments are considered as a strong point for the development of tourist movement and promoting various kinds of tourism: ecotourism, tourism landscape, religious, avanturier, etc. What I noticed is that the development of Tourism in Protected Areas basis have become part of tourist movement spontaneously. More than the benefits from the presence of tourist movements in these areas have created problems. Lack of tourist infrastructure, unskilled workers, lower taxes or lack of taking them has led to a need arises to their management. To manage the input comprises three main elements (that our country has majority and the concrete case of Mature Monumenets offering unique area with unique values, educational, scientific, cultural, etc..) Bilateral relations (coordination of national government programs, regional, local, where an important role to play and the local population as a key patner), outputs (benefits which will come from a better management of the tourist offer will serve the local community and tourist standard maintenance). In Nature Monuments management requires a scientific management, which consists of planning, organizing, motivating tourist movement. Since tourist movement is not spontaneous and unorganized denatyrizimin often leads to values such as monuments of nature. Osumi canyon, black caves frequented by tourists spontaneously; Nature monuments become part of the tour guides should be managed. Management of Natural Monument is a complex process that includes: analysis of physical-geographical, ecological, social, economic, her and her surroundings, preparation of management plans, continuous monitoring of the situation and results of management values, correction of preparing new management plans. Management plans are made for 5-10 year term, depending on location and usage, the degree of damage and continuously reviewed according to time. 59
  • 60. Execution of the management plan addresses the administration of the Protected Area and its implementing decisions taken by the management community, composition, functions and duties of which are determined by VKM. Management plan should be a communication tool for the understanding and support of central institutional, government, public, and private owners of the business, NGO. This ensures cooperation between all stakeholders, political support and financial resources. If all the above will be the possibility to develop various kinds of naturebased tourism and sustainable manner. Ecotourism occupies a leading place, but the tourist route known tastes and habits and traditions of culture, tradition recognizes the villages (Theth Shishtavec,) and their landscape (the waterfall Thehthit, Shishtavec plateau, Stone Eagle, Stone Breakfast , Birch and Shishtavec etc.), taste traditional dishes (Bozen Luma Flint Kukes, Corben Gora) in clean air and pure water and pleasant to Glina, Kroi Spring Red and white. Avanturier tourist can do and climbing in the mountains which are located near these areas (Gjallica, Tomor, etc.). Conclusions and recommendations Our country has a wealth of diverse nature and which already enjoys the status of the protected area. Classification were made by IUCN and relevant studies, but there are still problems to manage. Nature monuments are part of tourist itineraries and more spontaneous than profit while there was a problem with their values. Therefore required: - To inform the population, - To make studies appropriate to make them part of tourist tours - Organize the management plans for preserving, protecting and Nature Monuments References •Gjeografia Fizike e Shqipërisë (Physical Geography of Albania), 1990, Vol. I. Tiranë •Gjeografia Fizike e Shqipërisë (Physical Geography of Albania), 1991, Vol. II. Tiranë 60
  • 61. •Dragoti N., Dedej Z., Abeshi P., 2007. Zonat e mbrojtura të Shqipërisë (Protected areas of Albania). Tiranë . •Dida M., Dragoti N., Kromidha G., Fierza Gj., 2004. Zonat Natyrore të Shqiperise. Parqet kombetare. Tiranë. •Qiriazi P., Hoxha G., Kola B., 2007. Gjeografia 3, libër për shkollat e Mesme. Tiranë •Qiriazi P., Bego F., 1999. Monumentet e Natyres te Shqiperise. Tirane. •Qiriazi P., Sala S. 2006 “Monumentet e Natyrës së Shqipërisë” Tiranë •Qiriazi P. 2009 “Problemte e Zonave të Mbrojtura dhe Roli i menaxhimit të tyre në Trasformimin e hapsirës Gjeografike të vendit tonë” studime Albonogjike, Nëntorë •Serjani A., Heba G. 1996. Gjeotrashegimia ne Shqiperi, Studime gjeografike Nr.9. Tirane •Serjani A., Neziraj A., ë . A. P. ë imbledon, Onuzi K., Hallaçi H., Bushati S., 2003. Gjeomonumentet dhe Gjeoturizmi në Shqipë ri (Geological Heritage and Geotourism in Albania). In both: Albanian and English versions. Tirana. •Avdia B., Serjani Afat. 2010. Gjeomorphologic Landscape Around Shkodra Lake and Their intergration ëith Cultural Heritage. Shkodër. 61
  • 62. INTEGRATION OF THE SUSTAINABLE TOURISM CONCEPT WITHIN THE HIGHER EDUCATION CURRICULUM: AN ALBANIAN CASE STUDY Mirjam Dibra 7 Shkodra University "Luigj Gurakuqi", Albania Ted Oelfke 8 Sandhills Community College of North Carolina, USA Abstract Since the sustainable tourism development (STD) is a necessity of time, it is without doubt the task of the academic staff to enable students to contribute usefully to its development because many of these graduates will become the managers of the future of tourism. In the conditions when Albania appeals to become an important tourist destination in the tourist map of Europe, the higher education for tourism is a critical partner in efforts for achieving it through STD. So, STD is a key concept to be integrated in the higher education in Albania. This paper presents a case study from higher education for tourism in Albania and has as: Purpose- to explain the importance of the integration of sustainable tourism (ST) concept in higher education and to examine and analyze the present usage of this concept in higher education for tourism in Albania taking as a case study the Science Master’s (MSc) program on “Sustainable Tourism Management (STM)” in Shkodra University ‘Luigj Gurakuqi in order to improve conceptualization of the ST within its curriculum; to improve learning environment on STM and to promote the sustainability in tourism of this country. 7 Dr. Mirjam Dibra, Tourism Department, Economic Faculty, Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi”, Albania (e-mail: 8 Ted Oelfke, CFE, CHE, FMP, Chair of Hospitality and Culinary Arts, Sandhills Community College of North Carolina, USA, (e-mail: 62
  • 63. Methodology – The research is based in the Busby’s (2003) line of research, making also some changes to fully clarify the purpose of the study. For obtaining information, a self-completion structured questionnaire survey delivered on-line all graduate students in 2010 and 2011 for MSc degree on STM at Shkodra University. Finding- It is argued here that the integration of sustainable development within the tourism curriculum can constitute a valuable step in this developmental process, which is in the interest of all parties: for the students who, after their studies, will be equipped to enter the world of work and contribute usefully to its development; for the tourism industry that needs a workforce that can think beyond day-to-day issues and move it towards a more sustainable future; as well as for the tourism educational sector itself to play its critical role in change of tourism towards sustainability. But the integration of the concept of sustainable development within programs of study in higher education is not an easy task. Aspects of ST Development & Management aren’t widely addressed in MSc degree program on STM in Shkodra University, although the graduate students of this program have a reasonable understanding of the concept ST. Practical value- The paper is intended to serve building of ST industry in Albania that provides jobs and economic growth while at the same time practicing sustainable approaches to natural and cultural resource management Originality/value - The paper is addressed an issue previously untreated in Albania, integration the STD in higher education. This paper is in the support of the United Nations Decade 2005-2014 of Education for SD and contributes to the literature for education on STD and to literature for education on SD. Key words: sustainable tourism, higher education, curriculum, Albania Introduction Tourism is a new industry in Albania. Only after the years ’90-ties, with the opening of Albania to the world, politics of Albanian government determined tourism as a priority industry in development of country. The principal objective of these politics is the development of sustainable tourism, which protects and develops the cultural and natural heritage of Albania and also recognizes the importance of an attractive environment, as a precondition for a successful tourism (MTKRS, 2003, 2007). Tourism 63
  • 64. programs in the higher education in Albania was developed as a response to governmental politics for priority to tourism development; the impressive growth of the tourism industry during the last 20 years; the perceived employment needs of this growing economic sector and was given added impetus by student demand who saw future employment opportunities. But, following two decades of strong and sustained tourism growth, reality tells that Albanian tourism is facing a challenging future. This increase in tourism is leaded by the interests of short-term profits, without paying proper attention to maintaining the quality of tourist resources. The result of all this, the attractive value of tourist resources of Albania has begun to fall. In the context of economic, environmental and social developments in Albania, it is important that Albanian tourism continues to protect the resource on which it so fundamentally relies and ensure sustainable future growth and development. This tells that ST cannot be achieved unless sustainability principles to be embedded into tourism planning and policy. The situation created in Albania between the acceptance as a concept of development of sustainable tourism by governmental level and delay of its application, indicates and promotes for further research. For the STD, higher education is critical partner. Since the STD is a necessity of time, it is vital to provide the tourism managers of tomorrow with a clear understanding of principles of STD and with the ability to give creative and innovative solutions for the STD. So, it is surely the task of the academic staff to enable students to contribute usefully to its development. Integration of Sustainable Tourism concept into tourism programs in the higher education is too necessary since many of these graduates will become the managers of the future of tourism. The concept of the SD has become almost universally accepted as a desirable and politically appropriate approach to tourism development (Sharpley, 2003). It is an apparently simple concept, referring to a combination of the environmental, economic and socio-cultural aspects of the industry and ensuring a suitable balance between these three dimensions to guarantee long-term sustainability. However, for the concept of the SD, many authors and organizations have developed numerous definitions and descriptions. The main appeal of sustainability in all these is situated in the strong belief of mutual care for the world preventing unwanted effects of development, and in responsibility towards future generations protecting and improving the opportunities for the future. However, while sustainability is appropriate and creditable in principle, variety of definitions 64
  • 65. and the uses of the concept of sustainability appear to be too vague to provide an adequate basis on which to build a generally shared perception of sustainable development (Butler, 1998). Besides, the concept of the SD is complex and scope of its application in tourism is very broad. In tourism education, sustainability is related with a wide range of disciplines, including aspects of economics, sociology anthropology, and environmental science, as well as business and/or management. In addressing the SD, different levels of analysis are used, for example from global to the destination level, or from household to individual level (Butler, 1998). The relative weight and importance of the subjects related to SD is hardly objectively determinable and depends on the values and ideologies of various stakeholders (Hall, 1998). So, a clear elaboration of the sustainability concept in study courses or programs for tourism is difficult. This promotes for further research to examine and assess the current place of sustainable to ST aspects in the higher education curriculum. But, while the topic of sustainability over two decade has inspired in worldwide the creation of the journals of the Sustainable Tourism, the publication of many research articles and monographs that link the words sustainable and tourism together, there are little research on the integration of STD concept in tourism studies at the higher education. While in Albania, there is no discussions and empirical research on the latter which constitutes a potential for research. So, in order to promote sustainability and improve on its conceptualization within tourism curriculum, a better understanding of the present usage of the concept in higher education for tourism is necessary. This paper presents a case study from higher education for tourism in Albania. Just, focus of this paper is to review and analyze the curriculum Master of Science (MSc) degree program on “Sustainable Tourism Management” (STM) in Shkodra University ‘Luigj Gurakuqi”, in order to light the nature of its current curriculum, and to provide an overview of the current place of ST issues in this program, to identify current gaps of this curriculum and learning environment on STM which need to be addressed. Results of a survey for this of graduated students in MSc degree on STM of this university are presented in an attempt to obtain student perceptions of the importance of integration of the sustainability in tourism education and usage of the STD concept in the their curriculum of higher education. Also, problems faced by students in the teaching of study program on STM, which need to be addressed, are recorded. Finally, in order to increasing awareness and 65
