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  • 1. Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi” Economic Faculty Second International Conference “Challenges of Sustainable Tourism Development” Shkodër, 04 November 2011 1
  • 2. Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi” Economic Faculty Second International Conference “Challenges of Sustainable Tourism Development” Shkodër, 04 November 2011 2
  • 3. Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi” Economic Faculty Second International Conference “Challenges of Sustainable Tourism Development” Shkodër, 04 November 2011 SESSION 1 3
  • 4. Copyright ©2011 Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi”, Economic Faculty All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of any part of this work beyond that permitted by author without permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Disclaimer: While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, contained in this publication, the Scientific Committee and Scientific Reviewers will not assume liability for writing and any use made of the proceedings and the presentations of the participating institutions concerning the legal status of any country, territory or area. “This project has been funded with Support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein." ISBN: 978-9928-4011-6-8 Botues: Universiteti i Shkodrës “Luigj Gurakuqi” 4
  • 5. CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS Parallel Sessions Session1: Management and sustainable tourism development Session 2: Financial and legal reforms in sustainable tourism Scientific Committee 1. Prof. Dr. Dhori Kule, Tirana University, Albania 2. Prof.Dr.Sara Santoro, University “G.d’Annunzio” Chieti-Pescara, Italy 3. Prof. Dr. Massimo Bianchi, Bologna University, Italy 4. Prof. Dr. Fausto De Salvo, Bologna University, Italy 5. Prof. Dr. Mahir Hoti, Shkodra University, Albania 6. Prof. Dr. Andrea Pieroni, University of Gastronomic Sciences, Italy 7. Prof. Dr. Andrea Kagermeier, University of Trier, Germany 8. Prof. Dr. Sulo Haderi, Tirana University, Albania 9. Prof. Dr. Fatmir Memaj, Tirana University, Albania 10. Prof. Dr. Liljana Elmazi,Tirana University, Albania 11. Prof. Dr. Vjollca Bakiu, Tirana University, Albania 12. Prof. As. Dr. Servete Gruda, Albanian Competition Institution 13. Prof. As. Dr. Kozeta Sevrani, Tirana University, Albania 14. Prof. As. Dr. Arjeta Troshani, Shkodra University, Albania 15. Prof. As. Dr. Drita Kruja, Shkodra University, Albania 16. Adriana Galvani, PhD, Bologna Univeristy, Italy 17. Dr. Armand Krasniqi, Prishtina University, Kosovo 18. Dr. Blerta Dragusha, Shkodra University, Albania 19. Dr. Albana Begani, Shkodra University, Albania 20. Dr. Brilanda Bushati, Shkodra University, Albania 21. Dr. Mirjam Dibra, Shkodra University, Albania 22. Ted Oelfke, MBA Sandhills College, USA 5
  • 6. Organizing Committee: Prof. As. Dr. Arjeta Troshani - Dean of Economic Faculty, Shkodra University Dr. Brilanda Bushati - Tourism Department, Economic Faculty, Shkodra University Alkida Hasaj, MMK - Tourism Department, Economic Faculty, Shkodra University 6
  • 7. CONTENT PREFACE ..................................................................................................11 OPENING SPEECH ..................................................................................13 Session 1: “Management and Sustainable tourism development” 1. Prof. Dr.Massimo Bianchi, Laura Tampieri, Bologna University, Master and Doctoral studies in Cultural Tourism. Problems and perspectives in Western Balkans ...........................................................21 2. Prof. As.Dr. Arjeta Troshani, Shkodra University, Ted Oelfke, MBA Sandhills College USA, Maintenance and Control of Public Use Land in Albania’s Shkoder Lake and Velipoja Beach Areas ..........................39 3. Prof. Dr. Perikli Qiriazi, Msc.Blerta Avdia Geography, University of Tirana Evaluation And Management Of Monuments of our Nature Tourism ..................................................................................................54 4. Dr. Mirjam Dibra, Shkodra University, Ted Oelfke, MBA Sandhills College USA, Integration of the Concept of Sustainable Tourism within the Higher Education Curriculum: An Albanian Case Study ................62 5. Prof.as.Dr.Artan Hoxha, Dr.Sokol Mengjezi, Faculty of Law UT, Extra contracting responsibility of tourist entrepreneur for damages caused to health, security and property of client-An instrument of importance for development of tourism industry ..................................90 6. Dr. Alketa Vangjeli, Faculty of Economy University “Aleksandër Xhuvani”, Elbasan Problems And Prospects Of Sustainable Tourism Development In Albania ......................................................................104 7. Matilda LIKAJ PhD Cand Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences Epoka University Globalization dimensions and Globalization of Culture: Development of Tourism in perspective of Albanian Culture Case .........................................................................117 8. Dr. Ilir Kaduku, Agricultural University of Tirana, The Past, the Present and the Future of the Albanian Tourism .................................132 7
  • 8. 9. Dr. Brilanda Bushati, Dr. Fatbardha Molla (Beqiri), Shkodra University, Prof. Dr. Arjan Abazi, University of Tirana, IT in tourism and reservation systems ..........................................................152 10. Msc. Shqiponja Nallbani, University of Prishtina, Peje, The role of cross-border management and its impact on regional tourism development in the areas of Accursed Mountains (UES) - The role of the Kosovar institutions- ............................................................................165 11. Rovena TROPLINI MSc, Adela ÇAFULI MSc Tourism as a responsibility for growing Albanian economy ..................................178 12. Msc. Blerim KOLA, Msc. Dorian KRISTIQI, University Aleksander Moisiu Durres, The role of internet advertising to the Companies in Albania ..........................................................................194 13. Gloria Harusha Msc, Arjeta Anamali Msc, Shkodra University, Armela Anamali Msc, University Aleksander Moisiu Durres. Community involvement in tourism development ..............................205 14. Dr. Andriela Vitić – ćetković Ass’t professor University of Montenegro Kotor, Promotion of peace tourism and sustainable development – West Balkans’s perspective .........................................217 15. Eglantina Hysa, Epoka University, Influence of Tourism Sector in Albanian Gross Domestic Product .......................................................224 16. Bashkim Berberi, MPA. (Candidat Dr.), Kristal University, Tirana, Ledjon Shahini MSC. (Candidat Dr.) “INSTAT”, Tirana,Tourism development in Albania .......................................................................236 17. Prof. Dr. Jovan Stojanoski, Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality, Ohrid, Macedonia,Klime Poposki, PhD, Insurance Supervision Agency of Republic of Macedonia, Stevco Meceski, Msc, Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality, Ohrid, Macedonia, Prof Dr. Liljana Elmazi, University of Tirana, The Influence of Previous Visitation on Customer’s Evaluation of a Tourism Destination ................................250 18. MSc. Rudina RAMAJ (Lipi), University Kristal, Prof. Dr. Fatmir MEMAJ, University of Tirana, Tourist SME-s And Financial Management Practices .........................................................................266 19. Prof. As. Servete Gruda, Competition Authority Albania, Pranvera Beqiri, MSc, Prof. As. Albana Hashorva University of Tirana, Impact of promotion on increasing the competitiveness of tourism in Northern Albania .................................................................................277 8
  • 9. 20. Dr. Arjola DERGJINI, Dr. Albana BORIÇI (BEGANI), Dr. Ardita BORIÇI, Shkodra University, Management Of Change In Shkodra Hotels ...................................................................................................291 21. Alkida Hasa MMK, Candidate PhD, Shkodra University, Forcim Kola, Candidate PhD,UAM Durres, Innovation Approach for the Tourism Enterprise in Albania .............................................................307 22. Romina Dhora, PhD candidate, Shkodra University, Plarent Bala, MA, The historical houses of the “Gjuhadol” street in Shkodra city. The application of a multidisciplinary support system for tourism planning and the development of sustainable cultural tourism ...........................321 23. Bujar Leskaj, PhD, Ilir ELMAZI, PhD student, University of Tirana, Adoption of customer relation management in travel industry. the barriers and perspectives from its implementation. the case of Albania .................................................................................................328 24. Mersida Bala, PhD candidate, Shkodra University, Marsel Fregjaj, Msc, Models of sustainable tourism development. The management organization of Razma destination ......................................................343 25. Brunilda Liçaj, Candidate PhD, Fatbardha Kadiu, Candidate PhD, UAM Durres, Local System Of Touristic Offer (Lsto) ......................353 26. Helga Vukaj,PhD,University of Tirana, Evelina Bazini, PhD, University of Vlora , Prof. Dr. Liljana Elmazi University of Tirana, Influencing Consumer Behavior To Promote Sustainable Tourism In Viewpoint Of Local Authority Perspective ……….…………………365 27. Fabjana MAKSUTAJ, MA, PhD. Candidate, Tirana University, Faculty of Sociology.Prof.Dr. Vjollca BAKIU, Tirana University, Faculty of Economy Tourist Behavior and Tourist Product Adaptation: For a Sustainable Tourism Development .............................................378 28. Zhaneta Ndregjoni, Ph.D student, Mimoza Kalia, PhD student, Economic Faculty, Tirana University, E- Marketing And ITCSupported Tourist Destination Management In Global Recession ......393 29. Oli Pero, Rozafa Alibali MMK,Economic Faculty Shkodra University, Developing successful marketing strategies for heritage attractions in Shkodra ..........................................................................406 30. MA. Albana Madhi, MSC.Marsida Ashiku (Ranxha), University of Elbasan, Promotion and economic development of the Castle of Elbasan, turning into a tourist destination ...........................................419 9
  • 10. 31. Dr.Ilirjan Lipi, University of Vlora “Ismail Qemali”, The Role Of Education And Qualification Of Workforce For Sustainable Development Of Albanian Tourism ....................................................432 32. MSc. Arbi Agalliu, Problems and challenges of tourism in Albania 443 33. Dorina Hoxha, Phd Candidate, Dr. Kristinka Jance, University of Tirana, Criminal Law Protection on Cultural Heritage Tourism .......453 34. Dr. Florian Nepravishta, Polytechnic University of Tirana, Preservation and restoration of the historical center of Shkodra an added value for elite tourism ..........................................................................466 35. Dr.Ing. Shkëlqim GJEVORI, Ministry of Public of Works and Transport, Dr. Gjergj SHQAU, University "Alexander Xhuvani" Elbasan, Alternatives for the development of sustainable tourism Shkodra case study ...............................................................................482 36. Lorenc KOÇIU MSc , Robert ÇELO MBA, Irena BOBOLI MSc, “Eqrem Çabej” University, Gjirokastra The development of rural areas through agro tourism (Gjirokastra region) ..................................494 37. M.sc. Irena BOBOLI, Doc. Msc. Drita LUZO, MBA. Robert Çelo, University “Eqrem Çabej” Gjirokaster. Tourism Development In Gjirokastra District ..............................................................................507 10
  • 11. PREFACE This year the topic of the conference that Economic Faculty of Shkodra University has organized was about tourism because this has become a prioritary sector of economic development of our country and especially for the Northern Albania. During these last years there is a great interest shown on the respect to culture and nature conservation and sustainable development model has been launched as the best model for tourism development in a global level. Tourism has been recognized as one of the driving forces of Albania’s economy - providing jobs and income to thousands of families. And travel and tourism affects all sectors of Albania’s economy, stimulating the growth of small and medium-sized enterprises in other sectors– creating more jobs and income along the way. According to the 2008 World Travel & Tourism Council report, Albania’s travel and tourism economy directly and indirectly accounted for $1.8 billion, equivalent to almost 15 % of the Albania’s GDP, and employed almost 150,000 jobs or 12% of the total employment. The public sector and the private sector have helped attract foreign tourists with the completion of the new international Rinas airport, with representation in international travel fairs, with investment in a multi-media advertising campaign for CNN, BBC and with the development of a state-of-the art website for the National Tourism Agency—all important tools that contribute to placing Albania on the map as an international tourism destination. In the strategy, the principle of sustainable tourism development is stated as the guiding principle to build the sector. In doing so, Albania has chosen a difficult path, but the right one, that in the long-term will preserve Albania’s cultural heritage, conserve natural resources, protect precious archeological and historical monuments, and improve livelihoods. That is way several papers of this international conference has presented the eminent problem of environment protection and management, waste management, global dimension of tourism development grouped at session 1. Meanwhile on the session 2 are presented papers with regard to financial reforms, legal aspects of tourism, and applying new European standards on certification and environment protection. 11
  • 12. Among the last achievements of Economic Faculty was the participation as partner in TEMPUS project 2011 – 2014 in collaboration with the main grantholder of this project Chieti University “G.d’Annunzio” of Pescara, Italy titled “Network for Post Graduate Masters in Cultural Heritage and Tourism Management in Balkan Countries”. This project will aim opening of a Master in Cultural Heritage creating in this way greater qualification opportunities for the students of Economic Faculty adding value to this year opened Masters in Finance, Accounting and BusinessAdministration and existing Master in Sustainable Tourism. The titles of the two sessions of our second international tourism conference have been as following: Session1: Management and sustainable tourism development Session 2: Financial and legal reforms in sustainable tourism We hope that this conference will motivate Economic Faculty of Shkodra University as one of the promoters of economic development of Northern Albania and especially of the sustainable tourism development at this region. Prof.As.Dr.Arjeta Troshani Dean of Economic Faculty Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi” 12
  • 13. OPENING SPEECH Prof. Dr. Sara Santoro University “G.d’Annunzio” Chieti-Pescara, Italy Dear Minister, Authorities, Rectors, Dear guests and colleagues, ladies and gentlemen, It’s my personal proud and pleasure today to speak, in the context of this important International conference, organized by the Faculty of Economics on the theme of Changing in development of sustainable; it also constitutes the Opening Conference of a European Tempus IV (Four) Joint Project, which I have the honor to present You as Grant Holder. The CHTMBAL - Network for Post Graduate Masters in Cultural Heritage and Tourism Management in Balkan Countries, is a Joint Project selected by the European Agency over two thousand of the IV(Fourth) Tempus application call, with an important grant of budget, classifying 59th over 560 approved projects. You well know that the main objectives of the Tempus program are: •to build up the capacity of higher education institutions in the partner countries and the EU, in particular for international cooperation and for a permanent modernization process, and to assist them in opening themselves up to society at large; •to enhance networking among higher education institutions and research institutions across the Partner Countries and EU Member States. •to enhance mutual understanding between peoples and cultures of the EU and of the partner countries More specifically, our Joint Project CHTMBAL, aims at enhancing the cultural heritage management and sustainable tourism in Albania and Kosovo. The main objective of this project is to create a university network for Post Graduate Masters in Cultural Heritage and Tourism Management, which will allow sharing knowledge, methods and tools between the European Countries and the Partner Countries. Through the creation of an interuniversity network the Scientific Committee will review, reform and 13
  • 14. update the present curricula of the Partners Countries, helping them applying the Bologna Process. As a concrete implementation of this Network, the creation of two Pilot Master Courses (one in Albania and one in Kosovo) is foreseen. The goal of this Master is to create a group of young professionals well trained in this field and to help them enter in the labor market; at the same time we will work on teacher training to allow the project to self-sustain. The Master Pilot will take place in the University of Shkoder and in the University of Prizren, involving twenty students per university. Albania and Kosovo are two countries rich in history, arts, ancient and noble traditions, with wonderful seascapes, lakes and mountains. Until a few years ago they were little known in Europe and this adds charm to their discover. A brilliant advertisement, a few years ago, promoted tourism in Albania defining it “the last secret land of Europe”. In the past these countries played an important role in the history of Europe: since the Iron Age, the princes of these areas enriched by metals, agriculture and breeding, kept strong relationships with the Mediterranean world and that is manifested by the treasures of their tombs. In the Roman and Byzantine Age different emperors were born and walked in these lands, founded cities, built roads, bridges, amphitheaters. Peoples of these lands formed for centuries the heroic barrier of the Christian Europe toward the Turkish invasion. Recently these countries have been an example of pacific cohabitation between different religions and beliefs. All these cultural, historical, landscape values form the fundament of national identities and at the same time a new resource, in times of great people mobility, when travel becomes the discovery of new places and ancient times, a chance to meet persons and cultures Actually the number of tourists is quickly increasing in Albania and Kosovo; with that, the request for cultural and sustainable tourism is increasing too. Sustainable tourism is the only solution to avoid the reckless exploitation of the resources of these two countries; and there is no sustainable tourism without the awareness, knowledge, fruition and development of the cultural heritage. The Master course implemented by the Project will focus on the key concepts of cultural tourism and heritage management: resource definition, destination planning, work instruments (Key Informant Interviews, Internet, and surveys) and key institution involvement, providing all the resources needed to reach the goal. 14
  • 15. As a premise there are several problems and limitations to the implementation of higher education courses in Balkan transition countries. Specifically in Albania and Kosovo, the high education situation saw an increasing number of private universities, many of them completely unreliable, and many public universities which already existed but with limited resources and committed to the effort of adjustment to the bologna process and international standards (the north American one more than European). The existing laws don’t clearly state the degree and that allowed the private universities market to grow; these results in many people paying consistent fees without really attending the courses. For these reasons, the Albanian and Kosovo’s universities selected as partners of our project are just state universities. But we see a restricted autonomy of these Universities as it concerns the accreditation process. No coordination or dialog with Ministerial structures to exchange information and to make more flexible and up to dated the process of certification. We see also several difficulties in the beneficiaries’ universities in establishing a sustainable cycle of Master/Doctorate owing to limited resources available to fund Masters and Doctorates and to the scarce demand of this level from local private companies and stakeholders. We see also a scarce level of students and also of professors due to a local origin of most of them: many Eastern students come to Europe and USA to obtain certificate to spent at home for more prestigious jobs or work positions. On the basis of this considerations, the Master course implemented by the Project will be a professional master, and it will be a first level master, with ninety 90 ECTS, 60 sixty of which recognizable in the university master of science degree. The master of the project is focused on the key concepts of cultural tourism and heritage management: resource definition, destination planning, work instruments (Key Informant Interviews, Internet, and surveys) and key institution involvement, providing all the resources needed to reach the goal. Actually, issues related on the real labor market receptivity of this professional, both from enterprises and institutions, are still debated. So it becomes crucial a meeting with them, and a proper evaluation of the admitted number of students and on the type of Master (first level, second level, PhD). There is also the need to understand if so little countries can 15