  • 66. learning for ST, the paper concludes with students’ recommendations on improvement of the curriculum MSc degree on STM and learning environment for this, and recommendations on further increasing of the role of Shkodra University for ST education. Necessity for Integration of ST Concept in Higher Education Since 1992, Agenda 21 of the UNCED conference stated that “education is critical for promoting sustainable development and improving the capacity of the people to address sustainable development issues” (UNCED, 1992: Chapter 36). Given the critical role of education in achieving of the SD, the United Nations General Assembly at its 57th session in 2002 declared the period 2005–2014 as the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) and designated UNESCO to lead the Decade (UNESCO, 2007). As a potential driving force of change towards sustainability UNESCO (2009) defines Higher Education Institutions for three reasons: • Students will meet daily in their future work with sustainability issues faced by society. • Capacity of Higher Education Institutions for keeping the unique researches. • The premise that have Higher Education Institutions direct links with business and the community where research could be disseminated, connections made, and social change brought about, all of which will be crucial to help society transform itself. So for institutions of higher education the great challenge of the 21s t century is to train future professional students who are capable of acting in favor of sustainable development (Junyent, 2007).From all of this we can conclude that in order to transform economic systems toward sustainability, primarily it is necessity integration of SD concept in the system of higher education. In higher education for tourism, integration of sustainable tourism development concept is more imperative for several reasons. Tourism is one of the world's largest and fastest growing industries that have greater geographical spread in the world (Cook, Yale & Marqua, 2010; Middelton & Hawkins, 1998; Sharpley, 2004; Swarbrooke, 2002; Weaver, 66
  • 67. 2006; WTTC, 2009). To every country with tourist resources the expansion of tourism appears to be a very attractive method of achieving economic growth. Thus, tourism has the potential to improve the national balance of payments through the new currency introduced by international tourists, stimulate investment, to diversify the economy, to generate a larger and faster growing in employment than the same investment in another economic activity, to contribute to improving the quality of life etc (Cook, Yale & Marqua, 2010; Middelton & Hawkins, 1998; Mihaliç, 2004; Sharpley, 2004; Swarbrooke, 2002). Without tourism in many countries, the innumerable suppliers of goods and services to the industry would not be able to sustain their businesses. The expansion of tourism is supported by a increasingly leisure-oriented society. Even in difficult years of the current economic crisis, tourism is expected to regain the leading dynamic role in global growth and to keep an average annual increase of 4.3% of tourism demand on the global scale until 2020 (WTTC, 2009). But while tourism provides considerable benefits to many countries and communities, serving as agent of development, the rapid unlimited expansion, and non-right managed of the tourism puts pressure on environment of traditional and new tourist destinations, making that an agent of harmful change (Middelton & Hawkins, 1998). Therefore, tourism development should not simply follow demand. It should start from a responsible management of the base capital of tourism industry-tourist resourse. This is because tourism is a resource industry, dependent from the gift of nature and the society heritage, so a lot of decisions in the field of tourism are irreparable (Murphy, 1998). Quality of tourist resources in a destination is the primary motive of tourists to visit that destination and the primary reason of tourism businesses to direct investments at that destination and not in another. Furthermore, nowadays visitors are demanding more the healthy environmental products with local taste (Middelton & Hawkins, 1998; Swarbrooke, 2002; UNWTO, 2010). If these attributes are not provided by the destination, or lost during the process of resource overuse or mismanagement tourist destination, the existing tourist customer will go to another tourist destination and only a reduction in price will keep that destination temporarily in the market (Middelton & Hawkins, 1998). The connection of tourism with the environment shows that the survival and success of tourism depends heavily on the ability to develop responsible 67
  • 68. policies and management strategies that allow tourism to continue further enhancing while protect the environment. This becomes more challenging today in terms of existence of a big competition in tourism. In this competitive situation, it is important for tourism destination to develop a consistent planning and management system aimed at sustainability and quality of tourist product and on the changing demands of the market. Within this context, it is clear that abilities and the competences of the public sector responsible for management of sustainable tourism destinations need to be developed. But, in the management of sustainable tourist destination, tourist businesses have a great influence. Although management of tourist destinations is generally in the hands of the public sector, it has owned or controlled by only a part of the tourism product, while most of the tourist product is in the hands of private tourism businesses sector (Middelton & Hawkins, 1998; Swarbrooke , 2002). Also, their power in the management of sustainable tourist destination increase greatly due to the internal capacity to manage tourist demand because they respond directly to market forces and their decisions are determined by the large knowledge on the consumer and by the goal of profit (Middelton & Hawkins, 1998). So, the way that the tourism business is managed on a day –to day basis will determine its impact on the world around it, and whether or not it will be sustainable. Also, tourism is a labor-intensive service industry, where the service delivered by employees is the core of the product which is offered tourists (Swarbrooke, 2002). In this way, the tourism industry is dependent for survival (and at best, competitive advantage) on the availability of good quality personnel to deliver, operate, and manage the tourist product. As stated above, the human factor is fundamental to development of the tourism industry, since it constitutes the key base of quality in tourism supply. So, for STD, creating sustainable tourist product is necessary the human resource building for ST. “The challenge to create more sustainable human resource management in tourism is clearly a major task. However, unless we succeed with this challenge, it is hard to conceive of how we can develop truly sustainable tourism” (Swarbrooke, 2002: 236). On other hand, tourism is a dynamic industry and where the competition is too great. Recognizing, predicting and quickly adapting to the latest developing trends are necessary skills for today’s industry managers for sustainable growth of tourism. 68
  • 69. So, those who work in the industry can be a make-or-break dimension for sustainable success of tourism industry. For the sake of both the tourist and the sustainable future of the tourism, it is vital the qualification of human resource for sustainable tourism development. Integration of STD in curriculum of higher education provides tourism managers with a future-oriented viewpoint and with basic competences that can enable them to act responsibly for finding creative and innovative solutions for issues affecting the sustainable future of tourism. Also, the importance of higher education to STD is based in capacity of university for the unique research on issues affecting the future of tourism and on the premise that higher education institutions for tourism have direct links with actors of tourism where students could work and where research could be distributed, all of which will be vital to help tourism industry transform itself for sustainable future. Holding of this scientific conference on STD also proves this. As a conclusion, the STD cannot be achieved unless sustainability principles are embedded into tourism planning and policy. This in turn can only be achieved if sustainability is accepted as an integral part of the education process. So, it is vital to provide the tourism managers of tomorrow with an clear understanding of principles of STD and with a the ability to give creative and innovative solutions for the STD. In this way, the ST is a key concept for consideration within tourism programs in the higher education. Tourism study in higher education in Albania In Albania Tourism is the new industry. Only after the years ’90-ties, with the opening of Albania to foreigners, politics of Albanian government determined tourism as a priority industry in development of country. Development of this new industry constitute a challenge for Albania in terms of the existence of a more competitive environment of neighboring countries and further which had experience in tourism development. In this challenging environment, the human resource development for tourism was necessary. So, higher education programs for tourism have emerged in response to the following needs of human resource development for: • The availability of qualified staff for new and growing tourist industries. 69
  • 70. • Raising the image of careers in tourism. • Employment regulation. • Keeping the industry abreast with the latest technology and trends. • Responding to increasingly demanding service and communication requirements of customers. The first tourism graduate program in Albania was launched in Tirana University. The fact is that tourism as an area of study in higher education has received the greatest development the last decade as a response to the impressive growth of the tourism industry during the last 10 years 9 and the perceived employment needs of this growing economic sector and was given added impetus by student demand that saw future employment opportunities. This strong influence resulted in the opening of higher studies programs for tourism in 6 of 11 public universities and in the licensing of opening of these programs at 4 of 34 private universities that operate in Albania (Table 1 illustrates the variety of degree titles according to web-site of Education Ministry in Albania). According to legislation, the study cycles in higher education in Albania operate on the basis of the Bologna Declaration (3+2). The outcome of these developments was that higher study are becoming the main route, at least in principle, for potential employees to gain entry to the industry and not surprisingly modules of those studies are strongly gearing to these employment needs. “Curriculum design in higher study for tourism area undoubtedly affects the student experience with different curriculum framings resulting in students graduating with a range of perspectives, attitudes and competences”(Tribe, 2002 citied from Busby, 2003: 49). Therefore, integration of STD concept in curriculum of higher education is necessary to provide students – managers of the future of tourism in Albania, with a future-oriented viewpoint, critical of tourism issues and with basic competences that can enable them to act responsibly for finding creative and innovative solutions for issues affecting the sustainable future of tourism. 9 According to INSTAT statistics, the increase in the number of foreign tourists in 2010 compared to 2000 is 7.6 times 70
  • 71. Table 1: List of universities with tourism programs according to study cycles No. Name of the University Bachelor Program Professional Master Program Scientific Master Program Public Universities 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Tirana University-at subsidiary of the Faculty of Economy in Saranda Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi” Tourism - - Tourism - University “Fan Noli” in Korca University “Eqrem Cabej” in Gjirokaster University “Ismail Qemali” in Vlora University “Aleksander Moisiu” in Durres Tourism - Sustainable Tourism Management - Economist in Tourism Tourism Management 1. Management of hotels and restaurants 2. Cultural Tourism Management 3.Archeologic Tourism Management - - Tourism Management Policy and Management / Tourism Management - 1.Management of tourist services 2. Tourism economy Tourism Management Tourism Management 1.Hospitality 2.Tourism Marketing 1. Hospitality 2. Tourism - - - - - - - - Private Universities 1. European University for Tourism 2. University “Logos” 3. University “Vitrina” 4. North University “Argenti” 71