  • 16. support this education offer every year or if a multiyear program changing is needed in order to make this professional profiles useful. The theoretical part of the courses will focus on three main fields: humanities (history, archeology, anthropology, folklore, and human geography), management (tourism-based market, event creation, economical strategies for tourism, sustainable tourism development, marketing) and law and administrative studies (Cultural heritage laws, tourism policies, cultural policies, administration and organization guidelines). Also it will be paid great attention not only on e-learning but also on the effective use of esources for tourism, cultural management and event creation (websites, research engines, advertising on internet and so on.) During the project many agreements with local institutions and enterprises will be established, in order to create stages where the students can apply what they have learnt and help them enter in the labor market. The project will also provide teachers and administration training thanks to the experience and the shared knowledge of the EU partners Direct beneficiaries of the project are Universities, faculties, professors and students from Albania and Kosovo. Professors will benefit from the curriculum and syllabi which will give them the chance to upgrade their teaching skills, implement new teaching methods and methodology and prepare the handouts for the courses lecturing. The master students will benefit from their study visit and established communication with highly respective European educational institutions. This will provide them with competencies and will increase their competitiveness on the labor market with end result in contribution to the development of the economy in the beneficiaries’ countries both in the institutions and enterprises of Albania and Kosovo. Along with the partnership with the universities of Shkoder and Prizren, also the University of Durres will be involved in the project. The support from the local institutions will be granted by the Cultural Monument Institute of Albania (the state institution which manage the architectonical, archaeological and artistic heritage of the Albanian Republic) and by the World University Service of Kosovo (an NGO with the assignment of higher education rebuilding in Kosovo). A solid scientific background is guaranteed by the Institut Català d'Arqueologia Classica and the Archaeology Department of Warsaw University, which has worked for many years in excavation and development of the Balkan archaeological 16
  • 17. Heritage. For what concerns my University G. D’Annunzio of Chieti Pescara, Grant Holder of the project and here represented by the Dean of Humanities on behalf of the Rector, has a long tradition of archeological and historical studies on the balkan area and intensive relationships with the Cultural Heritage institutions: as holder of the Italian Archaelogical Mission in Durres, we have a ten years long collaboration for a better knowledge of the history of the city through the implementation of urban management tool, like the archaeological risk plan, the collaboration to urban plans, technical and scientific support to development-led excavations, the study, excavation and development of the roman amphitheater Many other Italian universities are involved and more specifically: Alma Mater Bologna University (Faculty of Economics – Rimini, renown for Tourism Economy), SVIMAP, (Public Management Development Network) and “Leonardo da Vinci" e-University for the e-learning platform. Together with this partners and with the help and support of national and local institutions and enterprises, we are certain that this project will result in important outcomes for the development of methodological tools and for the scientific and cultural growth of both local and european partners Thank you for your kind attention. To everybody, you and us the best wishes for a good job. 17
  • 18. 18
  • 19. SESSION 1: MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT 19
  • 20. 20
  • 21. MASTER AND DOCTORAL STUDIES IN CULTURAL TOURISM. PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES IN WESTERN BALKANS ∗. Prof. Massimo Bianchi Laura Tampieri University of Bologna Forlì Faculty of Economics Abstract The paper analyses and discusses the problems and perspectives in preparing and managing didactical programs, methodologies and syllabi of Cultural Tourism in Higher Education courses. The Cultural Tourism is an interdisciplinary topic for Higher Education courses and, although the interest connected to the priorities in Balkans governmental policies and international projects, it could be a challenge for Master and PhD programs. The paper considers some projects managed by Bologna University in Western Balkans with the aim of creating Master and Doctoral studies in the Cultural Tourism sector underlining the structure and process aspects linked to the teaching. The analysis will point out the relevance of this sector in the University system and in the international programmes by considering the didactical offer (Master and PhD) realized on this topic in Western Balkans countries and particularly in Albania, Macedonia and Kosovo. Moreover the results are connected to the description of detailed programs, methodologies and syllabi of teaching at University level in the Cultural Tourism field. Another topic refers to the involvement of local systems and small businesses for implementing the Cultural Tourism offer in the international market. To this purpose a particular focus is set on the distance learning, and particularly on the Simulimpresa methodology, that could be considered as a ∗ Although this paper is the result of a joint collaboration, paragraphs 2 and 4 are attributed to M. Bianchi, par. 1, 3 and 5 to L. Tampieri. 21
  • 22. relevant tool of teaching to be adopted in Universities for the development of entrepreneurial and managerial competencies, mainly those linked to small business. Key words: Cultural Tourism, TEMPUS, Master, PhD, Simulimpresa 1. The TEMPUS programme for Master courses and PhD programme development The paper wants to highlight the problems and perspectives linked to the didactical programs, methodologies and syllabus in Master courses and PhD programs on Cultural Tourism by considering the experiences of Bologna University in two TEMPUS projects: DOCSMES “Regional Joint Doctoral Programme in Entrepreneurship and SME Management for Western Balkan Countries” and CHTMBAL “Network for Post Graduate Masters in Cultural Heritage and Tourism Management in Balkan Countries” (Fig.1). Both initiatives aim to enforce the Reform of Higher Education with particular focus on the structure and the process of didactical programmes implementation through also distance learning methodologies such as the enterprise simulation called “Simulimpresa”. Simulipresa represents an innovative didactical tool based on the learning by doing principle in which the participants create in a classroom a virtual enterprise developing managerial competencies mainly linked to business management (Tampieri 2011a). The Reform of Higher Education through International University Cooperation is a well recognized priority in many national and international programmes such as the Tempus 1 managed by the European Commission (Bianchi, Tampieri 2011). This is the longest-standing EU initiative that has a strong focus on institutional cooperation. Since its inception in 1990, University cooperation under the Tempus programme has contributed successfully to enforce the sustainable University partnerships as well as to enhance mutual understanding between academic worlds of the European Union and the Western Balkans. The Tempus programme contributes to the creation of an area of cooperation in the field of higher education involving European Union and 1 http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/tempus/programme/about_tempus_en.php 22
  • 23. Western Balkans. Tempus is implemented in close coordination with the Erasmus Mundus programme which provides scholarships to third country students allowing them to participate in top-level master courses and doctorate programmes inside EU (Tampieri 2009). Fig.1 – The profile of DOCSMES and CHTMBAL. Applicant Consortium Partner Duration EU Grant Wider Objectives Specific Project Objectives: Activities: DOCSMES University of Bologna Dardania University, Agency for promotion of entrepreneurship of the RM, Macedonian Chambers of Commerce, Seavus dooel Skopje, Konfederata e Industrive te Shqiperise-Albanian Confederation, University St. Kliment Ohridski Bitola, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, University of Tirana, University of Nice – Sophia Antipolis, Agricultural University of Tirana, South East European University 15/10/2010 – 14/10/2013 762.549,00 Euro Development and implementation of a joint doctoral programme in Entrepreneurship and SME Management in order to complete the three cycled HE system in accordance with Bologna Process and key EHEA/ERA goals. -Developing the structure, curriculum and modalities of the Doctoral Programme in Entrepreneurship and SME Management harmonized with EU standards; - Enhancing the exchanging of experience and best practices with EU partner universities, through mobility of academic and administrative staff and doctoral students; Developing new teaching methodologies including Distance Learning tools; Enforcing stakeholders’ involvement in both curriculum development and research activities; - Establishing Standards in Doctoral studies and Providing Quality assurance; - Improving capacities of the Western Balkans countries' Universities; Pilot Programme implementation; Sustainability; - Dissemination. - Kick-off meeting, developing the first phase-curriculum courses; enforcing the stakeholders involvement in curricula development and realization; developing syllabi; developing new teaching methods, doctoral dissertation phase; trainining on distance learning mode; training of supervisors; - Training of administrative 23 CHTMBAL University “G.d’Annunzio” Chieti-Pescara University of Durres, Institut Català D’Arqueologia Classica, Instituti I monumenteve te kultures “Gani Strazimiri”, Antiquity of Southeastern Europe Res. Centre, University of Warsaw, University Luigj Gurakuqi”, SVIMAP Network, World University Service Kosova, University of Prizren, Università Telematica “Leonardo da Vinci”, Bologna University 15/10/2011 – 14/10/2014 706.843,37 Euro Development of a Network for Post Graduate Masters in Cultural Heritage and Tourism Management in the Balkan Countries; Creation of two pilot master courses in Partners Countries - Creation of a interuniversity network for an educational system oriented to the development of proficiencies for the cultural heritage management, events creation and sustainable tourism; - Review and reform of PC curricula Normalization of PC curricula to the Bologna Process and ECTS; - Sharing and improving the EU experience through mobility and teacher training; - Involvement of key institutions and enterprises; -Development of new teaching methods; -Development of modules for MSc degrees; - Start-up and implementation of pilot Msc degrees in Cultural Heritage and Tourism Management; Establishment of Quality standards; Dissemination of the results and sustainability of the project -Kick-off meeting; Project teams establishment: Creation of the Scientific Committee, Evaluation Committee and Project Management Board (PMB); - Reporting and budgeting; - Regular PMB meetings; - Review of the Partner curricula to the Bologna Process and of policies on cultural heritage and cultural management; - Meeting with local key
  • 24. staff; - intra-country general meetings; preparation of the pilot doctoral program, enrolling the first generation of doctoral students; starting the first semester courses/lectures, seminars and workshops; starting the second semester lectures, seminars and workshops; Mobility of students; the third and fourth semester pilot research work and doctoral thesis proposal; - purchasing and applying the IT equipment and software related to the programme; - Conferences and workshops; Web site designing and updating; Teaching methods and distance learning mode dissemination; International Conference for the dissemination of final results; - Ceating quality control standards and processes in line with EU relevant standards; quality control implementation; creation of quality control body related to the doctoral programme; Monitoring the quality procedures implementation; - Establishment of the Communication Body; Supporting the research activities by business Output -Developing and structuring doctoral programme in Entrepreneurship and SME Management as a third cycle programme in English; - Doctoral programme implementation; Dissemination; - Management of the Project; -Quality Control and Monitoring; Exploitation and Sustainability institutions and enterprises for the definition of a professional profile; - Development of the syllabi; Development of the new teaching methods (distance learning); -Training courses and visits (mobility) of teachers and administrators for the preparation of MSc curricula; -Creation of agreements with local institutions and enterprises and stages database; -Training on distance learning modes; Preparation of the pilot program; - Starting of the 1st semester courses/lectures; - Starting of the 2nd semester courses/lectures; -Mobility of students; - 3rd /4th semester accomplishment; Improving the programme facilities infrastructure; Evaluation of modules and new teaching methods at the end of the master pilot; - Creation of intelligent platform to Interuniversity Network; - Development of intelligent tutoring system and student knowledge assessment system; - Conferences and Workshops; Website; - Publications; Creation of quality control standards; Quality control implementations; - Monitoring the quality procedures implementation; Recommendations;- Agreements with local institutions and enterprises; -Sustainability -Kick-off meeting; Project teams establishment; - Reporting; - Regular Project Management Board meetings; - Review and update of curricula and policies; -Agreements with local enterprises and institutions; -Teacher training; - Training on distance learning modes; preparation of the Pilot Master Programme; Starting of 1st / 2nd semester of lessons; Mobility of students; - The 3th and 4th semester accomplishing; - Improving the program facilities infrastructures; -Development of the Intelligent Interuniversity Network; - Creation of an Intelligent Interuniversity Network; Development of intelligent tutoring system; Conferences and Workshops; Website designing and updating; Creating Quality Control Standards; Quality control implementation; Scientific Committee and Peer-Review Team Meetings; Monitoring the quality procedures implementation; Exploitation and sustainability; Tutoring of implementation of the courses; Agreements with local institutions and enterprises These projects face the emerging challenges in Western Balkans: - dramatic demographic changes (number of people potentially having access to higher education, age structure, migration flows), - increasing global competition, leading to a considerable shift in the distribution of the economic power at 24
  • 25. world level, - changes in science and technology but notably the growing importance of organisational and societal innovation rather than purely technological innovation and - challenges of societies in transition (social cohesion, human rights, etc.). The Higher education institutions are the key actors in such programme needed for the successful transition to a knowledge-based economy and society and for the training of a new generation of leaders. In EU the modernisation of higher education has been acknowledged as a core condition for the success of the Lisbon Strategy and more recently the Europe 2020 strategy which aim at restructuring the economic and social systems within EU. At the same time, Western Balkans Universities have expressed interest in the harmonisation of their higher education systems, inspired by the developments made in this respect within Europe. The Tempus programme has supported Western Balkans Universities in reforming their higher education systems in line with the principles of the "Bologna process" (Tampieri 2010) which aims at creating a "European Area for Higher Education" and is becoming a common reference point for both EU Member States and Western Balkans. 2. The accreditation process “The western society is a society of organizations” quoted Amitai Etzioni (1964) in his Modernn Ortganizations referring to The Organization Society (Presthus 1962). He told us that the western countries, in this time opposite to the Eastern Soviet Blosk, has a particular feature in conflict with a totalitary approach that simplifies the society in an authoritative and unified perspective. After the collapse of this regime, in the international arena the category of Transition Countries, that tried to apply a democratic way of life, emerged. The political and governance revolution undertaken by those countries appears today easier comparing the evolution of the societal texture of the society that, till now, showed many problems of development. There are almost three topics that characterized this boundaries of the democratization: the diffusion of small business, till now limited by the scarce culture of entrepreneurship, self achievement and personal initiative that affect transition countries and particularly western Balkans. The second 25
  • 26. topics concerns the role of local governments in the development of local systems and in the improvement of their competitive attraction. The last one refers to the system appointed to produce innovation, scientific perspectives and high professional preparation; in few words, new generations in condition to be masters for the future society. The western society, in despite of the present crisis, connected to the complexity of the society structure that reached a dimension that needs a higher level of dynamic control, could be understood only in a perspective of process and of networking. It means that, particularly in the management of Masters and Doctorate, the network and the process are the basis. Without those premises, the applying of Master and Doctorate Models maintains the characteristic of a bureaucratic tool with a poor motivation connected to the supply of a title to new generation and a formal recognition of a learning that didn’t exist or only partially exists. Fig. 2 – Basic framework of High Education Courses in Italian Universities. Master’s Degree 2nd cycle 120 ECTS/2 years MASTER 1st level 60 ECTS/1 year Ph. D 3rd cycle minimum 3 years MASTER 2nd level 60 ECTS/1 year DEGREE Secondary Higher School Bachelor’s Degree 1st cycle 180 ECTS/3 years The problem of the establishment of Masters and Doctorates in Western Balkans Universities could be summarized in those structural problems that would be overcome but only with a clear perspective and a strong motivation to apply a correct methodology. 26
  • 27. First of all, when we examine Masters, Doctorates and PhDs, we have to consider that, although the increasing diffusion of those courses of studies, quite frequently they have a wide variety of definitions. Furthermore, some of them didn’t correspond to a correct definition of their identity owing to commercial or easy practices. To this purpose we want to clarify the framework within we are moving. The Bologna Process, with its distinctions between the first three years of graduation and the two following ones of specialized master (called Laurea Magistralis) with the doctorate and post doctorate studies, is applied in Italian Universities with a path (Fig. 2). As it’s easy to see the Master Level could be considered as a parallel educational perspective, mainly related to professional purposes quietly free from the structure of courses recognized to obtain the graduation (Undergraduate degree) or the Laurea magistralis (Specialized degree – Called also Master Degree) according to the legal value attributed to them in Italy. For the creation of a 1st or 2nd Level Master, the proposal is submitted to the Academic Authorities of Universities, a process that isn’t applied to no institutional courses managed by non academic organizations as Local Government, Non Profit Organizations, Associations or Private Companies. For instance, in district of Rimini – famous in the world - and particularly in Eastern Countries, for its attitude in Tourism and Leasure Activities, the main Masters funded by Emilia Romagna Region move freely on different and specialized subjects as it happens with the: - Master in Congress Tourism - Master in New Hospitality Management - Master Executive in Web Marketing for Tourism Enterprise - Master Executive in Meeting Planning and Event Organization - Master Executive in Hotel Management Each of them, in respective fields, contains Modules on different topics as: Project Management, Management of Logistics and Congress Services, Marketing and Event Promotion, Quality Management and Corporate Responsibility. The teaching is mainly oriented to practical and applied knowledge and the teaching staff is composed mainly by professionals or sector operators that couldn’t have necessarily an academic degree. Their participation in the 27
  • 28. teaching staff is motivated by their professional experience, so their recruitment is not based on their educational degree. The final official result is a Diploma that could be considered to enrich the CV of participants and could have a relevance for the search of an employment. Master managed by Universities, distinguished in First and Second Level, accordingly with the framework of Fig. 2, has a legal value and is programmed within the academic structure of official courses with Credits recognized in the ECTS. Some of the modules, if the participant will participate, in the future, to the Degree process, are recognized in the official curricula. In University Master, normally, the accreditation process is submitted to the Council of the Faculty that promotes the master and to the Department competent as it concerns the Scientific Content. Once obtained this approval, the Academic Senate will authorize the Master. Main condition, besides the studies program is the responsibility of the Master that has to be in charge to a Full Professor of the Promoter University authorized to this purpose. Moreover, for each Master Subjects, distinguished on the basis of the Academic Scientific Group established by the Ministry for the Recruitment process of Researchers and Professors, is requested a responsible Full Professor appointed in the University that manages the Project. As it concerns Doctorate problems, these are similar although in European and particularly in Italian Universities the Doctorate is mainly oriented to Research targets and will be defined PHD only after an Accreditation Process which considers the participation in the Teaching Staff of Foreign Professors and Researchers as an essential condition. 3. The sustainability of Master and PhD The exploitation of the sustainability in the project activities implementation is one of the key element evaluated by the European Commission for delivering grants and also a condition needed for the maintenance and development of project benefits and results. The sustainability is ensured through a wide variety of tools: the creation of an incentives system for academic and administrative staff of project consortium units, the involvement of stakeholders in curricula development 28
  • 29. and in supporting the research of the students and the dissemination of results in international conferences and workshops. Moreover in many cases, to ensure the sustainability, mainly from the organizational perspective, the management of Masters and PhD is assigned to public entities as Scientific-Didactical Pole 2, to consortia managed by private law among public entities as Ser. In. Ar 3 and other consortia among University and Foundations, as Alma Graduate School 4, that are able to ensure more flexibility, autonomy and possibilities to gather external financial resources from sponsors (Bianchi 1999a,b). Considering the case of PhD implementation in Macedonia, the development of the sustainability took into consideration the following academic, institutional and socioeconomic factors: - doctoral program in entrepreneurship can have, as a background, developed second cycle (master programme) in entrepreneurship which already exists in most of project consortium Universities. In such way some of the courses can be run parallel for the master and doctoral students; - available and experienced local academic staff for the new cycles implementation of the doctoral programme; - established network between the world of business and Universities that can be recognized as a relevant basis for further cooperation in order to gain common benefits; - distance learning methodology, as an innovative way of teaching, can enable joint programmes to be accomplished minimizing the costs of stay; - establishment of the Communication Body consisted of the representatives from the both sides (universities and business community) - diffusion of the PhD Programme in other Universities that can decide to organize their PhDs with the continuity of professors and students mobility. From the financial perspective alternative sources, rather than TEMPUS, can refer to: 2 http://www.poloforli.unibo.it/ http://serinar.criad.unibo.it/ 4 http://www.almaweb.unibo.it/it/almags/home.plp 3 29