  • 72. Tourism Curriculum in Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi” The Shkodra region has strong tourism potential to become an important and competitive tourist destination in the tourist map of Albania and beyond. It is one of the only regions in Albania and the Balkans that has a variety of important natural and historical-cultural attractions within a small geographic surface and with a favorable geographic position to be easily accessible from the European and domestic tourism market (Dibra, 2008). Shkodra region has enabled the development of four main types of tourism: Citizen Tourism, Lake Tourism, Coastal Tourism, Mountain Tourism (Troshani, Bakiu, 2000). Given these potential tourism and socio-economic benefits of tourism development, the economic development strategy of Shkodra region has defined tourism as a priority sector of the economy and key contributor to sustainable development of this region. Therefore, for the return of these tourist potentials in real estate for the development of Shkodra region, it is required tourism wise policy and management strategy to ensure economic growth and sustainable future for tourism. Importance of wise management of these tourism potentials in the Shkodra region become more sensitive because most tourist attractions have protection status (Dibra, 2008) In these conditions, the academic staff of the Shkodra University directed its request to the government for opening programs of study in tourism. So, Shkodra University offers study programs in tourism in two degree: Bachelor degree in “Tourism” since 2003 and Master of Science degree in “Sustainable Tourism Management” since 2008. The study program of Bachelor degree in tourism at this university, designed for management career entry in tourism, provides students basic knowledges and practical skills to design, manage, and distribute tourism services for a variety of visitors at various tourist facilities and settings. The study program of MSc degree in STM offers a contemporary degree that provides students with a great opportunity for sustainable success in this dynamic industry. Specifically, it is designed to: • provide students from undergraduate programs in north region of Albania and further, who are interested in profession of the tourism management, a higher graduate program opportunity in tourism, most specifically, on STM; 72
  • 73. • • • • • • Meet emerging demand of tourism industry for degreed professionals who can manage complex sustainable tourism environments; Provide a strong foundation for career advancement as: future doctoral studies, and executive and regulatory job level positions within the many varied public, private, and nonprofit tourism organisms; Provide educational advancement and applied research opportunities to the emerging needs for academic personnel of private university with variety the Bachelor programs in Tourism and Hospitality, needed to prepare students for varied jobs and careers in tourism; Inspiration other people in the tourism destination by becoming motivated tourism managers for sustainable tourism development at that destination; Realizing an added value of our faculty by making it a Leadership in education for ST in Albania and further; Take a leading role in promoting an ethically-oriented form of education. MSc program in STM is designed to add value to first degrees by enabling students to develop in three ways that are central to a career in STM: First, to develop students an integrated understanding of the dynamics of STD by enabling them to see STD in its local, regional, national and global context, and in its relationship to the diverse organizational, institutional and geographical settings within which tourism is developed, planned and managed. Second, to enhance students with practical knowledge and skills relevant to STM by making known them functional areas of STM in order to enable them to offer effective solutions to complex problems and to effectively contribute to the integration of ST practices across a range of organizational, institutional and geographical settings. Third, to develop students relevant knowledge and skills to strategically manage by developing of their capacity to engage with the rigorous analysis of contemporary issues and problems facing ST and to engage in research for finding effective different strategies for the improvement of the sustainability within diverse tourism contexts; by developing of the their capacity to integrate the sustainability into decision-making. Modules of this MSc program selected to fit the career of the student in tourism management and reflect the “triple bottom line” of sustainable tourism—economic, environmental, and social-cultural viability. So, this program is a new interdisciplinary program of study and is subdivided into 12 thematic modules. Specifically, its curriculum includes: 73
  • 74. •‘STD’ module as an introductory subject to explains the understanding of concept, principles, dimensions of STD and the scope of ST •Modules of the science field : Tourism economics, Environmental aspects of the tourism and Natural heritage, Intercultural communication, Research Methods in tourism •Modules of the business field: Financial management, Human resource Management, international marketing, Ecotourism and Rural Tourism; •Modules of the planning and policy field: Management of Sustainable tourism Destination, Strategic Management. •In last semester, curriculum provides students an internship experience and independent study for the preparing of the dissertation. The development of curriculum in this program is supported on a wide range of research-based expertise amongst academic staff of Shkodra University and by foreign guest lecturer from the University of the Countries with successful practices in sustainable tourism management as SCC of NC in USA and various European Universities. Also, this program is supported by links of this university to local development offices, tourism businesses and tourism related businesses, NGOs operating in the northern region of Albania etc. Methodology When trying to integrate ST in study programs, the concept becomes very complex due to infinite combinations of disciplines, the wide space of ST, different level of analysis for decision making. This leads to the existence of different viewpoints and levels of understanding on the usage the ST concept in study curriculum. This paper seeks first to draw the student perception on the importance of integration of the sustainability in tourism education and after that to draw student perception on the usage ST in their higher study curriculum for tourism and to elicit problems of learning environment in this study program. Taking as a base Busby’s (2003) line of research, some changes have been made to fully clarify the purpose of the study. To present such overview a measuring instrument was needed. This measuring instrument had to be simple and easy to use in order to enable the highest response rate possible. A self-completion structured questionnaire 74
  • 75. survey was identified as a functional method for these purposes for two reasons. One, a structured questionnaire facilitates the administration, tabulation and analysis of data and facilitates the response of the respondents and make these responses more reliable (Elmazi, 2007). Two, self-completion questionnaires can be administered on-line to all graduate students because it has the advantage of distributing the questionnaire to graduate students geographically distributed Researchers possessed their email addresses because of the need for communication on-line studentteacher during the courses of the study. In the questionnaire, the close-ended questions were used. Some statements were included to assess specific perceptions of students using Licert scale. Likert scale is assessed as a unique technique used to measure the opinions, beliefs and attitudes (Elmazi, 2007, McDaniel & Gates, 1996). The paper takes MSC degree program in STM of Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi” as a case study from higher education for tourism in Albania. The population from which the survey sought information was defined all graduate students in 2010 and 2011 for a fairer assessment of full curriculum in their study program. Following this, questionnaires were distributed on-line to e-mail of every graduate students (32 in total). The analyzing of the information collected from survey gives an overview of the ideas of the students that responded. However, the outcomes of the study identify some important messages about student perceptions of the present usage of the concept of sustainable tourism development within their programs of study, and provide material for further discussion and research. Findings The survey involved all graduate students (32 in total) of MSC degree program in STM of Shkodra University, but 23 of them were responded the questionnaire providing a 72% response rate. Their age varies 24-48 years old, reaching an average age 32 years old and where more than half (57%) belonged age of 24-30 years old. Most of them (78%) work in Shkoder. Of all students surveyed, only 57% of them work actually in the tourism field. Students asked for their motivations to attend the MSc degree program on STM (Figure 1). About 96% of students believe in the opportunity of making career in tourism because they recognize that tourism is the future of Albania. Strong motivations for them were taking a full graduation (87%) 75
  • 76. and personal growth (83%). Also, more than half of students (57%) considered attending of this program as opportunity to have easier to find a job in tourism. So, from 13 of graduate students (57% of total) employed actually in the tourism field, 10 of them (77%) have been employed during and after completion of the MSc degree program on STM. According to the records from this questionnaire results that this MSc program on STM constitutes the main way of the qualification to the field of tourism for these students. So, 52% of graduate students surveyed have not taking other qualifications expect MSc program on STM, while only 35% of graduate students surveyed have gained other qualifications in tourism field. To get an indication on the importance in Albania of the building human capacity for ST and the role of higher education for it, graduate students were asked to rank three statements according to Likert scale (Table 2). As regards the scoring of the scale, statements were scored 5 for “strongly agree” down to 1 for “strongly disagree". From the table, it is evident that students accepted that the building human capacity for ST is a prerequisite for STD in Albania. Students were understood the importance of the integration of ST concept in the education process for the building human capacity with abilities to act responsibly for the sustainable future of tourism. Also, all students strongly agreed the role of higher education institutions of tourism in Albania as a critical partner of change of tourism towards sustainability. 76
  • 77. Table 2: Perceptions of graduated student on the importance in Albania of building of the human capacity for ST and the role of higher education for this No. Statement Mean n=23 1 The sustainable future for the tourism in Albania starts by building human capacity to achieve its. 1.1 2 The building human capacity for STD in Albania can only be achieved if sustainability is accepted as an integral part of the education process in tourism. Higher education institutions of tourism in Albania should be a potential driving force of change of tourism towards sustainability 1.3 3 1 To assess the reality of STD in Albania, students were asked to rank two statements (statements 4, 5 at Table 3) on a Likert scale where score 1-5 expresses: 5 for “strongly agree” down to 1 for “strongly disagree". According to the table, students clearly believe that attempts by public sector and tourist businesses for STD in Albania are slowly. The second question asked students to indentify which modules in their MSc degree program on STM provided a foundation on STD&M. Not surprisingly, all students recognized STD and Management of ST Destination modules to be directly relevant. Also, more than half of students surveyed identified Human Resource Management (83%), Tourism Strategy (78%), Environmental Aspects of Tourism (74%), and Ecotourism & Rural Tourism (57%) modules as the foundations on STD&M. 77
  • 78. Table 3: Perceptions of graduated student on the reality of STD in Albania and on the curriculum of MSC degree program on STM No. Statement Mean N=23 4 The sustainability concept has been widely accepted at government level on policies of development for tourism in Albania, but the reality shows that their successful applications have been slow. 2.2 5 The current practices of tourism business in Albania do not help STD The MSc program on STM, I ended up, provides me with an understanding of the ST concept The MSc program on STM, I ended up, recognizes me with the possible ways in which tourism could be managed to ensure its sustainable future The concept of ST is already integrated in all the modules within the curriculum of the MSc program on STM, I ended up. There is too much emphasis on commercial aspects of tourism in curriculum of the MSc program on STM, I ended up. 1.6 6 7 8 9 1.3 2.5 3.7 3.2 Response categories: Strongly agree-(1); Agree (2); Not sure (3); Disagree (4); Strongly disagree (5). In an attempt to assess specific perceptions of the curriculum of MSC degree program on STM, students were asked to rank four statements (statements 6, 7, 8, 9 at Table 3), representing curriculum components, on a Likert scale. From the table, it is evident that the highest mean score was recorded for statement 8. This statement concerning the embedding of the ST concept in all modules elicited a surprisingly result that the ST concept is not present in all modules. With regard to statement 9, there was polarization. It is important to note that only three students stated for “not sure” but none of the students stated for it “strongly agree” or “strongly disagree”. This demonstrates that the influence of industry on the content of MSc degree program on STM is evident. The highest acceptance is evident at statement 6. Its mean score demonstrates that students gain adequate knowledge for the understanding of ST concept. But the same situation didn’t display in statement 7. Only one student stated “strongly agree”, who hasn’t Bachelor education background in tourism, while other students 78