  • 30. - Companies that can give some financial support to the doctoral students and will enable students to do research; State scholarship; Universities scholarship for the involvement of the students in teaching activities; Self-financing of the students. A particular focus is set on the detailed budget of the doctoral programme of three years in Macedonia, built on the basis of the following items: 1) Courses of the didactical frame 2) Printing & publishing 3) Management 4) Research 5) Students mobility Fig.3 – An hypothesis of general budget frame for a doctoral programme implementation. Category Organization 1) Courses Travel Costs Professor Lecturer Name & Surname Number Salary of working rate 5 days (€) [A] [B] Total Staff Costs (€) Costs of Stay Total (€) (€) (€) [D] [E] [F] [C] University of Bologna Entrepreneurship and SME Management xxxxx 20 332 6640 600 2000 9240 University of Bologna The Role of SMEs in Networks and Clusters xxxxx 15 332 4980 600 1000 6580 …………… ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. ….. ……………… … 2) Printing and publishing 1.000 3) Management 24000 4) Research 45000 TOTAL 5 6000 5) Students mobility 162000 It is per day and is indicated by the European Commission guidelines. 30
  • 31. The calculation of the costs related to the two courses managed by University of Bologna (Fig.3), taken as examples for all the other courses of the doctoral programme, can be summarized as follows: 1) [C] = [A] * [B] and 2) [F]= [C] + [D] + [E]. As it regards the item 2,3,4 and 5, the cost per year on the basis of the three years programme respectively is: 4000 Euro (12000/3), 8000 Euro (24000/3), 2000 Euro (6000/3) and 15000 Euro (45000/3). To cover the mentioned cost items, the financial sources, summarized in Fig.4, highlight that about the 90% is covered by TEMPUS, 5 % by self – cofinancing and 5 % by other resources as companies and other organizations. Fig.4 – The financing frame. Total Covered by TEMPUS Self cofinancing Other resources [Companies] TOTAL 1) Courses 75000 70000 3000 2000 75000 2) Printing and publishing 12000 12000 3) Management 24000 21000 4) Research 6000 5) Students mobility 45000 43000 2000 162000 146000 8000 8000 162000 0,90 0,05 0,05 1,00 Cost items TOTAL 12000 3000 24000 6000 % 31 6000 45000
  • 32. Fig. 5 - The main determinants of the sustainability. More cycles Sholarship Students fee Financial and academic Sustainability Co-financing Sponsorship Agreements between business community and university Master and PhD managed by autonomous bodies generated by Universities In other terms, the main determinants of the sustainability, as indicated in Fig.4, can refer to the institution of more cycles, the delivering of scholarship for the best students, the determination of an adequate enrolment fee, the usage of co-financing, other financial resources from other companies in the sense of sponsorships and the involvement of autonomous bodies generated by Universities for the Master and PhD management. 4. Syllabi and Teachers Profile Each University Master has a Scientific Committee generally composed by representatives of Faculties or Departments that with their Full Professors are responsible of the Master Scientific Group. The Scientific Committee is in charge to approve the Program and the Syllabi. To this purpose is essential to decide about the Master Orientation as in Scientific or in Professional. 32
  • 33. In Masters concerning Tourism this choice will be crossed with another dimension that is the Economic or Technical One. For example, as it concerns Managerial Subjects, there is one criterion connected to the Management itself in its different degrees or specializations as: Governance, Strategy, Programming, Resource Management, Logistics etc. with the structure of a Tourism Organization with main functions as Service Units of : Location, Restoration, Welcome and Reception, Room Services, Administration, Room Make Up, Laundry, Supply and purchasing. In each of those organizational area, particularly as it concerns Master with Professional Orientation, the technology used and its knowledge are strictly linked to organizational and economic problems. In many Masters in Tourism the knowledge of Local Systems and Cultural Heritage together with Museums and Cultural Institution Management is a teaching subject that gives to the learning the necessary coverage of applied activities. The relationship with the environment is essential for the Master adequacy to requested professionalism. In Fig. 6 we show some main determinants of the Master Syllabi Profile. Fig. 6 - The impact of environmental structures on Master and Doctoral Orientations. Small Enterprises Big enterprises Science and Technics Management and economics Less Specialize d Skills More specialized skills It means that, according to this hypothesis, if the local system is based, in the particular sector of Tourism, on Small Enterprises, the interest would be 33
  • 34. focused on Less Specialized Skills with the content of the teaching more oriented to management and economics while the prevailing diffusion of big business will encourage more specialized skills and the use of technology. 5. The implementation of Distance Learning in Master and PhD courses One of the operative usage of distance learning methodology is the enterprise simulation defined by the European Commission – Directorate Enterprises (2004) as a best practice to promote attitudes and managerial competencies in the education field. A simulated enterprise is a centre of vocational learning that runs like a "real" business silhouetting a "real" firm's business procedures, products and services. The simulated enterprise is undertaken by students that insert this program in their business studies and they create, in a classroom and under the supervision of teachers/tutors, a virtual enterprise, trading virtual products and services in a simulated business environment. In this money is fictitious while the business decisions, activities and documentations are strictly linked to the real business world (Moore 2004). The “Simulimpresa” methodology 6 is based on the learning by doing principle allowing participants to acquire transversal skills enforcing their individual peculiarities. Therefore they learn a job by doing the related activities and duties (Gualdi 2001). Another feature is the management by objectives as each participant acquires competencies related to a specific role in the enterprise carrying out duties and tasks planned for each single organizational position and on the basis of the assigned targets provided at the beginning of each simulation session. In the cultural sector a relevant start up experience of simulation refers to Elbasan Renaissance Tour (ERT) in the Professional Education Centre (CFP) of Elbasan within the project “Start up of professional education in Elbasan area with particular regard for weak categories (Albania, 20072009, Project Emilia-Romagna Region Law 24 June 2002, n. 12)”. This case has been analyzed in previous researches (Tampieri 2011b) underling the structure and process aspects of the experimentation. 6 http://www.simulimpresa.com 34
  • 35. Summarizing the main features: the duration of the start up was 4 days involving 13 participants grouped in three business areas: Marketing, front office and administration / accounting. This simulated agency operates in the cultural tourism sector as the mission is to promote the historical, cultural and traditional value of Elbasan region and Albania. The services are: - Organization of events, travelling and cultural/touristic tour with specific regard to Elbasan region; - Promotion of cultural and historic value of Albania and Elbasan region; - Tourist guide assisted by professional staff; - Enhancement of collaboration with other agencies that work in the same sector in Elbasan region and - Interpretation services. The participants, working in team, realized the following targets/ activities: Definition of the enterprise, typology and mission; - Creation of the organizational structure, register of presence, GANTT of activities; Definition of budget; - Creation of enterprise mail; -Individuation of logo; Design of depliant (in Italian and English) and catalogue; - Organization of a pilot cultural tourism tour in Albania. Through this experience, the participants acquired practical knowledge about how a real enterprise operates. The general results would be the development of new entrepreneurial initiatives with an international view. Thus the Simulimpresa implementation in Master and PhD courses would be a very relevant tool by which participants can apply, in a practical way, the knowledge acquired during their studies reaching an advanced level of learning. 6. Conclusions: the Master and Doctorate in Western Balkans In the two mentioned projects, having the purpose of creating a Doctorate Decree in Western Balkans, the main issues to be considered, on the basis of previous experiences in transition countries are : - Too restricted autonomy of Universities as it concerns the accreditation process. - Difficulties in establishing a sustainable cycle of Master/Doctorate owing to the scarce demand of this level from companies. 35
  • 36. - Limited resources available to fund Masters and Doctorates that, owing to the scarce demand of this level of education and the essential local origin of participants ( it’s difficult to have partners from Western Countries while many Eastern students come to Europe and USA ) with the purpose of obtaining a certificate to spent at home for prestigious jobs or work positions. - Traditional methodology of approach to studies and final thesis that foster general subjects and wide fields of research to restricted and specialized ones and prefer theoretical and historical dissertations (also in managerial subjects) to case studies. - Scientific support to dissertations mainly oriented to local quotations with limited citations and references to international Authors and mainstreams in discussion in the international arena. - Limited knowledge of foreign languages and particular of English one, as the basis of managerial teaching. This it refers not only to students but also to local teachers that prefer to use their own language. This is a serious limit to the internationalization of the knowledge and to the quality assurance and international chartering of Masters and Doctorates. - Limited or not existent involvement of the local system (stakeholders) in the Management and Funding. - No coordination or dialogue with Ministerial structures to exchange information and to make more flexible and up to dated the process of certification. One useful tool to overcome some of those limits is that the Master and the Doctorate would be managed by a Consortium of Universities or with Universities as major partners. This will allow to reach a critic mass of resources, financial, scientific and organizational. It will also foster the involvement of extra university partners like private companies that could ensure resources and relevant inputs as it concerns actual needs of employers in the particular aspects of professional profiles. The partnership of foreign Universities to the consortium, although difficulties of a Double or Joint Master of PHD to coordinate different rules and Ministerial constraints, could be a path that has to be explored in the 36
  • 37. future to ensure the diffusion and implementation of Masters and Doctoral Studies in Western Balkan Countries. References Bianchi M., Tampieri L., (2011) Performance determinants in international projects. The case of 2005 - 2010 Tempus submissions, in Albertini S., Bergami M., D’Atri A., De Marco M., De Vita P., Ferrara M., Rossignoli C, Salvemini S., Generazioni e Ri Generazioni nei processi organizzativi. Conference Proceedings. Bianchi M., (1999a) Multi Campus Model and Quality Approach in the Organization of Big Universities, to international conference “T.Q.M. for Higher Education Institutions”, Università di Verona, Université ToulonVar Verona, 30-31 August 1999 Bianchi M., (1999b) “L’università multicampus: Un modello possibile ? L’esperienza dell’ Ateneo Bolognese” Sinergie, CUEIM, Verona, n. 48, Gennaio-Aprile 1999, pp. 219-229. Etzioni A., (1964) Modern Organizations, Prentice Hall New Jersey European Commission – Directorate Enterprises (2004), Contribuire a creare una cultura imprenditoriale, Bruxelles: Commissione europea, 1- 56. Gualdi, D. (2001). L’impresa simulata. Varese: Paravia Bruno Mondadori. Moore A. (2004) The Challenge of the Practice Firm: Simulating a Business Environment in the UAE Fourth European GIS Education Seminar, Villach, Austria 02nd- 05th September 2004. Presthus R., (1962) The Organizational Society, Knopf, New York Tampieri L., (2011a) Second Life and enterprise simulation in SME’s start up of fashion sector: the cases ETNI, KK Personal Robe and NFP, in D’Atri A., Ferrara M., George J.F., Spagnoletti P (eds), Information Technology and Innovation trends in organizations, Physica-Verlag, Springer (pp. 523530). Tampieri L., (2011b) The enterprise simulation in small business start up. The case of cooperation projects between Italy and Albania. 3^ Workshop I processi innovativi nelle piccole imprese. La sfida altre la crisi. Urbino 1617 Settembre 2011. Tampieri L., (2010) The Bologna process: problems and perspectives of realization, Proocedings of Foundation of the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Advisory of Young Scientist University of International Business “Young People in the Science 2010” 3rd International Forum. 1437
  • 38. 15 Maggio 2010 Almaty (Kazakhstan), pp. 3-9, Foundation of the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Tampieri L., (2009) The international project management for the Reform of Higher Education in transition countries. Some experiences from the University of Bologna", in Symposium Proceedings - Third International Symposium on the development of public administration in Southeast Europe. Public Administration in the context of financial crisis and economic slowdown. P. Pevcin, S. Setnikar Cankar, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Administration 18 - 19 June 2009, pp. 1-14. 38
  • 39. MAINTENANCE AND CONTROL OF PUBLIC USE LAND IN ALBANIA’S SHKODER LAKE AND VELIPOJA BEACH AREAS Prof.As.Dr.Arjeta Troshani Dean of Economic Faculty Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi” Ted Oelfke MS, FMP, CHE, CFE Professor and Department Chair of Hospitality and Culinary Arts Sandhills Community College, NC, USA Abstract The paper will focus on the control of refuse and use of two prime touristic locations in Northern Albania Shkoder Lake and the Velipoja beach area. Currently conditions are not only terrible to look at the conditions could lead to serious sanitation issues and contamination of surrounding soil and water supplies. As conditions deteriorate during the summer months the impression of foreign travelers of Albania and indeed Albanians themselves is negatively impacted. Additionally, local residents will resent the very tourists that support the local economy as they witness their pristine recreational areas laid to waste. This paper will attempt to find methods of clean-up and maintenance and for the payment that are acceptable to local residents, businessmen, government officials and tourists alike. Further this paper will determine the attitudes of various groups towards volunteerism as a means of maintaining public property. Finally, the paper will explore the desires of tourists, businessmen and tourists regarding any restrictions that should be placed on beach use. For instance should motor vehicles and glass bottles be allowed on the beach. Surveys of tourists, local businessmen, governmental officials and residents will be conducted in order to reach conclusions and recommendations on the uses and maintenance and Albanian’s attitude toward volunteerism as a means of maintaining the areas of Velapoja Beach, and the public area bordering Shkodra Lake. If the surveys indicate a preference to provide the service through taxing of tourists staying in hotels or eating in restaurants further studies will be conducted to develop recommendations for implementation of such a tax. 39
  • 40. Key words: Sanitary, Tourism Development, Destination Management, Control, Taxes, and Strategy. 1.Background 1.1 Tourism in the city of Shkodra The city is connected with the other cities and Europe with railways and motor transport. The foreign visitors, passing from the AlbanianYugoslavian border at the customs of Hanna i Hotit, will reach Shkodra soon after 35 km, and 117 km after leaving Tirana. The seaside beach (Velipoja) is 32 km far. This sandy beach (14 km long) is almost pristine. The very fine and sand along with the warm water are curative for a lot of diseases (esp.rheumatism). Just nearby the beach, there is a hunting spot full of wild animals and fowls. West side of Shkodra Lake, 6 km from the city, at the bottom of Tarabosh mountain, it is situated Shiroka picturesque village, known not only for the beach, but also for the good and curative climate that heals asthma and different allergies, and it has a good impact on children growth. The Lake of Shkodra and the River of Buna are very suitable to exercise water sports, especially rowing. If the visitor likes mountain-climbing, speleology or skiing, he must be directed to the picturesque village of Razma (41 km ), and if he would like to add to these sports that of trout fishing or enjoying the characteristic noise and freshness of the waterfalls, he should go right in the middle of Alps, to the attracted village of Thethi (76 km). It is surrounded by peaks higher than 2000 m, with the slopes covered with eternal forests. This village is not the unique to enjoy this natural privilege. Nearby, there are a lot of other rival villages like Vermoshi (110 km), Lepusha (90 km), Boga (54 km), Black Field, Vukli etc. The city offers even institutions which acquaint you with its history and various traditions. There are 90 cultural monuments. Next to the main hotel “Rozafa”, there is the City Museum, and just a few meters further, there is “Migjeni” Theater. One can visit even museum houses which recall important events, dedicated to famous personalities of the city. You can satisfy the curiosity, for the old history of the city, going to visit the city castle “Rozafa” and its museum. From the castle, you can see at the bottom of the hill, the castle is situated, the Lead Mosque, a monument of the XVIII 40
  • 41. century, around it the rivers and the lake and the city in the middle of them. & km from the city, there is another monument belonging to the XVIII century, the Bridge of Mesi, built completely with stone arches 132 m long. At the top of it, you can view the crystal waters of Kiri River and the trout shoals moving against the flow Shkodra is the very place where the Albanian hospitality is proverbial. Once, one could find, embroidery, in the guest’s room of the houses of Shkodra which read: “Welcome dear guests !” Today Shkodra echoes back to the guests this greeting...! 1.2. The conditions of developing tourism in the city The God has donated to Shkodra of lot of rich picturesque resources, beginning with the seaside (14 km length), the picturesque lake (and nice villages like Shiroka, Zogaj,the side of the Water etc.), the rivers that surround the city in three parts ( and the city itself is a typical touristic centre, where a good investment to serve to the touristic can be set up ), along with the gorgeous Alps hiding tens of picturesque villages with healthy climate (as Thethi, Razma, Boga etc. ) that attract the visitor and invite him to enjoy these relaxing and curative beauties. The seaside of Velipoja is a marvelous beauty of the Albanian nature, where you can find at the same time the sea, the river, the beach, the forest, the mountain and the marsh, with a clean and pristine sand, clear water, the hunting spot 694.5 ha and the Viluni bay 900 ha. The visitor can swim at the same time in the river and the sea, can pass the time playing at the sports ground that can be set up, exercise water sports, can walk on foot or by horse at the beautiful nature, can hunt for wild pigs or rabbits, fox and jackal, goose and wild duck etc. Thus, it is a natural real beauty that would bring a good profit to the one that invests as soon as possible. Another picturesque place is the side of the lake that is included in the road from Buna Bridge - Shiroka - Zogaj. The optimal climatic conditions, the curative characteristics of the nature, the warm water, Taraboshi Mountain, the fishing etc. make this region be known for nice touristic peculiarities. This region is frequented by the inhabitants of 41
  • 42. Shkodra for short holidays, because the condition for longer holidays is missed. There are other regions with touristic characteristics as Thethi, Razma, Vermoshi-Lepushe-Qafa e Bordolecit, but owning a different peculiarity from that of Velipoja and Shiroka. You can notice here the best characteristics of the highland Albanian nature. The forests full of pine and beech trees, the lawns and summer pastures, the fresh temperature in summer and snow in winter, the good mountains panorama and characteristic caves, the wild beasts and medicinal plants, the proper places for the excursions and the possibility for the skiing places, give to these regions the required values searched by the Albanian and foreign visitors. The tourism is a powerful resource for the development of a country and a resource for profits as well. There are a lot of cities and even states that manage to live perfectly only with this activity. We can mention only Ulqin that is only 15 km far from Velipoja, has been developed through tourism, nevertheless it misses the beauties of Velipoja. Now it has reached high living standards. But it is obvious that the development according to the modern level of life of the infrastructure determines the intensive well-being of tourism, apart from the precious values of the tourism the district possesses. Considering every thing it is necessary to do something to make efficient these riches, the help of the foreign investors has got great and undeniable value. This help will bring a lot of profits that will be a kind of mirror of the investment done. The investments are various and enormous. They include the construction of the new streets and the mending of the existing ones, setting of the different buildings in conformity with the relief, building of the electric stations and water providing ones, setting up of the post office and telephone services according to the demands of the number of visitors that will frequent these places. Parallel with all the judicial high institutions and different organizations (Albanian State, European Bank, World Bank and different other financial institutions) that in a very near future will enter in these investments, native or foreign investors should not let this opportunity pass by. Even with modest investments in this direction the investor will reach good profits. The application of a 42