  • 79. stated “agree” and “not sure”. The answers of following questions in the questionnaire light the mean score of this statement. When asked to identify as many authors as possible associated with the concept of sustainable tourism who have been used during all their courses in the MSc program on STM, must students were not able to cite any authors. Given the plethora of on-line existing articles, exiting articles in scientific bulletin of economic faculty at Shkodra university, exiting lectures prepared by the academic staff of this program and books on STD&M brought from SCC of USA in Shkodra University, this is disappointing and concerning result. Among positive responses for books’ authors, Swarbrooke, Buttler, Taylor, Edgell, Middelton are identified by many of the students. The questionnaire also included some important questions regarding for enhancement of integration ST concept in the curriculum of MSc program on STM. More than half of students thought for a greater integration of the sustainable tourism concept at these modules: Tourism Strategy (65%), Financial Management (61%), Human Resource Management (61%), Natyral Heritage (61%), Management of Sustainable Tourist Destination (56%), Intercultural Communication (52%) and Tourism Economics (52%). In recommendations of the graduate students for approaches of the enhancement of learning environment at their MSc program to provide the best opportunities for learning on STM, students believe for in making more: Interactive lecture (96%), Modules on management aspects for ST (78%), Use of guest lecturers from countries with successful examples of STM (65%), Involvement of practitioners who work in field of tourism (96%), Use of actual local case studies (91%), Use of successful case studies (96%), Examples of policy and regulation for STM (96%), Field trips to learn in a 'live' tourism environment for some specific issues of module (100%), Self-managed discussions and debates (96%), Books for exploring of the literature on ST (91%), Keeping the communication with government officials or businesses of the tourism (96%), Organization student and lecture exchanges (100%).Only for the approach -Group work in preparing presentations-, most students (52%) suggested continuing of their development with the same level. To serve more of the learning on STM during forth term, 87% of students (Fig.2) suggest that the internship to become in function their dissertation preparing for MSc degree. Also, more than half of students (53%) accepted 79
  • 80. the need of increasing of the level of points for passing of a exam in their MSc program on STM (Fig.3). According to records, students think that average of points for passing of a exam in their MSc program on STM to be 55 points. This would serve quality of learning on STM. In the questionnaire is included the question on perceptions of graduate students for increasing the average grade level of student as the admission criterion in MSc program on STM. According to the records, more than half of students (74%) think for that average grade level of student as the admission criterion in MSc program on STM to be 7(Fig 4). Fig.4:Perceptions of graduate students for increasing the average grade level of student as the admission criterion in MSc program on STM 26 74 PO JO 80
  • 81. Conclusions and Contributions Researchers come in the following conclusions from research findings: •Students clearly believe that attempts by public sector and tourist businesses for STD in Albania are slowly. •It is argued here the building human capacity for ST is a prerequisite for STD in Albania •The building human capacity for STD in Albania can only be achieved if sustainability is accepted as an integral part of the education process in tourism. •Integration of ST concept into tourism programs in the higher education is too necessary that they play a critical role of change of tourism towards sustainability. •The integration of the concept of sustainable development within programmes of study in higher education is not an easy task •Students of MSc degree program on STM at Shkodra University have a reasonable understanding of the concept ST •Aspects of STD&M aren’t widely addressed in MSc degree program on STM offered by Shkodra University. •The learning environment on the STM is required by students to improvement in order to provide the better learning opportunities on the STM •Students suggest that the internship to become in function their dissertation preparing for MSc degree •The quality of the MSc degree program at Shkodra University depends also on effective recruitment of students for attending of this program. •The increasing of the level of points for passing of a exam in MSc degree program on STM would serve quality of learning on STM. •The MSc program on STM constitutes the main way of Bachelor students for the further qualification to the field of tourism in Shkodra region. Researchers of this paper believe that this study has the following academic contributions •The paper treats an issue previously untreated in Albania, integration the STD in higher education. •The paper contributes to the literature on education on STD and to literature for education on SD. 81
  • 82. •Research method used by taking of a student feedback is a way of monitoring the quality of study program on integration of ST concept in Higher Education curriculum for tourism Also, the researchers of this paper believe these practical contributions of the study: •The paper presents some practical ways for enhancement of the curriculum of MSc degree program on STM in Shkodra University, improvement learning environment, increase the role the academic staff of Shkodra University for further education ST •The paper serves building of ST industry in Albania that provides jobs and economic growth while at the same time practicing sustainable approaches to natural and cultural resource management •This paper is in the support of the United Nations Decade of ESD 20052014 Recommendations The paper stresses the need for Albania to make ESD a national priority and for the government and other stakeholders to develop a National Strategy for ESD. Given the fact that tourism is considered a priority sector of development in Albania, education for STD should be paid a special attention. Education for STD should support by innovative programs which aim at creating a tourist product with long-term production features. Since the higher education institutions are the critical partner for STD, it is very important adopting a clear policy about integration of STD concept in higher education curriculum in Albania. Taking into account the findings from the analysis of questionnaire data, authors of the paper make some recommendations for further enhancement of study program for MSc degree on STM in Shkodra University. According to the enhancement of integration ST concept in the curriculum it is necessary: Curriculum of MSc degree program on STM have to take into account that ST principles should be practiced in all aspects of tourism management, and that sustainability should be treated as a managerial philosophy to include into all modules rather than a matter of the module. In this way, the curricula provides tourism students, who will 82
  • 83. be future educators, industry planners, researchers, managers and operators of tourism with the latest thinking on a comprehensive range of themes addressing the STD &M and encourage students to engage with the important issues, rather than to push always any politically correct line. Since all four functional management areas: marketing, finance, human resources, and operations play a important role on management for ST (Swarbrooke, 2002), authors of the paper suggest to include module: Operations Management for Sustainable Tourism in this curriculum. This can be achieved through the annexation of any module with general information on any module that connects with it. Also, to express the relationship of management functional areas with ST, authors suggest that their other modules already included in this curriculum should be named: Financial Management for Sustainable Tourism; Human Resource Management for Sustainable Tourism, Marketing Management for Sustainable Tourism. Author suggest to include elective modules in this curriculum in order to concentrate students in the area that fits their career goals best, where will give the effective contribution for STM Such modules can be: Sustainable Management of Ecotourism; Sustainable Management of Rural Tourism (they are already included in the curriculum with the names: Ecotourism and rural tourism) and Sustainable Management Festivals, Meetings and Events. According to the enhancement of learning environment on STM it is necessary: The increasing of the average grade level of Bachelor graduate student as the admission criterion in MSc program on STM. Authors agree with suggestion of most of students that average grade level of student as the admission criterion in MSc program on STM to be 7. A good recruitment of students to attend this program will enhance the quality of the MSc program on STM, but indirectly and the quality of the Bachelor program for Tourism, and so will increase the rate of graduate recruitment and retention in tourism management jobs and would make more effective their contribution on STM in Albania. The increasing of the level of points for passing of a exam in MSc program on STM would serve quality of learning on STM. Authors agree with suggestion of most of students that this level to be 55 points. 83
  • 84. More support for academic staff development. Teaching sustainability is also potentially demanding on staff, since it requires a holistic and multidisciplinary approach. It encompasses abroad range of disciplines, including aspects of economics, sociology, anthropology, natural science, as well as business and management. So, for the delivery of sustainability in this program, professional development of lecturers is vital. For this necessitates institutional support for academics of this programs including opportunities for staff development as: financial support for their training experience program in west universities, for their participation in science Conferences and Journals on ST in or out Albania More interactive lectures means that the lecturer must to set the context for learning, introduces the topic, objectives to be achieved from this topic and structures of the lecture in such way that the lecturer invites student participants for interactive communication on the topic’s issues that are explained during the lecture as for example: the introduction of statements to be argumentative if it is false or true; or multiple choice questions or only question and finally the lecturer gives the right conclusion, etc. More interactive scope for the discussion in the seminars of key theories and concepts, exploring case studies, and exploring the literature, debates and self-managed discussions on issues of contemporary concern in sustainable tourism management as well as international tourism in general in order that to translate the theoretical concepts into practice. More field trip and short study visits for intensive learning in a 'live' tourism environment providing the opportunity to engage in analyzing of the challenges of developing, managing and promoting sustainable tourism. The field trip to a 'live' destination must run as part of the Management of Sustainable Tourism Destination module, will enable students to apply knowledge and ideas acquired in the classroom in a specific tourism context. Here, additional contributions can give by a wide range of specialists and practitioners who are trying to introduce the sustainable tourism practices. Researches of students in a range of sustainable tourism planning and management issues and problems which are developed in different modules during the three semesters, must to serve student’s thesis and to support by scientific supervisor of student's dissertation. For this theme 84
  • 85. for dissertation and its scientific supervisor should be determined after the first semester of this program. The place of the internship for MSc degree students must to serve topic of student’ dissertation. This would make students more responsible during the internship and their dissertation would have real impact on STD & M in the tourism business or the tourist destination where students develop the internship. The provision for use by students of more comprehensive books on ST and the provision of more other resources such as expert guest speakers and visiting lecturers to support the integration of sustainability into existing topics/modules. According to monitoring the quality of this program it is necessary: Evaluating of the quality of this program must be not only by statistical information (as the pass rate, average mark, number of applicants and accepted students, number of graduated students in MSc program on STM) but and by strengthening of external evaluating (as foreign guest lecturer of this program or tourism organizations and institutions where students develop internship) and by taking of student feedback. Methods for gaining student feedback on this program can be: Module evaluations after the completion of the module and student representation in the program committee (meeting at least once a year) Creating a program committee comprising all relevant teaching staff in this program, student representatives and others who make a contribution towards the effective operation of the program (e.g. library/technician staff), which must have responsibilities for the quality of the program. Before that this study program to start, the program committee shall undertake once a year to review in-depth content of every module of program’s curriculum that the overall aims and objectives were appropriate with managerial philosophy for ST. Also, the committee must analyze the quality of this study program through the above methods of evaluating and to take the relevant measures for improvement. In order to the Economic Faculty in Shkodra University to be always the leader in Education for ST is also necessary to integration ST concept in Bachelor study curriculum and in Study curriculum for Professional Master programs in Tourism field (which the Economic faculty should make more 85