  • 43. precise research plan, including even the adding investments that complete the lack of infrastructure, to even satisfy the interests of the visitors and tourists, will present a very favorable chance to get a lot of profits. It would be better not to delay and act before the others will start this activity in wide scale. 1.3. International experience I think that the city of Shkodra has many similar natural characteristics with Ulcinj which is in Montenegro along the sea side (Adriatic Sea). As a matter of this fact I think that developed tourism in Ulcinj could be a good example for situation in Shkodra to proceed. Here I would like to present some characteristics and information’s about Ulcinj. Ulcinj a small town in the very south of the Yugoslav Adriatic coast, known in former times as a pirate stronghold, offers special pleasures to antiquarians thanks to it´s numerous well preserved cultural and historical monuments in the old part of the town. There is an extremely mild climate, beautiful sand beaches, the longest in Yugoslavia, make it a very popular and attractive holiday resort. A famous souvenir and antique market is especially interesting for guest from the entire world. The impressive number of 217 sunny days annually enables a very long bathing season - from April to November. In the immediate vicinity of the picturesque of old town, in a pine forest over the rocks below which the sea foams, is located an “A” class hotel “GALEB”. Looking towards the sun and the endless blue water-front “Galeb” is the place where everything is submitted to your resting and enjoying. Hotel “Galeb” carries it`s “A” class mark with pride. Besides beautifully arranged rooms, luxurious apartments with great terraces viewing the sea and the old town, as well as 5 luxuriously equipped villas in apartment type, with 60 beds, it offers numerous sports and recreational facilities to it`s guests. In addition there are several salons and social activities rooms, indoor swimming pools, table tennis hall, bowling, a modern discotheque, trimming hall and a medical surgery. The hotel complex provides tennis courts while the own beach is well equipped with chatters and parasols as well as other water-sports equipment : wind-surfing, sandolines, water skis, sailing boats and small motor boats suitable for taking off to underwater fishing. Next to the 43
  • 44. entrance of the beach is a terraced Belvedere - an ideal place for spending the last hours of another unique day of the holiday to the sounds of folk and dancing music, resting your eyes on the silhouettes of the old town. 1.4. Special rights and incentives for tourism • • • • • Foreign investors in tourism in the Priority Tourism Zones shall enjoy the following rights (for full details refer to the Law on Tourism Development): to freely import funds in foreign exchange needed to cover investment and operating costs, and to export funds in foreign exchange to pay interest and principal of loans, as well as the dividends; to keep an account in foreign exchange and operate it to pay the interest and principal of loans as well as the export of dividends; to transfer abroad: amounts arising from total or partial selling of the investment as well as shares, bonds and other securities; net profits, determined in accordance with current tax laws; license fees and royalties payable to persons ordinarily resident outside Albania; and earnings of foreign nationals; to offset losses incurred in the first five years against profits in the following five years; to employ foreign nationals for the performance of specialized tasks, provided they train a number of Albanians in the tourism business (at least one-third of staff in the first three years, at least one-fifth in the following two years). They shall also enjoy the following tax exemptions and holidays: • from tax on dividends and interest on loans paid to a financial institution; • for three years from customs and excise duties on goods and merchandise imported solely for the investment, provided they are not available in Albania at the same quality, quantity and price; • from profit tax for five years from the end of the development period; profit tax is payable at 50 per cent of the full rate(which is 30 per cent) during the following five years, but this will be reduced by 40 per cent if the profit is reinvested in Albania. 44
  • 45. 2.0 Why the Study? First, Professor Oelfke has made 14 trips to Albania since 2005, 11 of those trips have been to Shkodra and surrounding regions additionally he has made three trips to Velipoja Beach and has firsthand knowledge of the maintenance/garbage problems facing local residents, businesses, regional tourists and international tourists alike. Without addressing garbage issues Shkodra and Velipoja beach could easily face the problems similar to Naples Italy as reported by the BBC in 2007. “The US embassy in Rome has warned American tourists that they may face health risks if they travel to Naples, because of the city's rubbish crisis. The US embassy warns that fires lit by local citizens to try and get rid of the rubbish may give off toxic fumes.” Or worse yet the the March 2009 Reuters report: “ Maione's Hotel Vesuvio — where a room overlooking the Bay of Naples costs 220 euros ($345) in low season — closed one of its two restaurants, the renowned Caruso, as business dried up. The hotel expects occupancy of no more than 30 per cent this year compared with 50 per cent in 2007 and a far cry from the fat years around 2002 when some 80 per cent of its rooms were full.” Secondly, Dr. Troshani not only owns property at Velipoja she found herself in the unenviable position of asking first time visitors to Albania not to go to Velipoja because of “Garbages” and the embarrassment associated with the request. 2.1 Hypothesis: A single source of funding to clean and maintain lands open to the public does not exist that meets the needs desires of all stakeholders: local residents, tourists, business owners, and governmental officials. 3.1 Research design: Because this paper seeks to identify the methods for public use land clean-up and maintenance preferred by residents a Zoomerang Questionnaire was developed to collect data from various demographic groups from the region. The survey is attachment A. 3.2 Survey Results: First and foremost when asked what they disliked about Velipoja beach over 50% of the respondents cited garbage/sanitary conditions. To be sure Velipoja is popular with over 40% or respondents visiting 10 or more times a year. While the results were filtered a variety of 45
  • 46. ways age was selected for analysis because it showed the greatest amount of diversity in results. Fully 70% of the respondents fell into the 18-30 year-old age category so they would be considering their preferences for several years to come the age groups of the respondents were as follows: Under 18 18-30 31-45 46-Over 2% 70% 19% 9% Not surprisingly respondents under 31 utilized the beach more often than those over 31 which helps to explain other survey results. When asked “How often do you visit Velipoja beach” the various age groups responded as follows: Age <18 18-30 31-45 >46 ALL <2 times 20% 25% 75% 26% a year 2-9 37% 62% 25% 40% 10-19 17% 0% 0% 12% > 20 100% 27% 12% 0% 23% Results of the survey (90%) clearly indicate that the preference for responsibility to maintain public lands should remain at the local or regional level. When asked who should be responsible for maintenance the various age groups responded as follows: Age <18 18-30 31-45 >46 ALL Local Gvt. Regional Gvt. National Gvt. Private Citizens 70% 100% 75% 50% 67% 20% 25% 25% 23% 7% 0% 25% 7% 3% 0% 0% 2% 46
  • 47. Respondents in below 45 were much more apt to use the public beach compared to their older counterparts. Respondents to the survey were asked “When visiting Velipoja Beach, which areas do you use”? Age Always private Always public Public 50% Public 50% <18 18-30 31-45 >46 ALL 27% 38% 50% 30% 30% 38% 25% 30% < 17% 12% 0% 14% > 100% 27% 12% 25% 26% How should the clean-up and maintenance of public areas be paid for? Age <18 18-30 31-45 >46 ALL Admission fee 23% 39% 0% 23% Hotel tax 13% 12% 25% 14% Business licensing 13% 12% 25% 14% fee Income taxes 100% 47% 25% 25% 42% Other 3% 12% 25% 7% Income distribution of respondents. Age <18 18-30 < 300 Euro-month 100% 53% 31-45 12% 300-499 Euro-month 30% 38% 500-699 Euro-month 7% 12% >46 700-900 Euro-month >1000 Euro-month 28% 25% 12% 10% 47 25% ALL 42% 9% 2% 75% 19%
  • 48. Employment status of respondents: Age Business owner Government official Tourist Student Other <18 18-30 7% 7% >46 12% 25% ALL 5% 9% 3% 47% 37% 100% 31-45 12% 75% 5% 33% 49% 75% NOTE: Among those indicating other are included: professors, bankers, Peace Corps Volunteer, NGO representative, travel agents, unemployed, researcher, and cashier Education level of respondents: Age Primary only Secondary only Some college Bachelor degree Masters degree PHD <18 18-30 31-45 100% 7% 14% 40% 7% 12% 25% 62% >46 ALL 100% 5% 35% 35% 26% NOTE: 95% of the respondents are college graduates What percentage of Velipoja beach should be reserved for public use: Age 100% 75% 50% 25% < 25% <18 100% 18-30 3% 53% 40% 3% 31-45 38% 38% 25% >46 75% 25% ALL 9% 44% 37% 9% Which are your main motivation when you visit a touristic destination? Age <18 18-30 31-45 >46 ALL Health and sport 27% 12% 50% 26% Relax and recreation 100% 83% 88% 75% 84% Clean environment 7% 25% 50% 14% Cultural traditions 13% 14% NOTE: Respondents were allowed to select more than one as their main motivation the reason for the totals adding up to over 100% 48
  • 49. Which are the information means you use most with the regard to touristic destination environment? Age Written media Visual media Internet Relatives Science books <18 100% 100% 18-30 10% 60% 60% 23% 3% 31-45 >46 25% 50% 38% ALL 7% 51% 60% 23% 2% 25% 75% Note: Respondents were allowed to select more than one source of information: On two separate occasions the authors Dr. Troshani and Professor Oelfke sought to organize volunteer groups to augment local officials in combating growing garbage problems at Velipoja beach and Lake Shkodra. The group who volunteered (25 at Velipoja) fewer than 10 for Lake Shkodra consisted entirely of existing students at Shkodra University no businessmen, government officials or other university representatives volunteered. The questionnaire contained two questions concerning volunteerism with the following results. The first question “How likely are you to volunteer to perform any type of community service” Age Very likely Somewhat unlikely Very unlikely Would not volunteer Don’t know <18 100% 18-30 60% 27% 31-45 62% 25% 12% >46 25% 25% 25% 25% 13% ALL 53% 28% 5% 2% 12% The second question “How likely are you to organize volunteers to perform any type of community service” Age Very likely Somewhat unlikely Very unlikely Would not organize volunteers Don’t know <18 18-30 60% 27% 31-45 62% 25% 12% >46 25% 25% 50% 13% ALL 58% 26% 2% 5% 9% 49
  • 50. 3.3 Conclusions: The majority of all respondents seek out touristic destinations for the purpose of relaxation and recreation and receive their information from visual sources 51% and the internet61% of the time. A visit to the English website www.velipojaguide.com/lng-anglisht.php depicts a beautiful “clean” beach free from garbage and trash. I should mention here that the website needs someone to edit the English “Velibojaofferes holiday makers the ability to have funin a seaside line with very clean water and very rich sand, but it is not all it is rich with natural unique values in which are Plazhi madh 14 km long and 200 meters wide,with rich and clean sand. The residents call it “”the sand of well doing””for its virtue of cure. The beach generates every year of its up bringing of the waves,. Making the percentage if sale very high, the beach is surrounded by forest with pine trees and other type of wood,. With yellow bushes, water plant valleys, denes etc.” Unfortunately, to over promise and under deliver is not a good practice in the tourism industry. The consensus of the respondents is that responsibility for the maintenance of public use lands should remain at the local or regional governmental level. Not surprisingly as respondent’s income levels rose and their use of private beach areas increased their support for any type of income tax to pay for the maintenance for public use lands diminished as did their desire to have areas reserved for public use. The largest # of respondents (18-30) year olds and those most likely to use public beaches support the use of income taxes 43% of the time and an admission fee 23% of the time. The next largest group (31-45) year olds supported an admission fee 39% of the time and income taxes 25% of the time. All age groups supported (over 12%) all various means to pay for clean-up and maintenance with one exception that those over 46 years old did not support an admission fee. To rely on income tax alone would result in a significant burden on people making less than 300 euro per month and cause resentment toward tourists from neighboring regions and countries who would not be subject to the tax. The survey asked two questions where respondents were asked what they liked most and least about Velipoja beach. As previously stated garbage was the number one dislike followed by the infrastructure (roads, public bathrooms, sanitary facilities) and by overcrowding. For the things respondents liked most the sand and the sea were most often mentioned only one respondent mentioned the hospitality and one person the “clean environment” Clearly the sea and the sand need to be protected from garbage and pollution if Velepoja beach is to remain a tourist destination. 50
  • 51. While placing a tax on visitors when they visit rent a hotel room is often viewed in a very popular light in the United States because the burden for payment is placed entirely on people renting rooms this method of payment did not appear so popular with the respondents. Fortunately none of the age groups supported this method of paying for maintenance and clean-up more than 25%. This indicates that while some of the burden for clean-up and maintenance should rest with people renting rooms however local residents appear prepared to “pay their fair share”. Taxing businesses was viewed in much the same light as taxing hotel guests while viewed as appropriate by 14% of the respondents that leaves 86% who believe that another means should be used to collect revenue to maintain land for public use. In summary as stated in the hypothesis the means by which needed funds for the use of maintenance are collected can be a vexing issue facing. However, if the people with differing ideas can reach a consensus and use a variety of methods no one group need bear the entire burden for this complex issue. 4.0 Recommendations: 1. A citizen led business/citizen/government task force should be formed to study the following: A. The imposition of an economic impact fee on all new construction in the village of Velipoja. This process is widely used in the United States when improvements to infrastructure will be needed as a result of the construction. B. The feasibility of charging a modest admission fee to Velipoja beach not to exceed 10 euro for a season (the amount currently charged to “private beaches” per year per meter). Or 1 euro for a two day pass. C. The imposition of a modest hotel room tax and/or a tax on local restaurant sales. D. The study on the feasibility of using an income tax to provide some funding to preserve the national treasure know as Velipoja Beach. I will mention here that this could increase problems of “black” employment. 51
  • 52. E. The expansion of the “private” beach season from the current June, July, August to include the months of May and September where “private” beach leases must maintain sanitation standards. 2. Local and Regional governments take any steps necessary to ensure at least 50% of the “prime” Velipoja beach areas remain public. 3. The University of Shkodra and other Private Universities should consider the use of a Community Service Learning Component for students having difficulty obtaining employment in their field of study. For instance a Tourism student would organize volunteers or proof read the velipoja guide web site for grammatical errors, or even assist restaurants with their translation of their menus to English. 4. The authors of this paper should continue to collaborate to continue what they have started! 5.0 References: 1. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6287228.stm 2. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/mar/07/italy.foodanddrink 3. Dr. Arjeta Troshani “Touristic Destination Development” (4 December 2009) published in Albanian economic magazine named Economies in Transition 5.1 Author Ted Oelfke’s personal perspective. Having traveled throughout the world for nearly 40 years I have never been to a more hospitable place with warmer more gracious people than I have found in Albania. I marvel at the progress that I have witnessed with regard to infrastructure since I first travel to Albania in 2005. On my first trip to Albania my fellow travelers were amazed at the beauty of the country, warmth of the people, rich history, and unfortunately, the amount of uncollected garbage to be found throughout. I personally could have cried the first time I visited Velipoja beach in 2008. I will never forget that early May afternoon I knew I was visiting one of Albania’s treasures but for the garbage seen. I am also aware that the solution must come from the people of Albania when it comes to public lands, taxation, business fees etc. only Albanian’s have their history, culture, political background, and attitudes from which to draw. While models for the maintenance, use, and clean-up 52
  • 53. of public, exist in other parts of the world be it the French Riviera or nearby Montenegro it is ultimately the Albanian people who must come to a consensus. In preparing this report I googled “Naples Italy Garbage” there were 991,000 returns fortunately, a search for “Velipoja Beach Garbage” did not yield the same results. I wish the people of Albania much luck in the future as they continue to make improvements and stand ready to assist in any way I can. 53
  • 54. EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT OF MONUMENTS OF NATURE TOURISM OUR Prof. Dr. PERIKLI QIRIAZI Msc. BLERTA AVDIA Geography, University of Tirana Tirana, Albania "We abuse them by nature, because we see it as a commodity that belongs to us,as we shall see nature as a commodity to which we belong, then we can begin to love and respect it" Aldo Leopold 1.1Understanding the natural heritage and nature monuments Natural heritage is unique and special value of biotic and abiotic environment andtransmitted to generations. It consists of all objects around us, habitat, specialecosystems, tw values rare, unique, relict, edemike or vulnerable to disappearing. These special values are preserved and protected by laws applicable to naturalheritage, but by special laws. Human activity consists in evdiendimin, assessmentand managemen. The value of natural heritage could have national significance and is considered as a National Natural Heritage, protected as natural heritage and protected byinternational rules "International Convention on Cultural and Natural Heritage” Protected areas do not have the same value and are not equally populated. For a better management of their values and are classified in different categories ofprotection, to which the character of human activity. Accepted classification systemin our country is under the IUCN (The World Center of Nature conservation Union). This system consists of 6 categories: a) Strict Natural Reserves Scientific, b)National Parks, c) Nature Monuments, d) Managed Natural Reserve, e) Landscapeand Marine Protected Land, f) Protected Area of Managed Resources. 54
  • 55. On this basis, the Protected Area is considered "land space, water resources, withspecial values of biodiversity, natural resources and cultural landscape, protected by law special rules limiting the presence and human activity and management with scientific methods." A special place in this article shall pay a third category of protected areas Natural Landmark. Nature Monuments is a living facility and not living with one or more of outstanding scientific value, ecological, cultural, historical, aesthetic, didactic, religious, a habitat of a rare, threatened or of special value important scientific area to 50 hectares. natyre monuments enjoy the protection of the first category according to which are forbidden: the alienation of values for any purpose economic exploitation, work or changing character veprimatri monument or the flow of evolution. Nature monuments and offer unique value to our nature irreversible: the source of information for the various sciences, scientific information resource, cultural resource for people of different professions and the natyës passionate, didactic resource for pupils, students, valuable resource ecological information. Some monunente nature are closely related to the spiritual world to convey the traditions and customs of the local population, with the sides of which visitors understand and enjoy their values. In a we of the taste of the beauty of the canyon are the highest or Valbona, the waters of a well known or Sotira, Thethi, carst landscapes (Arrni of carst or black cave). Beets, trees in the center of the village or town are turned into symbols of their identity for residents. These have played important role in establishing and developing center city, village, under the shadow of their conversations were held, meetings, assemblies, where decisions are rwndwsishme. Strange form of Landmark Nature has often drawn attention to the man who in the inability to explain scientifically the effect they have worn on natural, turning to religious objects such as cave Kruje Sarisatllekut the Muslim faith, caves Mokra Llongës Orthodox faith, the cave of St. Anthony in the Catholic faith Lac. Objects assume the status of Nature Monuments thanks to the unique values that are, are only creature of nature, habiatat / objects of this specific area (50 ha), be without injured by man or other natural factors or by chance rejuvenation. 55