  • 86. effort to be open them in response to industry needs and student demand to complete graduation). To achieve sustainability, it isn’t enough providing courses and programs content which are more closely geared to the needs of the tourism industry for ST, but and the provision of the mode of delivery such as the use of open and distance learning. This is the only way by which the majority of staff in the industry can gain access to educational opportunities for ST. The academic staff of this study course should undertake the opening of summer school in September month or during the years of distance learning courses for education on STD for businessmen and people employed in tourist enterprises. This kind of education offers knowledge on the development of environmental and social responsibility in operations of a tourist enterprise. It can improve the quality of services offered, especially in this area which is dominated by unqualified employment. Also, summer school for education on STD should undertake for those indirectly employed in the sector, e.g. traders, individuals employed in transport, services, etc. In this way, the educational level for ST of people employed in a growing industry of the tourism will improve. Researchers of this study hope that this paper will provide a useful starting point for further in-depth discussions, integration curriculums, practices and research on the ST concept in higher education in the tourism field. Literature o Bakiu, V., Dibra, M.,(2010), “For a qualitative Tourism as nowadays requirement: need for standards even in this direction” Shkoder-Albania o Butler R. (1998), “ Sustainable tourism – looking backwards in order to progress?” In C.M. Hall & A.A. Lew (Eds.) Sustainable Tourism: A Geographical Perspective, Essex: Longman. o Butler, R. (1999) “Understanding Tourism in Jackson”, E.L. and Burton, T.L. (eds) Leisure Studies: Prospects for the Twenty-First Century, State College, PA.: Venture Pub. o Cook, R.J., Yale, L.J. & Marque, J.J., (2010), “Tourism: The Business of Travel”. Publication of fourth, New Jersey, Pearson Prentice Hall. USA o Dibra, A. & Bakiu, V. (2000), “Tourism development I Shkodra region: Reality and Perspective”. Monograph, Shkodër-Albania o Dibra, M.,( 2007) “STD- the necessity of time”, Scientific Bulletin of Shkodra University, Series of legal-economic sciences, Secon year of the Publication, No. I, Shkoder-Albania 86
  • 87. o Dibra, M.,(2008), “Environmental management of the hotel sector in Shkodra in perspective of achieving sustainable”, IFK, Prishtina-Kosova o Dibra, M., (2008), “Sustainable tourism and protected areas-Analysis successes criteria of sustainable tourism management in protected area of Shkodra”, Camaj-Pipaj, Shkoder-Albania o Dibra, M., Ndou, V. & Troshani, A., (2009), “Oferta turistika della regione di Scutari”, Le potenzialita e le sfide dello sviluppo turistiko a Scutari, Camaj-Pipaj, Shkodër-Albania. o Dibra, M., (2010)“Encouraging sustainable tourism practices among businesses of bar-restaurants in Shkodra region.”Shkoder-Albania o Elmazi, L., (2007),”Marketing Research”. Sh.B.L.U., Tiranë-Albania o Griffin, T., (2002), “An optimistic perspective on Tourism’s sustainability. Sustainable Tourism: A global Perspective”. Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann. o Hall C.M. (1998),” Historical antecedents of sustainable development and ecotourism: new labels on old bottles?” In C.M. Hall & A.A. Lew (Eds.) Sustainable Tourism: A Geographical Perspective, Essex: Longman. o Kruja, D.& Oelfke, T., (October 2008), "A Comparative Analysis of Student Learning Styles in Hospitality and Tourism Management", International Conference, Shkodra, Albania, (Proceedings) o Middleton, V.T.C. & Hawkins, R., (1998), “Sustainable Tourism: A Marketing Perspective”, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann. o Oelfke, T. (SCC) & Lufi, (October 2010) "The role of Tourism in Developing Countries", The First International Conference for Research in Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure, Shkoder, Albania, (Proceedings). o Sharpley, R., (2004), “Tourism: A vehicle for Development? In: Tourism and Development: Concepts and Issues”, England, Channel View Publications. o Sharpley, R. (2003) ‘Rural Tourism and Sustainability–a Critique’, in D. Hall, L. Roberts and M. Mitchell (Eds), “New Directions in Rural Tourism”, Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Limited o Swarbrooke, J., (2002), “Sustainable Tourism Management”, London, CABI Publishing. o Weaver, D., (2006), “Sustainable Tourism: Theory and Practice”. England, Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. o Co-participant authors in Conference of Association for Tourism in Higher Education, (December, 2004), “Critical Issues in Tourism Education”, ATHE Publication No. 14, Downloaded at: o Graham Busby,(2003) , “The Concept of Sustainable Tourism within the Higher Education Curriculum: A British Case Study”, Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education, Vol.2, No.2, Downloaded at: 87
  • 88. o Gri, K., Flanagany, Sh., Staceyz, J., Tottle, A.,(2008), “Integrating Sustainability into Tourism Education and Training in Ireland: Current Reality and Future Actions”, Downloaded at: o INSTAT, (2011), “Tourism statistic 1995-2010”, Downloaded at: o Lindsey McEwen, Glenn Strachan, Stephen Sterling, David Norcliffe and Sheila Bennell, (2011), “Student perceptions of interdisciplinary learning in education for sustainable development (esd) at taught postgraduate level”, Downloaded at: ey.pdf o Lino Briguglio And Paul J. Pace,(March 2004), “Education For Sustainable Development In Malta”, Downloaded at: lio_ppace.pdf o MTKRS, (2007), “Sectoral Strategy for Tourism 2007-2013”. Downloaded at: o MTKRS, (2003), “Strategy of tourism development in Albania until 2012”. Downloaded at: o Shirley Eber (April 2003), “Guidelines No.10: Integrating Sustainability into the Undergraduate Curriculum: Leisure & Tourism”, Downloaded at:: o Stephen Gough & William Scott, (Summer 1999), “Education and Training for Sustainable Tourism: Problems, Possibilities and Cautious First Steps”, Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, No.4, Downloaded at: o UNESCO, (2007), “The UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD 2005-2014)” , Downloaded at: o The University of East London,UEL, “Postgraduate Programme Specification for MA Sustainable Tourism Management”, Downloaded at: o UNCED, 1992, “Promoting Education, Public Awareness And Training”, Chapter 36, Agenda 21, o UNESCO Education Sector. “Guidelines and Recommendations for Reorienting Teacher. Education to Address Sustainability”, Technical Paper N° 2 (2005). Download at o Junyent, M., (2007), “Network: Greening the Curriculum of Higher Education, in: UNESCO Education Sector. “Good Practices in Teacher Education Institutions”. Good Practices N°1, Download at 88
  • 89. o UNESCO, (2009), “World Conference on Education for Sustainable Development”, Bonn, Germany, Download at http://www.esd-world-conference o WTO, "Sustainable Tourism": o MASH (2008), “National Strategy for the higher education in Albania (20082013), Downloaded at: 89
  • 90. EXTRA CONTRACTING RESPONSIBILITY OF TOURIST ENTREPRENEUR FOR DAMAGES CAUSED TO HEALTH, SECURITY AND PROPERTY OF CLIENT-AN INSTRUMENT OF IMPORTANCE FOR DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM INDUSTRY Hoxha Dr.Sokol Mengjezi Faculty of Law UT Abstract Nowadays, tourism is ranked in the group of most developed industries of world economies. The positive effect of developing tourism industry is not limited only in this sector, but it also ensures the development of other economic sectors. Basing on this special importance, Albania is engaged to supporting and expanding of tourism, aiming to transform the country into a touristic mediterranean destination and to set it on the map of world tourism. To meet this priority, however, a fundamental requirement continues to remain not only improvement and enlargement of infrastructure, but even that of legislation, which provides legal instruments for developing this activity in conformity with european standards. By this paper the authors have the view to deal one of the factors that impact on development of this sector and exactly the responsibility that albanian legislation provides in charge of tourist entrepreneur, in all those cases when it is proved the damage caused to client’s health or property. To realize this goal, in this paper will be introduced the general concept of causing the damage, accompanying it with cases from damages that can be caused during the period of accomodation in a tourist destination. In this context, the authors will present a comparative study between provisions of Law No. 9734, date 14.5.2007 „For Tourism”, accompanied by relevant changes, from one side and provisions of civil code from the other side, which represent the basic legal frame that establishes the extra contracting damage 90
  • 91. in albanian legislation. For a better meaning of this responsibility, there is a difference to be make evident between contracting responsibility that holds the entrepreneur in cases of non fulfilling the obligations provided in the agreement with the client and that extra contracting one that derives from causing the damage. A special place in this paper will be dedicated to objective responsibility of tourist entrepreneur, as one of modern developments of private law, which goals to reward the damage that comes during the accomodation at hotel, even in those cases when it is impossible to prove the fault of entrepreneur. In conclusion, basing on Resolution of European Parliament of 6th of April 2011 “for Proposal of Rule of European Parliament and Council regarding the european tourism statistics”, in this paper there also be presented recommendations for improvement of albanian legislation in this field. Key words: development of tourism; sector of hotels; extra contracting responsibility; cause of damage; european standards for tourism I. A general overview on responsibility of tourist entrepreneur for causing the damage. A compared overview between the civil extra contracting responsibility and the contracting one. Today, tourist undertaking includes a wide range of activities, starting from holes, restaurants, tourist transport and other undertakings which operate in service of tourism. The same as the activities of hotels or restaurants, the activity of tourist transport, is held on basis of licensing from proper ministries that cover tourism and transports, a procedure that is arranged according to that provided by the new law in this field. According to article 2 of Law no. 9734, date 14.05.2007 “For Tourism”, “this normative act arranges the relations between public institutions and private subjects, juristic and physical persons, native or foreign ones, who exercise tourist activities and which establish rights and liabilities of subjects participating to such activities”. The law provides the establishment of a special structure, the Commission of Tourism Standards which after examination of request and 91
  • 92. its documentation, proposes to the minister about issuing or refusing the categorization to demanding subject. One of more troubling issues encountered during tourist activity remains the one of damages caused to the consumer. Even though the Albanian legislation has not solved out constantly the problems in the field of civil responsibility of commercial agents, because of specifications of tourist activity, in practice it is attested that the supplier or consumer often have uncertainties about civil responsibility of each one in a judicial relation created between them. This uncertainty is somehow explained because of provisions of special legislation that arrange tourist activity must be read combined with principal legislation that arranges the extra contracting responsibility to our judicial order and eventually with the civil code of Republic of Albania. Let’s deal with these provisions shortly, “every hotel, every accommodating unit or tourist restaurant is responsible, for as long as the client stays there, for the security of his life, of standards of service that it offers and for any damage caused to health, security and property of the client, in conformity with the legal provisions in force”. According to this law, the office of Tourist Service represents an administrative structure, depending on Ministry of Tourism, whose prerogative is the solution of complaints of clients to hotels proprietors, restaurants owners, tourist guides, travel agents, tourist organizers, and other tourist undertakings for goods and services offered by them. So, according to articles 12, item 1; 13 letters dh) and e), this structure makes the proper verifications for complaints or other claims of clients and according to the case, it orders the subjects mentioned in letter “dh” of this item to indemnify, totally or partially, the client who has made the complaint or orders the owner of tourist enterprise to indemnify the client. The respective Ministry of tourism by its proper structure has as its legal obligation to inspect the hotels, the other accommodating units, the restaurants and other tourist enterprises. According to article 32 of above mentioned law, the respective ministry of tourism, by a written notification, can ask to any person who manages a hotel or another accommodating unit for tourists, a restaurant or a tourist enterprise, to allow the authorized clerk to inspect through entering to the premises where the proper business is exercised. The civil code by its side, which remains the main legal frame, arranges in few several provisions the civil responsibility for causing damages in general which also comprise the damages caused during the tourist undertaking. Although there is a little number, basing on this legal frame, it 92
  • 93. is evident a rich judicial practice. Since at the beginning it must be underlined that texts cited above, do not intend to describe materially all the illegal facts that bring civil responsibility of tourist entrepreneur; in the frame of these general principles, it belongs to judicial practice that on cases when illegal facts are proved during the tourist service, to verify the determination of the sort of judicial responsibility and to verify fulfillment of conditions necessary for engagement of rewarding the damage at any concrete case. In principle, according to actual legislation, as a consequence of causing a damage to health, security or property of a client, the civil damage responsibility, the content of which is composed of obligation of tourist agent to reward the damage caused. This responsibility is a constituent part of judicial responsibility that has any subject for the illegal facts performed by him. Different from the other forms of social responsibility of every individual for his illegal facts, the judicial responsibility is featured of possibility it has through the force of state, to apply the law provided sanction to the culpable subject for each sort of judicial responsibilities. It’s all the different from criminal responsibility, the civil one, which we are dealing with, is based on reward of damage caused by committing an illegitimate act. If the illegal act as a result of which is caused a damage to the consumer, at the same time meets the requirements of a criminal offence, except the obligation of rewarding the damage, the sanctions provided by criminal code will also be applied to the tourist entrepreneur. The extra-contracting responsibility represents a civil sanction which is not applied versus the person who has committed the damage, but towards his property, with which he is obliged to reward the person to whom he has caused such damage. In these circumstances, it is obvious that this property responsibility passes even to legatees of tourist entrepreneur. Before making a detailed assay to responsibility of tourist entrepreneur, it must be underlined that between this responsibility and the contracting responsibility of entrepreneur there are significant differences. So, in all the cases, a contract between the client and the tourist entrepreneur is engaged, the object of which is the service offered and the rights and liabilities assumed during the fulfillment of this contract. Every dispute of contracting liability legitimates the other party to ask for the fulfillment of liability and in case this is not possible for rewarding the damage caused as a result of non-fulfilling the liability or when the contracting liability is not liquidated on the right way. Considering that in some cases both forms of 93
  • 94. responsibilities, the contracting and the extra-contracting one, imply the indemnification, practically there are cases of wrong application of each of them, or worse, of their superposition. In order to have a clearer idea, let’s see the similarities and distinctions between these two forms of civil responsibility. Both of these responsibility forms are dominated by the main concept of repairing a civil damage, produced as a consequence of an illegitimate action and done on purpose by the side of the person. As a consequence, the basic elements are the same: an illegitimate action that risks a liability, which therefore violates the right of another person; committing on purpose such an action, as the subjective element of responsibility, a causal report between the illegitimate action and incoming of damage. However, beyond these similarities, there are fundamental differences between these two sorts of entrepreneur’s responsibilities. The first difference is related with the sort of liability that is violated by the side of tourist entrepreneur. In the case of extra contracting responsibility we are assaying, the violated liability is a legal one with general character that belongs to all the individuals of the society; the liability consists in not committing anything that can harm the health, security or property of another subject. Otherwise, in the case of contracting responsibility the liability of tourist entrepreneur consists in executing all the liabilities that are expressively provided in the contract; these liabilities are concrete and they must not only fulfilled, but for more they must be fulfilled in the way and quality as provided in the contract. So, it is clear that to engage the contracting responsibility of entrepreneur, the existence of a valid contract must be proved. Therefore, each damage that may be caused to the client in the precontracting phase, for example revoking the offer before the date determined to receive the reply by the side of the client, or before the date of contract negotiation, will be rewarded basing on extra contracting responsibility and not contracting one. Moreover, the damage caused basing on this contract, which has resulted later to be invalid, would be possible to be rewarded referring to legal basis that establishes the extra contracting responsibility. From the other side, basing on relativity of contract’s effects between the tourist agent and the client, we must accept that each damage 94
  • 95. caused to a third party – person that is not a party of this contract-, will be also rewarded on basis of an extra contracting responsibility. A second difference between the sorts of civil responsibility, is related with the conditions provided from the law, necessary for engagement of each responsibility. In the field of contracting responsibility, the civil code provides clearly that the person holds law responsibility in those cases when he has complete capacities to act – this capacity is required to make the contract and to execute it-, which as a rule is won when the person fills the age of 18 years old. In the field of extra contracting responsibility, the provisions of civil legislation do not provide a certain age, as a result it is unanimously accepted by the law doctrine that will be responsible for damage reward every person who has the necessary consciousness to understand the importance of action committed, regardless the age. In other words, the criminal capacity of action does not condition the capacity to act any more as required in contracting field. A third and very important difference has to do with extension of damage reward in both cases of civil responsibility. It is true that in both cases the tourist entrepreneur has to reward not only the effective damage caused to the client – damnum emergens-, but even the unrealized revenues – lucrum cessans-. But, while the debtor entrepreneur basing on the contract of tourist services who has not executing the contracting liability responses only for the damage provided or that was predictable at the moment of making the contract. In the field of extra contracting responsibility, the responsibility is complete; the tourist agent who has caused the damage responds for any damage even for an unpredictable one. A fourth difference consists in proving the culpability of tourist agent, in both cases of civil responsibilities. So, in the case of extra – contracting responsibility, as a rule, the culpability of tourist agent must be proved by the side of client who has submitted the damage. All different, is in the case of contracting responsibility, the creditor-client must prove only the existing of the contract, and the fact that the liability provided in the contract has not been executed or by the case, even executed this has not been fulfilled in the same way as the one provided by the contract; basing on these two elements, the culpability of tourist entrepreneur is presumed by the law. From what we already mentioned, it is easy to understand that in the case of contracting responsibility, the situation of creditor-client is very simple. As 95
  • 96. we are going to analyze in the following, the proof of culpability in cases of extra contracting responsibility, is one of the most difficult proofs to be administered before the court. A fifth difference according to the kind of responsibility in cases when the damage has been caused by several touristic agents at the same time. In the case of extra contracting responsibility, l when there is an interaction between some agents in committing an illegitimate action, they are going to respond in solidarity for the damage caused. As a consequence, the client can address to each of them who is obliged to reward the complete damage to the client. In case of contracting responsibility, in the hypothesis of some tourist agents in the quality of debtor’s quality, the principle of contracting solidarity will not have effects, but each one will respond only for his part of damage that is caused to the client. In these circumstances, to fulfill the total amount of damage, the creditor client must start a judicial plaint versus each of tourist entrepreneurs to whom he has contracted to. II. The damage caused to the client and the responsibility according the Albanian Legislation The criteria for the extra contracting responsibility of tourist entrepreneur for damages caused to health, security and property of client are: 1. The damage caused to the client The existence of a damage is considered not only the main condition to be engaged in an extra contracting responsibility of an entrepreneur, but even a premise for starting a judicial process which object is rewarding the damage. The damage as the main element of civil responsibility represents the result or the negative effects that a consumer submits, as a consequence of an illegitimate action committed by the tourist agent or his responsibility. Referring to the judicial practice, we can mention some like: harming health, accompanied by loss or reduce of capacity to work; death of a person 96
  • 97. who is the financial supporter of the damaged one; loss of objects or extraordinary amortization of them; financial loss that comes as a result of an unreasonable cancellation of service and of need to appeal in other services, or other ones. The reward to be given as a result of extra contracting responsibility is always a patrimonial one, in cases when it consists in repairing the damage in nature, or also when the damage is rewarded in the form of restitution an amount of money. The issue is debatable if this patrimonial reward is given only for damages also patrimonial, or it can be accorded even to non patrimonial damages, which are diversely considered as “moral damage”. In cases when the damage caused can be assessed in money, it is patrimonial damage. For instance, the damage that comes from loss of objects left in the hotel room. If the damages are not possible to be assessed in money, then we have a moral damage and represents the spiritual suffer for such loss. So for example, it can happen that the object lost or destructed, has not only a certain economic value, but at the same time it can represent a family memory, and being such it can be associated with an indeterminate value, which represents an affective damage, that means a moral one. The monetary reward of moral damages has been one of the most controversial in our judicial practice. Not stopping to details which surpass the object of this paperwork, in our judgment, the issue of rewarding in money of moral damage must be accepted without any equivocation form judicial practice. The last, so that the damage can be rewarded by the side of tourist agent it is necessary to be indubitable and not be rewarded by another subject. Regarding the certainty of damage, the judicial practice has affirmed constantly that the damage must be certain to exist and possible to be assessed. Meanwhile the condition not to have been rewarded by another one, it is also comprehensible. The extra contracting responsibility does not intend to create supplementary revenues for the client but simply to remove the negative effects caused by the damage. So, for example, if the automotive vehicle has been damaged in the premises of a touristic agent, the last one will reward the damage only in the case when this damage is not repaired from a company of insurances. 97
  • 98. 2. The illegitimate act committed by a tourist entrepreneur In order to force the tourist entrepreneur to reward a damage submitted by the client it is necessary that the damage is caused as a result of an illegitimate action committed by the entrepreneur or other persons that act in his name or for his account. Even though the provisions of civil code provide for “any fact that causes a damage to the other”, it is unanimously accepted that this responsibility is referred to the premise that the action that has caused the damage is part of the category of illegitimate facts. In the attempts to define an illegitimate action, we will consider it like any fact that violating a right of an individual provided by the law order, harms the person that enjoys the quality of the client. The notion of violated law is dealt by the judicial practice widely, such have been considered not only the subjective rights provided by the law, but even legal interests that are protected by legislation in force. When we examine an illegitimate act like a special element of extra contracting responsibility, we will consider the objective fact, so the exterior demonstration of a certain behavior of an individual, making an abstraction for his subjective behavior, an element that will be especially surveyed. The illegitimate character of the act flows objectively as a result of violating the subjective law, without the need to analyze if the author of act has committed it on purpose or because of his imprudence. So, the illegitimate fact of entrepreneur is the object of the act committed by him. As a rule, the great part of illegitimate actions committed by the side of tourist entrepreneurs are demonstrated in the form of a positive actions; stealing of several things, profiteering of an amount of money greater than the value of service offered to the other clients; destruction of a car and other like these. But, in other cases, the illegitimate act is demonstrated even in the form of an inaction, by not acting for a certain service or doing an activity, not taking several measures for keeping things or objects of the clients. It must be understood that in any case, inaction will be considered an illegitimate acts that brings as a consequence the responsibility of a tourist entrepreneur, in all those cases when the legal provisions provide the obligation to act in a certain way. 98