  • 56. Natural wealth is preserved in generations should be managed for scientific, ecological, cultural, curative, didactic, religious on one side and simultaneously help in achieving Sustainable Development. Using the mass of natural resources, ensuring their continuity, disaster prevention, strengthening spiritual connections to nature monuments population to help achieve this goal. Sustainable develop capital requires a harmony between economic policies, social and environmental, on the other hand local community plays an important role as a leading actor in the decision making process for designing and implementing management programs, integrated management of Natural Monuments. In the study of values and management of natural heritage has occupied a leading place, and science and geography, in the identification, evaluation and preparation of management plans in general and Natural Heritage monuments of nature in particular. In terms of today's global trend is observed ecotourism development. Tourists are looking for educational experiences tw culture, history, and local nature. To be consistent with global trends, we need to develop strategy and policy development in line with this trend. The first work to be done is to identify, study, scientific assessment and management of monuments of nature, the value of their advertising to become part of the tourist market, increasing competitiveness. Ecotourism, green tourism, and rural landscape today are the global trend of tourist movement where we have to adapt. 1.2. The distribution, status and problems encountered in Nature Monuments Albania incredibly diverse nature extremely complex and evolution of relief is very rich in nature monuments. Nature Monuments numbered 697, of which: gjeomonumente 291 or 41.6%; biomonumente 308 or 44.8%; hidromonumente 98 ose 14. Nature monuments have an unequal distribution by region which is the following statement on concretizing followingstatement on concretizing. 56
  • 57. Tab.1 .Monuments of Natyres by counties, districts of Albania Nr. Countrie district 1. Berat Qarku Berat Skrapar Qarku Diber Mat Bulqize Qarku Durres Kruje Qarku Elbasan Gramsh Librazhd Peqin Qarku Fier 2. Diber 3. Durres 4. Elbasan 5. Fier Hidrological SITES 1 1 19 12 2 5 1 1 14 3 5 6 3 1 2 9 4 2 3 Biological Sites Total Lushnje Qarku Gjirokaster Tepelene Permet Geological Sites 16 1 15 29 17 7 5 7 4 3 20 3 7 9 1 8 2 2 4 42 13 16 3 21 7 14 37 11 19 7 7 2 5 36 13 7 11 5 20 2 10 8 48 25 10 13 38 8 30 85 40 28 17 15 6 9 70 19 19 26 6 31 4 13 14 99 42 28 29 Qarku Korce Kolonje Devolle Pogradec 28 8 7 3 10 7 2 3 2 41 17 14 5 5 76 27 24 8 17 16 5 2 9 16 5 6 4 31 11 10 10 4 3 1 32 20 4 8 697 52 16 9 27 32 11 12 9 90 41 32 17 23 13 10 86 50 19 19 Mallakaster 6. Gjirokaster 7. Korce 8. Kukes Qarku 22 14 Kukes 7 4 Has 4 3 Tropoje 11 7 9. Lezhe Qarku 13 4 Lezhe 4 2 Kurbin 5 1 Mirdite 4 1 10. Shkoder Qarku 47 12 Shkoder 23 7 Mal. Madhe 18 4 Puke 6 1 11. Tirane Qarku 17 2 Tirane 10 Kavaje 7 2 12. Vlorw Qarku 42 12 Vlore 25 3 Sarande 10 5 Delvine 7 4 Vendi 291 98 308 Source: P. Qiriazi, S. Sala "Natural Monuments in Albania" pg.19 57
  • 58. Albanian diverse nature and evolution of complex emergency, there are many more still unknown to deserve this status, it is the duty of scholars, experts and environmentalists to natyrws our country to take, the initiative is the recognition of study content for the panjohuar detailed values of nature, according to the law you propose for the status they deserve. State of Nature Monuments their mass destruction after 1990 and especially the concept of narrow specialists and scholars troubled nature in Albania. With this concern citizen they began work on the study, appreciation and application of today's concept of Natural Monuments by IUCN. Important step in recognizing the protection of marks studying Monuments of Nature "Nature Monuments - cadastre, protection and preservation of their" precise definition of the concepts of Nature Monuments and expansion in the involvement in the status of objects of nature alive and not alive , sensitization of public opinion for their values. Played a significant contribution and support institutional and legal framework for protected areas where differentiated according to the nature and genesis (Geological Sites, Hidrological SITES, Biological Sites). Were published a major study mumber for Nature Monuments to put them in the service of process, educational, cultural, patriotic, ecological and service to the tourism development. Our country has a wealth of natural, diverse, which may well become an important part of the tourism sector, but it requires a perfect up to the ideal management of this property. Despite the achievements of the nature monuments remain many problems of scientific nature, the legislative institution. State of the monuments of nature in our country faces a problem that should not avoid, but rather to say that you evidenting stop: - Licensing private firms use of raw materials, hurting and alienating their values Skrapar - Denatured nature of Monuments of Nature as a result of use without scientific criteria and respect the laws on human activities as sources of Glina (Gjirokaster), sources in the district Devoll Pogrit - Illegal constructions on the beach chaotic Gen - Lack of appropriate infrastructure and orientation symbols - Their lack of Tourist Guide, the lack of information from the local population All these problems are the result of political deficiencies, strategies for preservation and protection of monuments of our nature. Lack of 58
  • 59. cooperation on a national, regional and local, required a full integration of veprimatrive government in this regard in cooperation and strong support to the local population. 3. Rating tourism and tourism management of natural monuments Albania is a country rich in natural resources and has about 12.58% of area protected area. Albania has large number of Monuments to Nature, classified according to their importance in Geological Sites, Hidrological SITES, Biological Sites, with an unequal distribution, but with great value. Nature monuments are considered as a strong point for the development of tourist movement and promoting various kinds of tourism: ecotourism, tourism landscape, religious, avanturier, etc. What I noticed is that the development of Tourism in Protected Areas basis have become part of tourist movement spontaneously. More than the benefits from the presence of tourist movements in these areas have created problems. Lack of tourist infrastructure, unskilled workers, lower taxes or lack of taking them has led to a need arises to their management. To manage the input comprises three main elements (that our country has majority and the concrete case of Mature Monumenets offering unique area with unique values, educational, scientific, cultural, etc..) Bilateral relations (coordination of national government programs, regional, local, where an important role to play and the local population as a key patner), outputs (benefits which will come from a better management of the tourist offer will serve the local community and tourist standard maintenance). In Nature Monuments management requires a scientific management, which consists of planning, organizing, motivating tourist movement. Since tourist movement is not spontaneous and unorganized denatyrizimin often leads to values such as monuments of nature. Osumi canyon, black caves frequented by tourists spontaneously; Nature monuments become part of the tour guides should be managed. Management of Natural Monument is a complex process that includes: analysis of physical-geographical, ecological, social, economic, her and her surroundings, preparation of management plans, continuous monitoring of the situation and results of management values, correction of preparing new management plans. Management plans are made for 5-10 year term, depending on location and usage, the degree of damage and continuously reviewed according to time. 59
  • 60. Execution of the management plan addresses the administration of the Protected Area and its implementing decisions taken by the management community, composition, functions and duties of which are determined by VKM. Management plan should be a communication tool for the understanding and support of central institutional, government, public, and private owners of the business, NGO. This ensures cooperation between all stakeholders, political support and financial resources. If all the above will be the possibility to develop various kinds of naturebased tourism and sustainable manner. Ecotourism occupies a leading place, but the tourist route known tastes and habits and traditions of culture, tradition recognizes the villages (Theth Shishtavec,) and their landscape (the waterfall Thehthit, Shishtavec plateau, Stone Eagle, Stone Breakfast , Birch and Shishtavec etc.), taste traditional dishes (Bozen Luma Flint Kukes, Corben Gora) in clean air and pure water and pleasant to Glina, Kroi Spring Red and white. Avanturier tourist can do and climbing in the mountains which are located near these areas (Gjallica, Tomor, etc.). Conclusions and recommendations Our country has a wealth of diverse nature and which already enjoys the status of the protected area. Classification were made by IUCN and relevant studies, but there are still problems to manage. Nature monuments are part of tourist itineraries and more spontaneous than profit while there was a problem with their values. Therefore required: - To inform the population, - To make studies appropriate to make them part of tourist tours - Organize the management plans for preserving, protecting and Nature Monuments References •Gjeografia Fizike e Shqipërisë (Physical Geography of Albania), 1990, Vol. I. Tiranë •Gjeografia Fizike e Shqipërisë (Physical Geography of Albania), 1991, Vol. II. Tiranë 60
  • 61. •Dragoti N., Dedej Z., Abeshi P., 2007. Zonat e mbrojtura të Shqipërisë (Protected areas of Albania). Tiranë . •Dida M., Dragoti N., Kromidha G., Fierza Gj., 2004. Zonat Natyrore të Shqiperise. Parqet kombetare. Tiranë. •Qiriazi P., Hoxha G., Kola B., 2007. Gjeografia 3, libër për shkollat e Mesme. Tiranë •Qiriazi P., Bego F., 1999. Monumentet e Natyres te Shqiperise. Tirane. •Qiriazi P., Sala S. 2006 “Monumentet e Natyrës së Shqipërisë” Tiranë •Qiriazi P. 2009 “Problemte e Zonave të Mbrojtura dhe Roli i menaxhimit të tyre në Trasformimin e hapsirës Gjeografike të vendit tonë” studime Albonogjike, Nëntorë •Serjani A., Heba G. 1996. Gjeotrashegimia ne Shqiperi, Studime gjeografike Nr.9. Tirane •Serjani A., Neziraj A., ë . A. P. ë imbledon, Onuzi K., Hallaçi H., Bushati S., 2003. Gjeomonumentet dhe Gjeoturizmi në Shqipë ri (Geological Heritage and Geotourism in Albania). In both: Albanian and English versions. Tirana. •Avdia B., Serjani Afat. 2010. Gjeomorphologic Landscape Around Shkodra Lake and Their intergration ëith Cultural Heritage. Shkodër. 61
  • 62. INTEGRATION OF THE SUSTAINABLE TOURISM CONCEPT WITHIN THE HIGHER EDUCATION CURRICULUM: AN ALBANIAN CASE STUDY Mirjam Dibra 7 Shkodra University "Luigj Gurakuqi", Albania Ted Oelfke 8 Sandhills Community College of North Carolina, USA Abstract Since the sustainable tourism development (STD) is a necessity of time, it is without doubt the task of the academic staff to enable students to contribute usefully to its development because many of these graduates will become the managers of the future of tourism. In the conditions when Albania appeals to become an important tourist destination in the tourist map of Europe, the higher education for tourism is a critical partner in efforts for achieving it through STD. So, STD is a key concept to be integrated in the higher education in Albania. This paper presents a case study from higher education for tourism in Albania and has as: Purpose- to explain the importance of the integration of sustainable tourism (ST) concept in higher education and to examine and analyze the present usage of this concept in higher education for tourism in Albania taking as a case study the Science Master’s (MSc) program on “Sustainable Tourism Management (STM)” in Shkodra University ‘Luigj Gurakuqi in order to improve conceptualization of the ST within its curriculum; to improve learning environment on STM and to promote the sustainability in tourism of this country. 7 Dr. Mirjam Dibra, Tourism Department, Economic Faculty, Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi”, Albania (e-mail: dibramirjam@yahoo.com). 8 Ted Oelfke, CFE, CHE, FMP, Chair of Hospitality and Culinary Arts, Sandhills Community College of North Carolina, USA, (e-mail: oelfket@sandhills.edu) 62
  • 63. Methodology – The research is based in the Busby’s (2003) line of research, making also some changes to fully clarify the purpose of the study. For obtaining information, a self-completion structured questionnaire survey delivered on-line all graduate students in 2010 and 2011 for MSc degree on STM at Shkodra University. Finding- It is argued here that the integration of sustainable development within the tourism curriculum can constitute a valuable step in this developmental process, which is in the interest of all parties: for the students who, after their studies, will be equipped to enter the world of work and contribute usefully to its development; for the tourism industry that needs a workforce that can think beyond day-to-day issues and move it towards a more sustainable future; as well as for the tourism educational sector itself to play its critical role in change of tourism towards sustainability. But the integration of the concept of sustainable development within programs of study in higher education is not an easy task. Aspects of ST Development & Management aren’t widely addressed in MSc degree program on STM in Shkodra University, although the graduate students of this program have a reasonable understanding of the concept ST. Practical value- The paper is intended to serve building of ST industry in Albania that provides jobs and economic growth while at the same time practicing sustainable approaches to natural and cultural resource management Originality/value - The paper is addressed an issue previously untreated in Albania, integration the STD in higher education. This paper is in the support of the United Nations Decade 2005-2014 of Education for SD and contributes to the literature for education on STD and to literature for education on SD. Key words: sustainable tourism, higher education, curriculum, Albania Introduction Tourism is a new industry in Albania. Only after the years ’90-ties, with the opening of Albania to the world, politics of Albanian government determined tourism as a priority industry in development of country. The principal objective of these politics is the development of sustainable tourism, which protects and develops the cultural and natural heritage of Albania and also recognizes the importance of an attractive environment, as a precondition for a successful tourism (MTKRS, 2003, 2007). Tourism 63
  • 64. programs in the higher education in Albania was developed as a response to governmental politics for priority to tourism development; the impressive growth of the tourism industry during the last 20 years; the perceived employment needs of this growing economic sector and was given added impetus by student demand who saw future employment opportunities. But, following two decades of strong and sustained tourism growth, reality tells that Albanian tourism is facing a challenging future. This increase in tourism is leaded by the interests of short-term profits, without paying proper attention to maintaining the quality of tourist resources. The result of all this, the attractive value of tourist resources of Albania has begun to fall. In the context of economic, environmental and social developments in Albania, it is important that Albanian tourism continues to protect the resource on which it so fundamentally relies and ensure sustainable future growth and development. This tells that ST cannot be achieved unless sustainability principles to be embedded into tourism planning and policy. The situation created in Albania between the acceptance as a concept of development of sustainable tourism by governmental level and delay of its application, indicates and promotes for further research. For the STD, higher education is critical partner. Since the STD is a necessity of time, it is vital to provide the tourism managers of tomorrow with a clear understanding of principles of STD and with the ability to give creative and innovative solutions for the STD. So, it is surely the task of the academic staff to enable students to contribute usefully to its development. Integration of Sustainable Tourism concept into tourism programs in the higher education is too necessary since many of these graduates will become the managers of the future of tourism. The concept of the SD has become almost universally accepted as a desirable and politically appropriate approach to tourism development (Sharpley, 2003). It is an apparently simple concept, referring to a combination of the environmental, economic and socio-cultural aspects of the industry and ensuring a suitable balance between these three dimensions to guarantee long-term sustainability. However, for the concept of the SD, many authors and organizations have developed numerous definitions and descriptions. The main appeal of sustainability in all these is situated in the strong belief of mutual care for the world preventing unwanted effects of development, and in responsibility towards future generations protecting and improving the opportunities for the future. However, while sustainability is appropriate and creditable in principle, variety of definitions 64
  • 65. and the uses of the concept of sustainability appear to be too vague to provide an adequate basis on which to build a generally shared perception of sustainable development (Butler, 1998). Besides, the concept of the SD is complex and scope of its application in tourism is very broad. In tourism education, sustainability is related with a wide range of disciplines, including aspects of economics, sociology anthropology, and environmental science, as well as business and/or management. In addressing the SD, different levels of analysis are used, for example from global to the destination level, or from household to individual level (Butler, 1998). The relative weight and importance of the subjects related to SD is hardly objectively determinable and depends on the values and ideologies of various stakeholders (Hall, 1998). So, a clear elaboration of the sustainability concept in study courses or programs for tourism is difficult. This promotes for further research to examine and assess the current place of sustainable to ST aspects in the higher education curriculum. But, while the topic of sustainability over two decade has inspired in worldwide the creation of the journals of the Sustainable Tourism, the publication of many research articles and monographs that link the words sustainable and tourism together, there are little research on the integration of STD concept in tourism studies at the higher education. While in Albania, there is no discussions and empirical research on the latter which constitutes a potential for research. So, in order to promote sustainability and improve on its conceptualization within tourism curriculum, a better understanding of the present usage of the concept in higher education for tourism is necessary. This paper presents a case study from higher education for tourism in Albania. Just, focus of this paper is to review and analyze the curriculum Master of Science (MSc) degree program on “Sustainable Tourism Management” (STM) in Shkodra University ‘Luigj Gurakuqi”, in order to light the nature of its current curriculum, and to provide an overview of the current place of ST issues in this program, to identify current gaps of this curriculum and learning environment on STM which need to be addressed. Results of a survey for this of graduated students in MSc degree on STM of this university are presented in an attempt to obtain student perceptions of the importance of integration of the sustainability in tourism education and usage of the STD concept in the their curriculum of higher education. Also, problems faced by students in the teaching of study program on STM, which need to be addressed, are recorded. Finally, in order to increasing awareness and 65
  • 66. learning for ST, the paper concludes with students’ recommendations on improvement of the curriculum MSc degree on STM and learning environment for this, and recommendations on further increasing of the role of Shkodra University for ST education. Necessity for Integration of ST Concept in Higher Education Since 1992, Agenda 21 of the UNCED conference stated that “education is critical for promoting sustainable development and improving the capacity of the people to address sustainable development issues” (UNCED, 1992: Chapter 36). Given the critical role of education in achieving of the SD, the United Nations General Assembly at its 57th session in 2002 declared the period 2005–2014 as the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) and designated UNESCO to lead the Decade (UNESCO, 2007). As a potential driving force of change towards sustainability UNESCO (2009) defines Higher Education Institutions for three reasons: • Students will meet daily in their future work with sustainability issues faced by society. • Capacity of Higher Education Institutions for keeping the unique researches. • The premise that have Higher Education Institutions direct links with business and the community where research could be disseminated, connections made, and social change brought about, all of which will be crucial to help society transform itself. So for institutions of higher education the great challenge of the 21s t century is to train future professional students who are capable of acting in favor of sustainable development (Junyent, 2007).From all of this we can conclude that in order to transform economic systems toward sustainability, primarily it is necessity integration of SD concept in the system of higher education. In higher education for tourism, integration of sustainable tourism development concept is more imperative for several reasons. Tourism is one of the world's largest and fastest growing industries that have greater geographical spread in the world (Cook, Yale & Marqua, 2010; Middelton & Hawkins, 1998; Sharpley, 2004; Swarbrooke, 2002; Weaver, 66
  • 67. 2006; WTTC, 2009). To every country with tourist resources the expansion of tourism appears to be a very attractive method of achieving economic growth. Thus, tourism has the potential to improve the national balance of payments through the new currency introduced by international tourists, stimulate investment, to diversify the economy, to generate a larger and faster growing in employment than the same investment in another economic activity, to contribute to improving the quality of life etc (Cook, Yale & Marqua, 2010; Middelton & Hawkins, 1998; Mihaliç, 2004; Sharpley, 2004; Swarbrooke, 2002). Without tourism in many countries, the innumerable suppliers of goods and services to the industry would not be able to sustain their businesses. The expansion of tourism is supported by a increasingly leisure-oriented society. Even in difficult years of the current economic crisis, tourism is expected to regain the leading dynamic role in global growth and to keep an average annual increase of 4.3% of tourism demand on the global scale until 2020 (WTTC, 2009). But while tourism provides considerable benefits to many countries and communities, serving as agent of development, the rapid unlimited expansion, and non-right managed of the tourism puts pressure on environment of traditional and new tourist destinations, making that an agent of harmful change (Middelton & Hawkins, 1998). Therefore, tourism development should not simply follow demand. It should start from a responsible management of the base capital of tourism industry-tourist resourse. This is because tourism is a resource industry, dependent from the gift of nature and the society heritage, so a lot of decisions in the field of tourism are irreparable (Murphy, 1998). Quality of tourist resources in a destination is the primary motive of tourists to visit that destination and the primary reason of tourism businesses to direct investments at that destination and not in another. Furthermore, nowadays visitors are demanding more the healthy environmental products with local taste (Middelton & Hawkins, 1998; Swarbrooke, 2002; UNWTO, 2010). If these attributes are not provided by the destination, or lost during the process of resource overuse or mismanagement tourist destination, the existing tourist customer will go to another tourist destination and only a reduction in price will keep that destination temporarily in the market (Middelton & Hawkins, 1998). The connection of tourism with the environment shows that the survival and success of tourism depends heavily on the ability to develop responsible 67