  • 99. 3. Causal relation between the illegitimate fact and the damage caused In order to make active the extra contracting responsibility of tourist entrepreneur, the existence of a damage or of an illegitimate action performed by the entrepreneur is not enough but it needs to exist a causal relation between these two indispensable elements. This relation implies the fact that the damage is caused to the client properly as a result of an illegitimate act committed by the tourist entrepreneur. Basing on numerous cases that are encountered in practice, we ascertain that many times the causal relation can be easily determined. The other times, as a result of interference of some consequent acts by the side of entrepreneur, or of acts by the client himself or by the thirds, the determination of the fact if the damage has come as a result of entrepreneur’s act remains difficult to be determined. Life demonstrates that the complexity of facts and of human acts makes deciphering of causal relation difficult to be solved, the relation between an act and the damage submitted by the client. Basing on this complexity the judicial practice makes a selection of factors and acts that are found coordinated, selects only those that have happened before the damages happened and that have caused the last one. In its orientations, our judicial practice includes in the causal relation not only the cause which is necessary for a damage to exist – condition sine qua non- bujt even other episodic causes, so reasons that have helped, making possible the damage to happen. After a contradicting practice, the actual jurisprudence is led by the principle that not only the necessary reason, but even other factors which have helped to cause the damage will be included in the causal relation. 4. The fault of the person who has caused the damage In order that the tourist entrepreneur is put before the responsibility to reward the damage caused to the client, except the conditions surveyed above, it is necessary to determine if the illegitimate act that has caused the damage be committed on purpose by the side of the author. When we analyze the culpability as an element of civil responsibility we refer to the subjective dimension of an illegitimate act, in other words, to subjective 99
  • 100. behavior of the author in report with the act and with the consequences of it, at the moment of committing it. Since at the beginning, we have to underline that there are important differences between civil responsibility and criminal responsibility of committing an illegitimate action, differences that become clear even in the element of culpability, as a fundamental condition of engaging each of these responsibilities. So for instance, the criminal responsibility is often based on facts performed on purpose by the author, while the civil responsibility of causing the damage will be engaged even for aimless forms of culpability, like imprudence. Even though, fault represents one of fundamental conditions of civil responsibility, in civil code we do not find a special provision of culpability definition; of its sorts and of queries of its definition. Different from civil code, the criminal code and doctrine of criminal law have paid a special importance to the approach of this element of criminal responsibility. But considering the fact that the notion of culpability remains the same, the doctrine of civil law and the judicial practice are based continuously on the notion of culpability defined in criminal law. Culpability represents the subjective, psychic behavior of the author towards an illegitimate act and to its consequences. In all cases, the concept of culpability is present in a negative subjective attitude, of not respecting or by violating legal provisions. Violation of legal liabilities is preceded by a complex psychic process that includes the conscience and will, and ends in the form of an illegitimate act. This psychic viewpoint consists in two factors: •Factor of understanding the facts; this factor means the existence of conscience to realize the significance of act to be committed. The culpability at any of its forms, presumes a certain level of conscience to understand the importance of acts and the consequences that come from it. •The factor of will; in the process of forming the behavior, the factor of conscience is followed by the factor of will, which represents the analyze of act that the author wants to commit and the decision to commit an illegitimate action. Both of these factors are found unified and if they are present by committing the illegitimate action, they represent in their unison the 100
  • 101. phenomena called culpability. In the function of this viewpoint for the act committed, culpability is performed in several ways, which start from the simple imprudence, gradually varying up to the direct goal to commit an illegitimate action. In our civil code, we do not find any provision referring to the form of culpability regarding the extra contracting responsibility determination. In cases when such determination is absent, unanimously it is accepted from juridical literature, that, the guilty entrepreneur will be considered the one who regardless the form of culpability, negligence or imprudence, has violated the rights of the client. For all mentioned above, it is clear that if in the process of assessment of culpability, there are circumstances that have impeded the freedom of conscience and will, they will impact to elimination or by the case to reduce of author’s culpability. The judicial practice and law literature have accepted unanimously some factors that exclude culpability. They are: the act committed by the client himself; the act committed by a third one, for whom the entrepreneur is not responsible; and the major force. III. Perspectives of improving Albanian legislation in the field of civil responsibility of tourism operators Today, tourism is ranked in the group of the most developed industries of world economies. The positive effect of development of tourism industry is not limited only in this sector, but it also guarantees the development of other economic sectors too. Basing on this special importance, Albania is involved in supporting and extending tourism, aiming the transformation of our country to a Mediterranean tourist destination and installing it in the world tourism map. In order to fulfill this priority, the main demand continues to be not only the improvement but even the extension of infrastructure, but even of legislation, which provides the legal instruments for development of this activity in conformity with European standards. Even though Albanian legislation which establishes the extra contracting responsibility, which includes also that of operators in the field of tourism, was compiled in the beginning of years ’90, while the legislation that provides licensing and supervision of these operators is of last decade, 101
  • 102. the dynamic of development in this sector considers to be indispensable the intervention of legislator to make amendments in order to improve this sector. Basing on a comparable overview of legislations of EU member states, and on Resolution of European Parliament of 6 of April 2011 “For the proposal of Regulation of European Parliament and of European Council regarding European tourism statistics”, we think it’s an urgent need to improve this legislation in direction of extending the objective responsibility even to some cases of services offered by tourist operators. Another quality required today from tourist product, is the chance to be used in conditions of security, without causing any damages to physical integrity or to his things. This ubiquitous concept of “security” accepted even from Directives of European Union, sets the private initiative before a responsibility different from that already known up to today. As we have seen during this paperwork, the actual legislation provides that civil responsibility of a tourist entrepreneur will be active in those cases when it is proved that the illegitimate act is made on purpose. So, this way it is clear that the objective responsibility is excluded. But, this juridical principle, which on its side it is based on the moral principle that no one is responsible for the damage caused at least from imprudence, it is still not accepted even nowadays for several fields of activity or business, where the entrepreneur together with his profits must assume even the risk of an objective responsibility. Only this way, the rights of the clients would be guaranteed, because in most cases the client does not profit the reward for the damage as it is impossible for him to prove the author’s culpability. The extension of objective responsibility domain, even in cases of tourist operators is related with the character of industrial civilization which is based on using some means that in itself are an added risk resource accepted as an unavoidable component of actual technologic developments. As it is already accepted, if the science and technique still do not offer means and measures capable to stop the means that derive from them, for some risky activities, and when the subject still continues to exercise such activity, we have to accept that the subject exercises this activity at his risk. In these circumstances he must respond for the damages caused, without having the possibility to prove the absence of fault. 102
  • 103. The objective responsibility is based only on casual relation, which has to be proved that exists between an illegitimate act and the damage caused to the client. Failure of this responsibility will be realized through excluding this causal relation or by proving the fault of a third from where the product which has caused the damage during the exercise of a tourist activity has derived. The responsibility of tourist operator does not have to be effective in all those cases where basing on all scientific and technical knowledge at the moment when the product is in circulation, the predictability of damage is impossible. According to European directives in this field, the so called “development risk” is charged to the consumer. Bibliography Lucy William., Philosophy of Private Law., Oxford University Press Inc 2007 Hinteregger Monika., Environmental Liability and Ecological Damage In European Law., Austria 2009 Francesco Galgano., E Drejta Private., Luarasi 1999 Nuni Ardian., E Drejta e Detyrimeve., Morava 2008 Bussani Mauro., La colpa soggettiva. Modelli di valutazione della condotta nella responsabilità extracontrattuale., Cedam: Padova 1991. 103
  • 104. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN ALBANIA Dr. Alketa VANGJELI Faculty of Economy University “Aleksandër Xhuvani”, Elbasan Abstract The strong and sustained rise of tourism activity over the past decades is one of the most remarkable economic, social and cultural phenomena of our time. Recently, tourism has been seriously considered in the national sustainable development strategies in many developing countries. The tourism is an important industry in Albania, growing faster, thus becoming a source of increasing stress on the environment, natural and cultural resources. But the present inclination to evaluate short-term gains over the long-term environmental consideration constitutes one of the main concerns in respect to the future of the national natural and cultural wealth. Within this prospective, Albania recognizes the important role of tourism in its economical future and the need to promote a strong interest in sustainable tourism. The development of sustainable values in tourism requires above all, the optimal use of environmental resources, as well as the respect of the socio-cultural authenticity of the country host communities ensuring viable and long-term benefit to all stakeholders. This paper attempts to look into and evaluate the performance of the tourism sector in Albania. It aims to identify the problems facing tourism in Albania and propose some policy recommendations for the development of a modern and sustainable tourism industry. Key words: sustainable tourism, development, resources. 104
  • 105. 1. Introduction Tourism is arguably the world’s largest and fastest growing industry, accounting for about five percent of the world’s Gross National Product and six percent of the employment (Glasson et al, 1995). Most governments encourage tourism for its ability to spread economic development and reduce inequalities in income distribution by providing jobs (Wahab and Pigrim, 1997). For poor countries, regions, towns and cities, tourism is seen as the fast track to development. Tourism is therefore viewed by government as a catalyst for national and regional development, bringing employment, exchange earnings, balance of payments advantages, and important infrastructural developments benefiting locals and visitors alike (Glasson et al, 1995). Defined by the impressive network of businesses and services and by the infrastructure needed to support it, tourism is one of the world`s largest industries involving the wide range of stakeholders, including the private sector tourism businesses, governmental and intergovernmental organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) networks, consumers and host communities. In recent decades, the tourism industry has shown sustained growth in both revenues and number of tourists, and has left broad economic, social, cultural and environmental footprints reaching almost every part of the world. Touristic activity generates significant economic benefits to both host countries and tourists’ home countries alike. Especially in developing countries, one of the primary motivations for a country to promote itself as a tourism destination is the expected economic improvement, mainly through foreign exchange earnings, contributions to government revenues, and generation of employment and business opportunities. The recent years in international tourism indicate that touristic activity is still concentrated in the industrialized countries of Europe and Americas. However, there has been a substantial proliferation of new tourist – generating and tourist – receiving markets in the developing regions as well. After many years of isolation, Albania has changed rapidly toward a free market economy, offering many opportunities to become a new tourist destination in the Mediterranean. The tourism is an important industry in Albania, growing faster, thus becoming a source of increasing stress on the environment, natural and cultural resources. But the present inclination to evaluate short-term gains over the long-term environmental consideration 105