  • 68. policies and management strategies that allow tourism to continue further enhancing while protect the environment. This becomes more challenging today in terms of existence of a big competition in tourism. In this competitive situation, it is important for tourism destination to develop a consistent planning and management system aimed at sustainability and quality of tourist product and on the changing demands of the market. Within this context, it is clear that abilities and the competences of the public sector responsible for management of sustainable tourism destinations need to be developed. But, in the management of sustainable tourist destination, tourist businesses have a great influence. Although management of tourist destinations is generally in the hands of the public sector, it has owned or controlled by only a part of the tourism product, while most of the tourist product is in the hands of private tourism businesses sector (Middelton & Hawkins, 1998; Swarbrooke , 2002). Also, their power in the management of sustainable tourist destination increase greatly due to the internal capacity to manage tourist demand because they respond directly to market forces and their decisions are determined by the large knowledge on the consumer and by the goal of profit (Middelton & Hawkins, 1998). So, the way that the tourism business is managed on a day –to day basis will determine its impact on the world around it, and whether or not it will be sustainable. Also, tourism is a labor-intensive service industry, where the service delivered by employees is the core of the product which is offered tourists (Swarbrooke, 2002). In this way, the tourism industry is dependent for survival (and at best, competitive advantage) on the availability of good quality personnel to deliver, operate, and manage the tourist product. As stated above, the human factor is fundamental to development of the tourism industry, since it constitutes the key base of quality in tourism supply. So, for STD, creating sustainable tourist product is necessary the human resource building for ST. “The challenge to create more sustainable human resource management in tourism is clearly a major task. However, unless we succeed with this challenge, it is hard to conceive of how we can develop truly sustainable tourism” (Swarbrooke, 2002: 236). On other hand, tourism is a dynamic industry and where the competition is too great. Recognizing, predicting and quickly adapting to the latest developing trends are necessary skills for today’s industry managers for sustainable growth of tourism. 68
  • 69. So, those who work in the industry can be a make-or-break dimension for sustainable success of tourism industry. For the sake of both the tourist and the sustainable future of the tourism, it is vital the qualification of human resource for sustainable tourism development. Integration of STD in curriculum of higher education provides tourism managers with a future-oriented viewpoint and with basic competences that can enable them to act responsibly for finding creative and innovative solutions for issues affecting the sustainable future of tourism. Also, the importance of higher education to STD is based in capacity of university for the unique research on issues affecting the future of tourism and on the premise that higher education institutions for tourism have direct links with actors of tourism where students could work and where research could be distributed, all of which will be vital to help tourism industry transform itself for sustainable future. Holding of this scientific conference on STD also proves this. As a conclusion, the STD cannot be achieved unless sustainability principles are embedded into tourism planning and policy. This in turn can only be achieved if sustainability is accepted as an integral part of the education process. So, it is vital to provide the tourism managers of tomorrow with an clear understanding of principles of STD and with a the ability to give creative and innovative solutions for the STD. In this way, the ST is a key concept for consideration within tourism programs in the higher education. Tourism study in higher education in Albania In Albania Tourism is the new industry. Only after the years ’90-ties, with the opening of Albania to foreigners, politics of Albanian government determined tourism as a priority industry in development of country. Development of this new industry constitute a challenge for Albania in terms of the existence of a more competitive environment of neighboring countries and further which had experience in tourism development. In this challenging environment, the human resource development for tourism was necessary. So, higher education programs for tourism have emerged in response to the following needs of human resource development for: • The availability of qualified staff for new and growing tourist industries. 69
  • 70. • Raising the image of careers in tourism. • Employment regulation. • Keeping the industry abreast with the latest technology and trends. • Responding to increasingly demanding service and communication requirements of customers. The first tourism graduate program in Albania was launched in Tirana University. The fact is that tourism as an area of study in higher education has received the greatest development the last decade as a response to the impressive growth of the tourism industry during the last 10 years 9 and the perceived employment needs of this growing economic sector and was given added impetus by student demand that saw future employment opportunities. This strong influence resulted in the opening of higher studies programs for tourism in 6 of 11 public universities and in the licensing of opening of these programs at 4 of 34 private universities that operate in Albania (Table 1 illustrates the variety of degree titles according to web-site of Education Ministry in Albania). According to legislation, the study cycles in higher education in Albania operate on the basis of the Bologna Declaration (3+2). The outcome of these developments was that higher study are becoming the main route, at least in principle, for potential employees to gain entry to the industry and not surprisingly modules of those studies are strongly gearing to these employment needs. “Curriculum design in higher study for tourism area undoubtedly affects the student experience with different curriculum framings resulting in students graduating with a range of perspectives, attitudes and competences”(Tribe, 2002 citied from Busby, 2003: 49). Therefore, integration of STD concept in curriculum of higher education is necessary to provide students – managers of the future of tourism in Albania, with a future-oriented viewpoint, critical of tourism issues and with basic competences that can enable them to act responsibly for finding creative and innovative solutions for issues affecting the sustainable future of tourism. 9 According to INSTAT statistics, the increase in the number of foreign tourists in 2010 compared to 2000 is 7.6 times 70
  • 71. Table 1: List of universities with tourism programs according to study cycles No. Name of the University Bachelor Program Professional Master Program Scientific Master Program Public Universities 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Tirana University-at subsidiary of the Faculty of Economy in Saranda Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi” Tourism - - Tourism - University “Fan Noli” in Korca University “Eqrem Cabej” in Gjirokaster University “Ismail Qemali” in Vlora University “Aleksander Moisiu” in Durres Tourism - Sustainable Tourism Management - Economist in Tourism Tourism Management 1. Management of hotels and restaurants 2. Cultural Tourism Management 3.Archeologic Tourism Management - - Tourism Management Policy and Management / Tourism Management - 1.Management of tourist services 2. Tourism economy Tourism Management Tourism Management 1.Hospitality 2.Tourism Marketing 1. Hospitality 2. Tourism - - - - - - - - Private Universities 1. European University for Tourism 2. University “Logos” 3. University “Vitrina” 4. North University “Argenti” 71
  • 72. Tourism Curriculum in Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi” The Shkodra region has strong tourism potential to become an important and competitive tourist destination in the tourist map of Albania and beyond. It is one of the only regions in Albania and the Balkans that has a variety of important natural and historical-cultural attractions within a small geographic surface and with a favorable geographic position to be easily accessible from the European and domestic tourism market (Dibra, 2008). Shkodra region has enabled the development of four main types of tourism: Citizen Tourism, Lake Tourism, Coastal Tourism, Mountain Tourism (Troshani, Bakiu, 2000). Given these potential tourism and socio-economic benefits of tourism development, the economic development strategy of Shkodra region has defined tourism as a priority sector of the economy and key contributor to sustainable development of this region. Therefore, for the return of these tourist potentials in real estate for the development of Shkodra region, it is required tourism wise policy and management strategy to ensure economic growth and sustainable future for tourism. Importance of wise management of these tourism potentials in the Shkodra region become more sensitive because most tourist attractions have protection status (Dibra, 2008) In these conditions, the academic staff of the Shkodra University directed its request to the government for opening programs of study in tourism. So, Shkodra University offers study programs in tourism in two degree: Bachelor degree in “Tourism” since 2003 and Master of Science degree in “Sustainable Tourism Management” since 2008. The study program of Bachelor degree in tourism at this university, designed for management career entry in tourism, provides students basic knowledges and practical skills to design, manage, and distribute tourism services for a variety of visitors at various tourist facilities and settings. The study program of MSc degree in STM offers a contemporary degree that provides students with a great opportunity for sustainable success in this dynamic industry. Specifically, it is designed to: • provide students from undergraduate programs in north region of Albania and further, who are interested in profession of the tourism management, a higher graduate program opportunity in tourism, most specifically, on STM; 72
  • 73. • • • • • • Meet emerging demand of tourism industry for degreed professionals who can manage complex sustainable tourism environments; Provide a strong foundation for career advancement as: future doctoral studies, and executive and regulatory job level positions within the many varied public, private, and nonprofit tourism organisms; Provide educational advancement and applied research opportunities to the emerging needs for academic personnel of private university with variety the Bachelor programs in Tourism and Hospitality, needed to prepare students for varied jobs and careers in tourism; Inspiration other people in the tourism destination by becoming motivated tourism managers for sustainable tourism development at that destination; Realizing an added value of our faculty by making it a Leadership in education for ST in Albania and further; Take a leading role in promoting an ethically-oriented form of education. MSc program in STM is designed to add value to first degrees by enabling students to develop in three ways that are central to a career in STM: First, to develop students an integrated understanding of the dynamics of STD by enabling them to see STD in its local, regional, national and global context, and in its relationship to the diverse organizational, institutional and geographical settings within which tourism is developed, planned and managed. Second, to enhance students with practical knowledge and skills relevant to STM by making known them functional areas of STM in order to enable them to offer effective solutions to complex problems and to effectively contribute to the integration of ST practices across a range of organizational, institutional and geographical settings. Third, to develop students relevant knowledge and skills to strategically manage by developing of their capacity to engage with the rigorous analysis of contemporary issues and problems facing ST and to engage in research for finding effective different strategies for the improvement of the sustainability within diverse tourism contexts; by developing of the their capacity to integrate the sustainability into decision-making. Modules of this MSc program selected to fit the career of the student in tourism management and reflect the “triple bottom line” of sustainable tourism—economic, environmental, and social-cultural viability. So, this program is a new interdisciplinary program of study and is subdivided into 12 thematic modules. Specifically, its curriculum includes: 73
  • 74. •‘STD’ module as an introductory subject to explains the understanding of concept, principles, dimensions of STD and the scope of ST •Modules of the science field : Tourism economics, Environmental aspects of the tourism and Natural heritage, Intercultural communication, Research Methods in tourism •Modules of the business field: Financial management, Human resource Management, international marketing, Ecotourism and Rural Tourism; •Modules of the planning and policy field: Management of Sustainable tourism Destination, Strategic Management. •In last semester, curriculum provides students an internship experience and independent study for the preparing of the dissertation. The development of curriculum in this program is supported on a wide range of research-based expertise amongst academic staff of Shkodra University and by foreign guest lecturer from the University of the Countries with successful practices in sustainable tourism management as SCC of NC in USA and various European Universities. Also, this program is supported by links of this university to local development offices, tourism businesses and tourism related businesses, NGOs operating in the northern region of Albania etc. Methodology When trying to integrate ST in study programs, the concept becomes very complex due to infinite combinations of disciplines, the wide space of ST, different level of analysis for decision making. This leads to the existence of different viewpoints and levels of understanding on the usage the ST concept in study curriculum. This paper seeks first to draw the student perception on the importance of integration of the sustainability in tourism education and after that to draw student perception on the usage ST in their higher study curriculum for tourism and to elicit problems of learning environment in this study program. Taking as a base Busby’s (2003) line of research, some changes have been made to fully clarify the purpose of the study. To present such overview a measuring instrument was needed. This measuring instrument had to be simple and easy to use in order to enable the highest response rate possible. A self-completion structured questionnaire 74
  • 75. survey was identified as a functional method for these purposes for two reasons. One, a structured questionnaire facilitates the administration, tabulation and analysis of data and facilitates the response of the respondents and make these responses more reliable (Elmazi, 2007). Two, self-completion questionnaires can be administered on-line to all graduate students because it has the advantage of distributing the questionnaire to graduate students geographically distributed Researchers possessed their email addresses because of the need for communication on-line studentteacher during the courses of the study. In the questionnaire, the close-ended questions were used. Some statements were included to assess specific perceptions of students using Licert scale. Likert scale is assessed as a unique technique used to measure the opinions, beliefs and attitudes (Elmazi, 2007, McDaniel & Gates, 1996). The paper takes MSC degree program in STM of Shkodra University “Luigj Gurakuqi” as a case study from higher education for tourism in Albania. The population from which the survey sought information was defined all graduate students in 2010 and 2011 for a fairer assessment of full curriculum in their study program. Following this, questionnaires were distributed on-line to e-mail of every graduate students (32 in total). The analyzing of the information collected from survey gives an overview of the ideas of the students that responded. However, the outcomes of the study identify some important messages about student perceptions of the present usage of the concept of sustainable tourism development within their programs of study, and provide material for further discussion and research. Findings The survey involved all graduate students (32 in total) of MSC degree program in STM of Shkodra University, but 23 of them were responded the questionnaire providing a 72% response rate. Their age varies 24-48 years old, reaching an average age 32 years old and where more than half (57%) belonged age of 24-30 years old. Most of them (78%) work in Shkoder. Of all students surveyed, only 57% of them work actually in the tourism field. Students asked for their motivations to attend the MSc degree program on STM (Figure 1). About 96% of students believe in the opportunity of making career in tourism because they recognize that tourism is the future of Albania. Strong motivations for them were taking a full graduation (87%) 75
  • 76. and personal growth (83%). Also, more than half of students (57%) considered attending of this program as opportunity to have easier to find a job in tourism. So, from 13 of graduate students (57% of total) employed actually in the tourism field, 10 of them (77%) have been employed during and after completion of the MSc degree program on STM. According to the records from this questionnaire results that this MSc program on STM constitutes the main way of the qualification to the field of tourism for these students. So, 52% of graduate students surveyed have not taking other qualifications expect MSc program on STM, while only 35% of graduate students surveyed have gained other qualifications in tourism field. To get an indication on the importance in Albania of the building human capacity for ST and the role of higher education for it, graduate students were asked to rank three statements according to Likert scale (Table 2). As regards the scoring of the scale, statements were scored 5 for “strongly agree” down to 1 for “strongly disagree". From the table, it is evident that students accepted that the building human capacity for ST is a prerequisite for STD in Albania. Students were understood the importance of the integration of ST concept in the education process for the building human capacity with abilities to act responsibly for the sustainable future of tourism. Also, all students strongly agreed the role of higher education institutions of tourism in Albania as a critical partner of change of tourism towards sustainability. 76
  • 77. Table 2: Perceptions of graduated student on the importance in Albania of building of the human capacity for ST and the role of higher education for this No. Statement Mean n=23 1 The sustainable future for the tourism in Albania starts by building human capacity to achieve its. 1.1 2 The building human capacity for STD in Albania can only be achieved if sustainability is accepted as an integral part of the education process in tourism. Higher education institutions of tourism in Albania should be a potential driving force of change of tourism towards sustainability 1.3 3 1 To assess the reality of STD in Albania, students were asked to rank two statements (statements 4, 5 at Table 3) on a Likert scale where score 1-5 expresses: 5 for “strongly agree” down to 1 for “strongly disagree". According to the table, students clearly believe that attempts by public sector and tourist businesses for STD in Albania are slowly. The second question asked students to indentify which modules in their MSc degree program on STM provided a foundation on STD&M. Not surprisingly, all students recognized STD and Management of ST Destination modules to be directly relevant. Also, more than half of students surveyed identified Human Resource Management (83%), Tourism Strategy (78%), Environmental Aspects of Tourism (74%), and Ecotourism & Rural Tourism (57%) modules as the foundations on STD&M. 77
  • 78. Table 3: Perceptions of graduated student on the reality of STD in Albania and on the curriculum of MSC degree program on STM No. Statement Mean N=23 4 The sustainability concept has been widely accepted at government level on policies of development for tourism in Albania, but the reality shows that their successful applications have been slow. 2.2 5 The current practices of tourism business in Albania do not help STD The MSc program on STM, I ended up, provides me with an understanding of the ST concept The MSc program on STM, I ended up, recognizes me with the possible ways in which tourism could be managed to ensure its sustainable future The concept of ST is already integrated in all the modules within the curriculum of the MSc program on STM, I ended up. There is too much emphasis on commercial aspects of tourism in curriculum of the MSc program on STM, I ended up. 1.6 6 7 8 9 1.3 2.5 3.7 3.2 Response categories: Strongly agree-(1); Agree (2); Not sure (3); Disagree (4); Strongly disagree (5). In an attempt to assess specific perceptions of the curriculum of MSC degree program on STM, students were asked to rank four statements (statements 6, 7, 8, 9 at Table 3), representing curriculum components, on a Likert scale. From the table, it is evident that the highest mean score was recorded for statement 8. This statement concerning the embedding of the ST concept in all modules elicited a surprisingly result that the ST concept is not present in all modules. With regard to statement 9, there was polarization. It is important to note that only three students stated for “not sure” but none of the students stated for it “strongly agree” or “strongly disagree”. This demonstrates that the influence of industry on the content of MSc degree program on STM is evident. The highest acceptance is evident at statement 6. Its mean score demonstrates that students gain adequate knowledge for the understanding of ST concept. But the same situation didn’t display in statement 7. Only one student stated “strongly agree”, who hasn’t Bachelor education background in tourism, while other students 78
  • 79. stated “agree” and “not sure”. The answers of following questions in the questionnaire light the mean score of this statement. When asked to identify as many authors as possible associated with the concept of sustainable tourism who have been used during all their courses in the MSc program on STM, must students were not able to cite any authors. Given the plethora of on-line existing articles, exiting articles in scientific bulletin of economic faculty at Shkodra university, exiting lectures prepared by the academic staff of this program and books on STD&M brought from SCC of USA in Shkodra University, this is disappointing and concerning result. Among positive responses for books’ authors, Swarbrooke, Buttler, Taylor, Edgell, Middelton are identified by many of the students. The questionnaire also included some important questions regarding for enhancement of integration ST concept in the curriculum of MSc program on STM. More than half of students thought for a greater integration of the sustainable tourism concept at these modules: Tourism Strategy (65%), Financial Management (61%), Human Resource Management (61%), Natyral Heritage (61%), Management of Sustainable Tourist Destination (56%), Intercultural Communication (52%) and Tourism Economics (52%). In recommendations of the graduate students for approaches of the enhancement of learning environment at their MSc program to provide the best opportunities for learning on STM, students believe for in making more: Interactive lecture (96%), Modules on management aspects for ST (78%), Use of guest lecturers from countries with successful examples of STM (65%), Involvement of practitioners who work in field of tourism (96%), Use of actual local case studies (91%), Use of successful case studies (96%), Examples of policy and regulation for STM (96%), Field trips to learn in a 'live' tourism environment for some specific issues of module (100%), Self-managed discussions and debates (96%), Books for exploring of the literature on ST (91%), Keeping the communication with government officials or businesses of the tourism (96%), Organization student and lecture exchanges (100%).Only for the approach -Group work in preparing presentations-, most students (52%) suggested continuing of their development with the same level. To serve more of the learning on STM during forth term, 87% of students (Fig.2) suggest that the internship to become in function their dissertation preparing for MSc degree. Also, more than half of students (53%) accepted 79
  • 80. the need of increasing of the level of points for passing of a exam in their MSc program on STM (Fig.3). According to records, students think that average of points for passing of a exam in their MSc program on STM to be 55 points. This would serve quality of learning on STM. In the questionnaire is included the question on perceptions of graduate students for increasing the average grade level of student as the admission criterion in MSc program on STM. According to the records, more than half of students (74%) think for that average grade level of student as the admission criterion in MSc program on STM to be 7(Fig 4). Fig.4:Perceptions of graduate students for increasing the average grade level of student as the admission criterion in MSc program on STM 26 74 PO JO 80
  • 81. Conclusions and Contributions Researchers come in the following conclusions from research findings: •Students clearly believe that attempts by public sector and tourist businesses for STD in Albania are slowly. •It is argued here the building human capacity for ST is a prerequisite for STD in Albania •The building human capacity for STD in Albania can only be achieved if sustainability is accepted as an integral part of the education process in tourism. •Integration of ST concept into tourism programs in the higher education is too necessary that they play a critical role of change of tourism towards sustainability. •The integration of the concept of sustainable development within programmes of study in higher education is not an easy task •Students of MSc degree program on STM at Shkodra University have a reasonable understanding of the concept ST •Aspects of STD&M aren’t widely addressed in MSc degree program on STM offered by Shkodra University. •The learning environment on the STM is required by students to improvement in order to provide the better learning opportunities on the STM •Students suggest that the internship to become in function their dissertation preparing for MSc degree •The quality of the MSc degree program at Shkodra University depends also on effective recruitment of students for attending of this program. •The increasing of the level of points for passing of a exam in MSc degree program on STM would serve quality of learning on STM. •The MSc program on STM constitutes the main way of Bachelor students for the further qualification to the field of tourism in Shkodra region. Researchers of this paper believe that this study has the following academic contributions •The paper treats an issue previously untreated in Albania, integration the STD in higher education. •The paper contributes to the literature on education on STD and to literature for education on SD. 81
  • 82. •Research method used by taking of a student feedback is a way of monitoring the quality of study program on integration of ST concept in Higher Education curriculum for tourism Also, the researchers of this paper believe these practical contributions of the study: •The paper presents some practical ways for enhancement of the curriculum of MSc degree program on STM in Shkodra University, improvement learning environment, increase the role the academic staff of Shkodra University for further education ST •The paper serves building of ST industry in Albania that provides jobs and economic growth while at the same time practicing sustainable approaches to natural and cultural resource management •This paper is in the support of the United Nations Decade of ESD 20052014 Recommendations The paper stresses the need for Albania to make ESD a national priority and for the government and other stakeholders to develop a National Strategy for ESD. Given the fact that tourism is considered a priority sector of development in Albania, education for STD should be paid a special attention. Education for STD should support by innovative programs which aim at creating a tourist product with long-term production features. Since the higher education institutions are the critical partner for STD, it is very important adopting a clear policy about integration of STD concept in higher education curriculum in Albania. Taking into account the findings from the analysis of questionnaire data, authors of the paper make some recommendations for further enhancement of study program for MSc degree on STM in Shkodra University. According to the enhancement of integration ST concept in the curriculum it is necessary: Curriculum of MSc degree program on STM have to take into account that ST principles should be practiced in all aspects of tourism management, and that sustainability should be treated as a managerial philosophy to include into all modules rather than a matter of the module. In this way, the curricula provides tourism students, who will 82
  • 83. be future educators, industry planners, researchers, managers and operators of tourism with the latest thinking on a comprehensive range of themes addressing the STD &M and encourage students to engage with the important issues, rather than to push always any politically correct line. Since all four functional management areas: marketing, finance, human resources, and operations play a important role on management for ST (Swarbrooke, 2002), authors of the paper suggest to include module: Operations Management for Sustainable Tourism in this curriculum. This can be achieved through the annexation of any module with general information on any module that connects with it. Also, to express the relationship of management functional areas with ST, authors suggest that their other modules already included in this curriculum should be named: Financial Management for Sustainable Tourism; Human Resource Management for Sustainable Tourism, Marketing Management for Sustainable Tourism. Author suggest to include elective modules in this curriculum in order to concentrate students in the area that fits their career goals best, where will give the effective contribution for STM Such modules can be: Sustainable Management of Ecotourism; Sustainable Management of Rural Tourism (they are already included in the curriculum with the names: Ecotourism and rural tourism) and Sustainable Management Festivals, Meetings and Events. According to the enhancement of learning environment on STM it is necessary: The increasing of the average grade level of Bachelor graduate student as the admission criterion in MSc program on STM. Authors agree with suggestion of most of students that average grade level of student as the admission criterion in MSc program on STM to be 7. A good recruitment of students to attend this program will enhance the quality of the MSc program on STM, but indirectly and the quality of the Bachelor program for Tourism, and so will increase the rate of graduate recruitment and retention in tourism management jobs and would make more effective their contribution on STM in Albania. The increasing of the level of points for passing of a exam in MSc program on STM would serve quality of learning on STM. Authors agree with suggestion of most of students that this level to be 55 points. 83
  • 84. More support for academic staff development. Teaching sustainability is also potentially demanding on staff, since it requires a holistic and multidisciplinary approach. It encompasses abroad range of disciplines, including aspects of economics, sociology, anthropology, natural science, as well as business and management. So, for the delivery of sustainability in this program, professional development of lecturers is vital. For this necessitates institutional support for academics of this programs including opportunities for staff development as: financial support for their training experience program in west universities, for their participation in science Conferences and Journals on ST in or out Albania More interactive lectures means that the lecturer must to set the context for learning, introduces the topic, objectives to be achieved from this topic and structures of the lecture in such way that the lecturer invites student participants for interactive communication on the topic’s issues that are explained during the lecture as for example: the introduction of statements to be argumentative if it is false or true; or multiple choice questions or only question and finally the lecturer gives the right conclusion, etc. More interactive scope for the discussion in the seminars of key theories and concepts, exploring case studies, and exploring the literature, debates and self-managed discussions on issues of contemporary concern in sustainable tourism management as well as international tourism in general in order that to translate the theoretical concepts into practice. More field trip and short study visits for intensive learning in a 'live' tourism environment providing the opportunity to engage in analyzing of the challenges of developing, managing and promoting sustainable tourism. The field trip to a 'live' destination must run as part of the Management of Sustainable Tourism Destination module, will enable students to apply knowledge and ideas acquired in the classroom in a specific tourism context. Here, additional contributions can give by a wide range of specialists and practitioners who are trying to introduce the sustainable tourism practices. Researches of students in a range of sustainable tourism planning and management issues and problems which are developed in different modules during the three semesters, must to serve student’s thesis and to support by scientific supervisor of student's dissertation. For this theme 84
  • 85. for dissertation and its scientific supervisor should be determined after the first semester of this program. The place of the internship for MSc degree students must to serve topic of student’ dissertation. This would make students more responsible during the internship and their dissertation would have real impact on STD & M in the tourism business or the tourist destination where students develop the internship. The provision for use by students of more comprehensive books on ST and the provision of more other resources such as expert guest speakers and visiting lecturers to support the integration of sustainability into existing topics/modules. According to monitoring the quality of this program it is necessary: Evaluating of the quality of this program must be not only by statistical information (as the pass rate, average mark, number of applicants and accepted students, number of graduated students in MSc program on STM) but and by strengthening of external evaluating (as foreign guest lecturer of this program or tourism organizations and institutions where students develop internship) and by taking of student feedback. Methods for gaining student feedback on this program can be: Module evaluations after the completion of the module and student representation in the program committee (meeting at least once a year) Creating a program committee comprising all relevant teaching staff in this program, student representatives and others who make a contribution towards the effective operation of the program (e.g. library/technician staff), which must have responsibilities for the quality of the program. Before that this study program to start, the program committee shall undertake once a year to review in-depth content of every module of program’s curriculum that the overall aims and objectives were appropriate with managerial philosophy for ST. Also, the committee must analyze the quality of this study program through the above methods of evaluating and to take the relevant measures for improvement. In order to the Economic Faculty in Shkodra University to be always the leader in Education for ST is also necessary to integration ST concept in Bachelor study curriculum and in Study curriculum for Professional Master programs in Tourism field (which the Economic faculty should make more 85
  • 86. effort to be open them in response to industry needs and student demand to complete graduation). To achieve sustainability, it isn’t enough providing courses and programs content which are more closely geared to the needs of the tourism industry for ST, but and the provision of the mode of delivery such as the use of open and distance learning. This is the only way by which the majority of staff in the industry can gain access to educational opportunities for ST. The academic staff of this study course should undertake the opening of summer school in September month or during the years of distance learning courses for education on STD for businessmen and people employed in tourist enterprises. This kind of education offers knowledge on the development of environmental and social responsibility in operations of a tourist enterprise. It can improve the quality of services offered, especially in this area which is dominated by unqualified employment. Also, summer school for education on STD should undertake for those indirectly employed in the sector, e.g. traders, individuals employed in transport, services, etc. In this way, the educational level for ST of people employed in a growing industry of the tourism will improve. Researchers of this study hope that this paper will provide a useful starting point for further in-depth discussions, integration curriculums, practices and research on the ST concept in higher education in the tourism field. Literature o Bakiu, V., Dibra, M.,(2010), “For a qualitative Tourism as nowadays requirement: need for standards even in this direction” Shkoder-Albania o Butler R. (1998), “ Sustainable tourism – looking backwards in order to progress?” In C.M. Hall & A.A. Lew (Eds.) Sustainable Tourism: A Geographical Perspective, Essex: Longman. o Butler, R. (1999) “Understanding Tourism in Jackson”, E.L. and Burton, T.L. (eds) Leisure Studies: Prospects for the Twenty-First Century, State College, PA.: Venture Pub. o Cook, R.J., Yale, L.J. & Marque, J.J., (2010), “Tourism: The Business of Travel”. Publication of fourth, New Jersey, Pearson Prentice Hall. USA o Dibra, A. & Bakiu, V. (2000), “Tourism development I Shkodra region: Reality and Perspective”. Monograph, Shkodër-Albania o Dibra, M.,( 2007) “STD- the necessity of time”, Scientific Bulletin of Shkodra University, Series of legal-economic sciences, Secon year of the Publication, No. I, Shkoder-Albania 86
  • 87. o Dibra, M.,(2008), “Environmental management of the hotel sector in Shkodra in perspective of achieving sustainable”, IFK, Prishtina-Kosova o Dibra, M., (2008), “Sustainable tourism and protected areas-Analysis successes criteria of sustainable tourism management in protected area of Shkodra”, Camaj-Pipaj, Shkoder-Albania o Dibra, M., Ndou, V. & Troshani, A., (2009), “Oferta turistika della regione di Scutari”, Le potenzialita e le sfide dello sviluppo turistiko a Scutari, Camaj-Pipaj, Shkodër-Albania. o Dibra, M., (2010)“Encouraging sustainable tourism practices among businesses of bar-restaurants in Shkodra region.”Shkoder-Albania o Elmazi, L., (2007),”Marketing Research”. Sh.B.L.U., Tiranë-Albania o Griffin, T., (2002), “An optimistic perspective on Tourism’s sustainability. Sustainable Tourism: A global Perspective”. Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann. o Hall C.M. (1998),” Historical antecedents of sustainable development and ecotourism: new labels on old bottles?” In C.M. Hall & A.A. Lew (Eds.) Sustainable Tourism: A Geographical Perspective, Essex: Longman. o Kruja, D.& Oelfke, T., (October 2008), "A Comparative Analysis of Student Learning Styles in Hospitality and Tourism Management", International Conference, Shkodra, Albania, (Proceedings) o Middleton, V.T.C. & Hawkins, R., (1998), “Sustainable Tourism: A Marketing Perspective”, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann. o Oelfke, T. (SCC) & Lufi, (October 2010) "The role of Tourism in Developing Countries", The First International Conference for Research in Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure, Shkoder, Albania, (Proceedings). o Sharpley, R., (2004), “Tourism: A vehicle for Development? In: Tourism and Development: Concepts and Issues”, England, Channel View Publications. o Sharpley, R. (2003) ‘Rural Tourism and Sustainability–a Critique’, in D. Hall, L. Roberts and M. Mitchell (Eds), “New Directions in Rural Tourism”, Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Limited o Swarbrooke, J., (2002), “Sustainable Tourism Management”, London, CABI Publishing. o Weaver, D., (2006), “Sustainable Tourism: Theory and Practice”. England, Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. o Co-participant authors in Conference of Association for Tourism in Higher Education, (December, 2004), “Critical Issues in Tourism Education”, ATHE Publication No. 14, Downloaded at: http://www.athe.org.uk/publications/guidelines_14.pdf o Graham Busby,(2003) , “The Concept of Sustainable Tourism within the Higher Education Curriculum: A British Case Study”, Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education, Vol.2, No.2, Downloaded at: http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/hlst/documents/johlste/vol2no2/0057.pdf 87
  • 88. o Gri, K., Flanagany, Sh., Staceyz, J., Tottle, A.,(2008), “Integrating Sustainability into Tourism Education and Training in Ireland: Current Reality and Future Actions”, Downloaded at: http://arrow.dit.ie/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1004&context=tfschmtcon o INSTAT, (2011), “Tourism statistic 1995-2010”, Downloaded at: http://www.instat.gov.al/ o Lindsey McEwen, Glenn Strachan, Stephen Sterling, David Norcliffe and Sheila Bennell, (2011), “Student perceptions of interdisciplinary learning in education for sustainable development (esd) at taught postgraduate level”, Downloaded at: http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/documents/sustainability/glos_interdisc_surv ey.pdf o Lino Briguglio And Paul J. Pace,(March 2004), “Education For Sustainable Development In Malta”, Downloaded at: http://www.um.edu.mt/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/63861/education_esd_lbrigug lio_ppace.pdf o MTKRS, (2007), “Sectoral Strategy for Tourism 2007-2013”. Downloaded at: http://www.mtkrs.gov.al/ o MTKRS, (2003), “Strategy of tourism development in Albania until 2012”. Downloaded at: http://www.mtkrs.gov.al/ o Shirley Eber (April 2003), “Guidelines No.10: Integrating Sustainability into the Undergraduate Curriculum: Leisure & Tourism”, Downloaded at:: http://www.athe.org.uk/publications/guidelines_10.pdf o Stephen Gough & William Scott, (Summer 1999), “Education and Training for Sustainable Tourism: Problems, Possibilities and Cautious First Steps”, Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, No.4, Downloaded at: http://cjee.lakeheadu.ca/index.php/cjee/article/viewFile/328/274 o UNESCO, (2007), “The UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD 2005-2014)” , Downloaded at: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0015/001540/154093e.pdf o The University of East London,UEL, “Postgraduate Programme Specification for MA Sustainable Tourism Management”, Downloaded at: http://www.uel.ac.uk/programmes/business/postgraduate/sustainabletourism.htm o UNCED, 1992, “Promoting Education, Public Awareness And Training”, Chapter 36, Agenda 21, http://habitat.igc.org/agenda21/a21-36.htm#06633 o UNESCO Education Sector. “Guidelines and Recommendations for Reorienting Teacher. Education to Address Sustainability”, Technical Paper N° 2 (2005). Download at http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001433/143370E.pdf o Junyent, M., (2007), “Network: Greening the Curriculum of Higher Education, in: UNESCO Education Sector. “Good Practices in Teacher Education Institutions”. Good Practices N°1, Download at http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0015/001524/152452eo.pdf 88
  • 89. o UNESCO, (2009), “World Conference on Education for Sustainable Development”, Bonn, Germany, Download at http://www.esd-world-conference 2009.org/fileadmin/download/ESD2009ProceedingsEnglishFINAL.pdf o WTO, "Sustainable Tourism": http://www.worldtourism.org/frameset/frame_sustainable.html o MASH (2008), “National Strategy for the higher education in Albania (20082013), Downloaded at: http://www.dsdc.gov.al/dsdc/pub/skala_121_07_2008_5_511_1.pdf 89