  • 106. constitutes one of the main concerns in respect to the future of the national natural and cultural wealth. Within this prospective, Albania recognizes the important role of tourism in its economical future and the need to promote a strong interest in sustainable tourism. The development of sustainable values in tourism requires above all, the optimal use of environmental resources, as well as the respect of the socio-cultural authenticity of the country host communities ensuring viable and long-term benefit to all stakeholders. Until recently, the literature on sustainable tourism development in the Albania was undeveloped and it seems to have received very little attention by previous researchers. Therefore, the main aim of this paper is to provide an analysis of tourism development in Albania by considering and identifying the existing problems. In particular, this paper seeks to address three objectives: first, to analyse challenges and opportunities for sustainable tourism development; second, to evaluate the performance and to identify the problems facing tourism sector in Albania; and third, to provide interesting policy implications and recommendations for policy makers, public authorities and managers of tourism in order to identify the priorities for the development of the sustainable tourism in Albania. 2. Challenges and opportunities for sustainable tourism development In both theory and practice, the adoption of a sustainable development strategy and the consequent sustainable development policies seem to guarantee long term viability of the tourism product. In an attempt to apply sustainable development in Tourism, World Tourism Organisation defines sustainable tourism development as development “that meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunity for the future. It is envisaged as leading the management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems” (WTO, 1995). This definition allows to consider sustainable tourism development as a multidimensional concept that attempts to harmonise development and environment in an integrated way. Specifically the concept 106
  • 107. can be analyzed along the following dimensions (Spangenberg, 2005): Ecological, Economic, Social, Cultural and Institutional. Within the framework of the above, sustainable tourism development consists of: • The environmental challenge in the form of resistance against degradation of the natural basis of human life; • The economic challenge in the form of increasing present income while guaranteeing future income; • The social challenge in the form of promotion of social justice, security and equality; • The cultural challenge in the form of preserving and promoting culture and aesthetic values; • The institutional challenge in the form of promoting participation of the local societies in strategic decision making. Under such circumstances, policies toward sustainable tourism development require the integration of environmental, social, economic, institutional and cultural objectives into a coherent strategy, safeguarding the essential interests of each dimension. Over the past decade, tourism has become the largest industry worldwide in terms of employment and share of global gross domestic product. Economic gains have been a major driving force for the growth of tourism in developing countries. The initial period of growth happened in the late 1960’s and 1970’s, when tourism was perceived as a key activity for generating foreign ex-change and employment by both development institutions, such as the World Bank, as well as by governments (Goodwin, 2000). Despite the negative economic impacts of tourism (such as inflation; dominance by outsiders in land and property markets; inward-migration eroding economic opportunities for domestic industry including the poor) the demand for travel and tourism continues to grow. As more people are interested in spending leisure time in nature, ecotourism has become one of the fastest-growing segments of the tourism industry. This creates opportunities in areas characterized by natural attractions, wildlife and wilderness habitats. Local communities may benefit in economic terms as well as create a commitment to conservation and sustainable development. Careful planning and assessment are important parts of sustainable tourism development. Officials responsible for national parks and other nature areas will have a major responsibility for handling the challenges and 107
  • 108. deciding which opportunities for tourism development can be sustained over the long term. Local communities will also have to participate in planning and assessment when culture and heritage are important parts of ecotourism. It has been noted that the principles for ecotourism have not yet been firmly established in order to guide planning and assessment. However, two basic principles of ecotourism that have been identified are: (1) encourage conservation and (2) provide benefits to the local populations. However, planners and policy-makers must also keep in mind certain realistic truths about tourism: it consumes resources, creates waste and requires certain kinds of infrastructure; it creates conditions for possible over-consumption of resources; it is dominated by private investment with priority on maximizing profits; its multi-faceted nature makes control difficult; and it may be seen as simply entertainment services consumed by tourists. The challenge of sustainable tourism development, therefore, is to balance the principles with these truths, and this can be done only through integrated, cooperative approaches involving all stakeholders and related economic activities in the area. There are certain tools that can be used to help achieve balance, such as assessment of carrying capacity, finding the limits of acceptable change and doing cost/benefit analysis. Tourism policy-makers, planners and managers should consider these tools as helpful only if they take a holistic, coordinated approach, especially since benefits and costs in terms of sustainable tourism development are not easily defined in monetary terms. Furthermore, measuring the success of tourism involving nature (for example, national parks) and culture (for example, village-based tourism) should not just be based on number of visitors or amount of income; rather measurement should include the length of stay, quality of the experience and whether natural and cultural resources have been conserved. Environmental management of tourism development Tourism plays an important role in economic development at community, national, regional and global levels by using natural resources and environments as key physical inputs. In making use of the environment and natural resources, the negative impacts have to be minimized to assure sustainable use, as well as generate enough tourism revenue to reinvest a certain portion of funds. The reinvestment should aim at enhancing the 108
  • 109. quality of the resources and build the management capacity at various levels. There is a complex relationship between tourism and the environment, such that tourism has inevitable and important environmental impacts, including: resource use, consumption, waste, pollution and effects from tourism-related transport. At the same time, beaches, mountains, rivers, forests and diverse flora and fauna make the environment a basic resource that the tourism industry needs in order to thrive and grow. While the viability of tourism could be threatened by negative environmental impacts, tourism could also contribute significantly to environmental protection. This shows that tourism and the environment are interrelated and interdependent in complex ways, and together they could provide a sustainable economic base for development. In light of these observations, tourism policy-makers, managers and planners must address the issues of environmental management of tourism development in a sustainable manner. All of these issues make it evident that formulating policies to preserve the environment are decisive and must be made while meeting economic development goals, especially eradicating poverty, at the community, national, regional and global levels. Making effective policies require that the roles of different stakeholders be considered. The major stakeholders involved with issues of sound environmental management are: the community, the tourism industry, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), the government and international communities. Each type of stakeholder should be actively involved and aware in managing the sustainable development of tourism, and they must also work in partnership. If all stakeholders work in partnership to sustain tourism development plus protect the environment, then the present generation will provide a meaningful legacy for future generations. Understanding the limits to economic growth, the carrying capacity of natural resources and the need for sustainable action should be the guiding forces in the management of tourism development. Promotion of cultural tourism and heritage site management The major contribution of the tourism industry as a vehicle for economic development in many countries around the world has been widely acknowledged. At the same time, tourism should be seen as an activity that contributes to a better understanding of places, people and their cultures. 109
  • 110. The challenge facing policy-makers is to have a broader perspective and better understanding that there can be both positive and negative effects from tourism development. Moreover, a broader perspective challenges all stakeholders involved with tourism from the community level to the national level to find the means to work together in more proactive ways that will increase the positive effects and minimize the possible negative effects of tourism development. Sustainable tourism development provides the opportunity to take proactive approaches based on broad participation by stakeholders, which would contribute to more effective policies and plans. This would increase the opportunities to realize the full social and economic potential of the tourism industry. Sustainable tourism development creates the opportunity for governments and all stakeholders in the tourism sector to aim at ensuring long-term prosperity and quality of life for future generations. Sustainable tourism development also creates opportunities to preserve natural and cultural heritages for tourists and local people in ways that address development problems and reduce risks to the environment and ways of life. 3. Some problems and challenges of sustainable tourism in Albania Albania has so much to offer to tourists in terms of its hugely diverse natural beauty, its culture, its heritage and archeological sites. It also benefits from a wonderful Mediterranean climate. Albania offers infinite potential to investors to take advantage of unexplored opportunities in tourism, and helping to develop this industry into a key strategic sector in the country’s economy. Tourism sector is wide spread in Albania. During the last years the number of tourists visiting Albania is increased (Figure 1). The data on the number of tourist in 2010 represents an increase of 30.2% compared with 2009 (2.5m visitor arrivals), mainly from Macedonia, Kosovo and Montenegro (Figure 2). An even greater amount of tourism activity occurs in the form of domestic tourism and day trips. The number of visitors accommodated in hotels is increased 13.8% in 2010 compared with the last year (Figure 3). Tourism, directly and indirectly, accounts for around 4% of country GDP and 160 thousand jobs (INSTAT, 2010). Tourism plays already a vital role in employing local population. This is a clear indicator of strong growth created by improvements in infrastruture and business 110
  • 111. conditions supporting the tourist industry in our country. Continuing improvements are being made to encourage investors to develop the infrastructure for tourism in Albania. Figure1. Arrivals of foreigners by means of transport (1995 – 2010, in thousands) Source: INSTAT, 2010 Figure 2. Arrivals in Albania from the European countries (January – June 2010) Source: INSTAT, 2010 If Albania could use its own resources to the interest of tourism it could be much more developed than it actually is. Today, Albania is gaining its rightful position as a tourist destination. This presents an ideal situation for 111
  • 112. foreign investors to step in and expand their business in Albania’s tourism sector. Of equal significance for sustainable development, however, is the special relationship that tourism, compared with other economic activities, has with the environment and society. This is because of its unique dependency on quality environments, cultural distinctiveness and social interaction, security and wellbeing. On the one hand, if poorly planned or developed to excess, tourism can be a destroyer of these special qualities which are so central to sustainable development. On the other, it can be a driving force for their conservation and promotion – directly through raising awareness and income to support them, and indirectly by providing an economic justification for the provision of such support by others. Figure 3: Arrivals of foreigners and Albanians in hotels (2000 – 2010, in thousands) Source: INSTAT, 2010 Tourism can be a tool to aid or drive regeneration and economic development as well as enhancing the quality of life of visitors and host communities. Making tourism more sustainable will contribute significantly to the sustainability of the