  • 90. EXTRA CONTRACTING RESPONSIBILITY OF TOURIST ENTREPRENEUR FOR DAMAGES CAUSED TO HEALTH, SECURITY AND PROPERTY OF CLIENT-AN INSTRUMENT OF IMPORTANCE FOR DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM INDUSTRY Prof.as.Dr.Artan Hoxha Dr.Sokol Mengjezi Faculty of Law UT Abstract Nowadays, tourism is ranked in the group of most developed industries of world economies. The positive effect of developing tourism industry is not limited only in this sector, but it also ensures the development of other economic sectors. Basing on this special importance, Albania is engaged to supporting and expanding of tourism, aiming to transform the country into a touristic mediterranean destination and to set it on the map of world tourism. To meet this priority, however, a fundamental requirement continues to remain not only improvement and enlargement of infrastructure, but even that of legislation, which provides legal instruments for developing this activity in conformity with european standards. By this paper the authors have the view to deal one of the factors that impact on development of this sector and exactly the responsibility that albanian legislation provides in charge of tourist entrepreneur, in all those cases when it is proved the damage caused to client’s health or property. To realize this goal, in this paper will be introduced the general concept of causing the damage, accompanying it with cases from damages that can be caused during the period of accomodation in a tourist destination. In this context, the authors will present a comparative study between provisions of Law No. 9734, date 14.5.2007 „For Tourism”, accompanied by relevant changes, from one side and provisions of civil code from the other side, which represent the basic legal frame that establishes the extra contracting damage 90
  • 91. in albanian legislation. For a better meaning of this responsibility, there is a difference to be make evident between contracting responsibility that holds the entrepreneur in cases of non fulfilling the obligations provided in the agreement with the client and that extra contracting one that derives from causing the damage. A special place in this paper will be dedicated to objective responsibility of tourist entrepreneur, as one of modern developments of private law, which goals to reward the damage that comes during the accomodation at hotel, even in those cases when it is impossible to prove the fault of entrepreneur. In conclusion, basing on Resolution of European Parliament of 6th of April 2011 “for Proposal of Rule of European Parliament and Council regarding the european tourism statistics”, in this paper there also be presented recommendations for improvement of albanian legislation in this field. Key words: development of tourism; sector of hotels; extra contracting responsibility; cause of damage; european standards for tourism I. A general overview on responsibility of tourist entrepreneur for causing the damage. A compared overview between the civil extra contracting responsibility and the contracting one. Today, tourist undertaking includes a wide range of activities, starting from holes, restaurants, tourist transport and other undertakings which operate in service of tourism. The same as the activities of hotels or restaurants, the activity of tourist transport, is held on basis of licensing from proper ministries that cover tourism and transports, a procedure that is arranged according to that provided by the new law in this field. According to article 2 of Law no. 9734, date 14.05.2007 “For Tourism”, “this normative act arranges the relations between public institutions and private subjects, juristic and physical persons, native or foreign ones, who exercise tourist activities and which establish rights and liabilities of subjects participating to such activities”. The law provides the establishment of a special structure, the Commission of Tourism Standards which after examination of request and 91
  • 92. its documentation, proposes to the minister about issuing or refusing the categorization to demanding subject. One of more troubling issues encountered during tourist activity remains the one of damages caused to the consumer. Even though the Albanian legislation has not solved out constantly the problems in the field of civil responsibility of commercial agents, because of specifications of tourist activity, in practice it is attested that the supplier or consumer often have uncertainties about civil responsibility of each one in a judicial relation created between them. This uncertainty is somehow explained because of provisions of special legislation that arrange tourist activity must be read combined with principal legislation that arranges the extra contracting responsibility to our judicial order and eventually with the civil code of Republic of Albania. Let’s deal with these provisions shortly, “every hotel, every accommodating unit or tourist restaurant is responsible, for as long as the client stays there, for the security of his life, of standards of service that it offers and for any damage caused to health, security and property of the client, in conformity with the legal provisions in force”. According to this law, the office of Tourist Service represents an administrative structure, depending on Ministry of Tourism, whose prerogative is the solution of complaints of clients to hotels proprietors, restaurants owners, tourist guides, travel agents, tourist organizers, and other tourist undertakings for goods and services offered by them. So, according to articles 12, item 1; 13 letters dh) and e), this structure makes the proper verifications for complaints or other claims of clients and according to the case, it orders the subjects mentioned in letter “dh” of this item to indemnify, totally or partially, the client who has made the complaint or orders the owner of tourist enterprise to indemnify the client. The respective Ministry of tourism by its proper structure has as its legal obligation to inspect the hotels, the other accommodating units, the restaurants and other tourist enterprises. According to article 32 of above mentioned law, the respective ministry of tourism, by a written notification, can ask to any person who manages a hotel or another accommodating unit for tourists, a restaurant or a tourist enterprise, to allow the authorized clerk to inspect through entering to the premises where the proper business is exercised. The civil code by its side, which remains the main legal frame, arranges in few several provisions the civil responsibility for causing damages in general which also comprise the damages caused during the tourist undertaking. Although there is a little number, basing on this legal frame, it 92
  • 93. is evident a rich judicial practice. Since at the beginning it must be underlined that texts cited above, do not intend to describe materially all the illegal facts that bring civil responsibility of tourist entrepreneur; in the frame of these general principles, it belongs to judicial practice that on cases when illegal facts are proved during the tourist service, to verify the determination of the sort of judicial responsibility and to verify fulfillment of conditions necessary for engagement of rewarding the damage at any concrete case. In principle, according to actual legislation, as a consequence of causing a damage to health, security or property of a client, the civil damage responsibility, the content of which is composed of obligation of tourist agent to reward the damage caused. This responsibility is a constituent part of judicial responsibility that has any subject for the illegal facts performed by him. Different from the other forms of social responsibility of every individual for his illegal facts, the judicial responsibility is featured of possibility it has through the force of state, to apply the law provided sanction to the culpable subject for each sort of judicial responsibilities. It’s all the different from criminal responsibility, the civil one, which we are dealing with, is based on reward of damage caused by committing an illegitimate act. If the illegal act as a result of which is caused a damage to the consumer, at the same time meets the requirements of a criminal offence, except the obligation of rewarding the damage, the sanctions provided by criminal code will also be applied to the tourist entrepreneur. The extra-contracting responsibility represents a civil sanction which is not applied versus the person who has committed the damage, but towards his property, with which he is obliged to reward the person to whom he has caused such damage. In these circumstances, it is obvious that this property responsibility passes even to legatees of tourist entrepreneur. Before making a detailed assay to responsibility of tourist entrepreneur, it must be underlined that between this responsibility and the contracting responsibility of entrepreneur there are significant differences. So, in all the cases, a contract between the client and the tourist entrepreneur is engaged, the object of which is the service offered and the rights and liabilities assumed during the fulfillment of this contract. Every dispute of contracting liability legitimates the other party to ask for the fulfillment of liability and in case this is not possible for rewarding the damage caused as a result of non-fulfilling the liability or when the contracting liability is not liquidated on the right way. Considering that in some cases both forms of 93
  • 94. responsibilities, the contracting and the extra-contracting one, imply the indemnification, practically there are cases of wrong application of each of them, or worse, of their superposition. In order to have a clearer idea, let’s see the similarities and distinctions between these two forms of civil responsibility. Both of these responsibility forms are dominated by the main concept of repairing a civil damage, produced as a consequence of an illegitimate action and done on purpose by the side of the person. As a consequence, the basic elements are the same: an illegitimate action that risks a liability, which therefore violates the right of another person; committing on purpose such an action, as the subjective element of responsibility, a causal report between the illegitimate action and incoming of damage. However, beyond these similarities, there are fundamental differences between these two sorts of entrepreneur’s responsibilities. The first difference is related with the sort of liability that is violated by the side of tourist entrepreneur. In the case of extra contracting responsibility we are assaying, the violated liability is a legal one with general character that belongs to all the individuals of the society; the liability consists in not committing anything that can harm the health, security or property of another subject. Otherwise, in the case of contracting responsibility the liability of tourist entrepreneur consists in executing all the liabilities that are expressively provided in the contract; these liabilities are concrete and they must not only fulfilled, but for more they must be fulfilled in the way and quality as provided in the contract. So, it is clear that to engage the contracting responsibility of entrepreneur, the existence of a valid contract must be proved. Therefore, each damage that may be caused to the client in the precontracting phase, for example revoking the offer before the date determined to receive the reply by the side of the client, or before the date of contract negotiation, will be rewarded basing on extra contracting responsibility and not contracting one. Moreover, the damage caused basing on this contract, which has resulted later to be invalid, would be possible to be rewarded referring to legal basis that establishes the extra contracting responsibility. From the other side, basing on relativity of contract’s effects between the tourist agent and the client, we must accept that each damage 94
  • 95. caused to a third party – person that is not a party of this contract-, will be also rewarded on basis of an extra contracting responsibility. A second difference between the sorts of civil responsibility, is related with the conditions provided from the law, necessary for engagement of each responsibility. In the field of contracting responsibility, the civil code provides clearly that the person holds law responsibility in those cases when he has complete capacities to act – this capacity is required to make the contract and to execute it-, which as a rule is won when the person fills the age of 18 years old. In the field of extra contracting responsibility, the provisions of civil legislation do not provide a certain age, as a result it is unanimously accepted by the law doctrine that will be responsible for damage reward every person who has the necessary consciousness to understand the importance of action committed, regardless the age. In other words, the criminal capacity of action does not condition the capacity to act any more as required in contracting field. A third and very important difference has to do with extension of damage reward in both cases of civil responsibility. It is true that in both cases the tourist entrepreneur has to reward not only the effective damage caused to the client – damnum emergens-, but even the unrealized revenues – lucrum cessans-. But, while the debtor entrepreneur basing on the contract of tourist services who has not executing the contracting liability responses only for the damage provided or that was predictable at the moment of making the contract. In the field of extra contracting responsibility, the responsibility is complete; the tourist agent who has caused the damage responds for any damage even for an unpredictable one. A fourth difference consists in proving the culpability of tourist agent, in both cases of civil responsibilities. So, in the case of extra – contracting responsibility, as a rule, the culpability of tourist agent must be proved by the side of client who has submitted the damage. All different, is in the case of contracting responsibility, the creditor-client must prove only the existing of the contract, and the fact that the liability provided in the contract has not been executed or by the case, even executed this has not been fulfilled in the same way as the one provided by the contract; basing on these two elements, the culpability of tourist entrepreneur is presumed by the law. From what we already mentioned, it is easy to understand that in the case of contracting responsibility, the situation of creditor-client is very simple. As 95
  • 96. we are going to analyze in the following, the proof of culpability in cases of extra contracting responsibility, is one of the most difficult proofs to be administered before the court. A fifth difference according to the kind of responsibility in cases when the damage has been caused by several touristic agents at the same time. In the case of extra contracting responsibility, l when there is an interaction between some agents in committing an illegitimate action, they are going to respond in solidarity for the damage caused. As a consequence, the client can address to each of them who is obliged to reward the complete damage to the client. In case of contracting responsibility, in the hypothesis of some tourist agents in the quality of debtor’s quality, the principle of contracting solidarity will not have effects, but each one will respond only for his part of damage that is caused to the client. In these circumstances, to fulfill the total amount of damage, the creditor client must start a judicial plaint versus each of tourist entrepreneurs to whom he has contracted to. II. The damage caused to the client and the responsibility according the Albanian Legislation The criteria for the extra contracting responsibility of tourist entrepreneur for damages caused to health, security and property of client are: 1. The damage caused to the client The existence of a damage is considered not only the main condition to be engaged in an extra contracting responsibility of an entrepreneur, but even a premise for starting a judicial process which object is rewarding the damage. The damage as the main element of civil responsibility represents the result or the negative effects that a consumer submits, as a consequence of an illegitimate action committed by the tourist agent or his responsibility. Referring to the judicial practice, we can mention some like: harming health, accompanied by loss or reduce of capacity to work; death of a person 96
  • 97. who is the financial supporter of the damaged one; loss of objects or extraordinary amortization of them; financial loss that comes as a result of an unreasonable cancellation of service and of need to appeal in other services, or other ones. The reward to be given as a result of extra contracting responsibility is always a patrimonial one, in cases when it consists in repairing the damage in nature, or also when the damage is rewarded in the form of restitution an amount of money. The issue is debatable if this patrimonial reward is given only for damages also patrimonial, or it can be accorded even to non patrimonial damages, which are diversely considered as “moral damage”. In cases when the damage caused can be assessed in money, it is patrimonial damage. For instance, the damage that comes from loss of objects left in the hotel room. If the damages are not possible to be assessed in money, then we have a moral damage and represents the spiritual suffer for such loss. So for example, it can happen that the object lost or destructed, has not only a certain economic value, but at the same time it can represent a family memory, and being such it can be associated with an indeterminate value, which represents an affective damage, that means a moral one. The monetary reward of moral damages has been one of the most controversial in our judicial practice. Not stopping to details which surpass the object of this paperwork, in our judgment, the issue of rewarding in money of moral damage must be accepted without any equivocation form judicial practice. The last, so that the damage can be rewarded by the side of tourist agent it is necessary to be indubitable and not be rewarded by another subject. Regarding the certainty of damage, the judicial practice has affirmed constantly that the damage must be certain to exist and possible to be assessed. Meanwhile the condition not to have been rewarded by another one, it is also comprehensible. The extra contracting responsibility does not intend to create supplementary revenues for the client but simply to remove the negative effects caused by the damage. So, for example, if the automotive vehicle has been damaged in the premises of a touristic agent, the last one will reward the damage only in the case when this damage is not repaired from a company of insurances. 97
  • 98. 2. The illegitimate act committed by a tourist entrepreneur In order to force the tourist entrepreneur to reward a damage submitted by the client it is necessary that the damage is caused as a result of an illegitimate action committed by the entrepreneur or other persons that act in his name or for his account. Even though the provisions of civil code provide for “any fact that causes a damage to the other”, it is unanimously accepted that this responsibility is referred to the premise that the action that has caused the damage is part of the category of illegitimate facts. In the attempts to define an illegitimate action, we will consider it like any fact that violating a right of an individual provided by the law order, harms the person that enjoys the quality of the client. The notion of violated law is dealt by the judicial practice widely, such have been considered not only the subjective rights provided by the law, but even legal interests that are protected by legislation in force. When we examine an illegitimate act like a special element of extra contracting responsibility, we will consider the objective fact, so the exterior demonstration of a certain behavior of an individual, making an abstraction for his subjective behavior, an element that will be especially surveyed. The illegitimate character of the act flows objectively as a result of violating the subjective law, without the need to analyze if the author of act has committed it on purpose or because of his imprudence. So, the illegitimate fact of entrepreneur is the object of the act committed by him. As a rule, the great part of illegitimate actions committed by the side of tourist entrepreneurs are demonstrated in the form of a positive actions; stealing of several things, profiteering of an amount of money greater than the value of service offered to the other clients; destruction of a car and other like these. But, in other cases, the illegitimate act is demonstrated even in the form of an inaction, by not acting for a certain service or doing an activity, not taking several measures for keeping things or objects of the clients. It must be understood that in any case, inaction will be considered an illegitimate acts that brings as a consequence the responsibility of a tourist entrepreneur, in all those cases when the legal provisions provide the obligation to act in a certain way. 98
  • 99. 3. Causal relation between the illegitimate fact and the damage caused In order to make active the extra contracting responsibility of tourist entrepreneur, the existence of a damage or of an illegitimate action performed by the entrepreneur is not enough but it needs to exist a causal relation between these two indispensable elements. This relation implies the fact that the damage is caused to the client properly as a result of an illegitimate act committed by the tourist entrepreneur. Basing on numerous cases that are encountered in practice, we ascertain that many times the causal relation can be easily determined. The other times, as a result of interference of some consequent acts by the side of entrepreneur, or of acts by the client himself or by the thirds, the determination of the fact if the damage has come as a result of entrepreneur’s act remains difficult to be determined. Life demonstrates that the complexity of facts and of human acts makes deciphering of causal relation difficult to be solved, the relation between an act and the damage submitted by the client. Basing on this complexity the judicial practice makes a selection of factors and acts that are found coordinated, selects only those that have happened before the damages happened and that have caused the last one. In its orientations, our judicial practice includes in the causal relation not only the cause which is necessary for a damage to exist – condition sine qua non- bujt even other episodic causes, so reasons that have helped, making possible the damage to happen. After a contradicting practice, the actual jurisprudence is led by the principle that not only the necessary reason, but even other factors which have helped to cause the damage will be included in the causal relation. 4. The fault of the person who has caused the damage In order that the tourist entrepreneur is put before the responsibility to reward the damage caused to the client, except the conditions surveyed above, it is necessary to determine if the illegitimate act that has caused the damage be committed on purpose by the side of the author. When we analyze the culpability as an element of civil responsibility we refer to the subjective dimension of an illegitimate act, in other words, to subjective 99
  • 100. behavior of the author in report with the act and with the consequences of it, at the moment of committing it. Since at the beginning, we have to underline that there are important differences between civil responsibility and criminal responsibility of committing an illegitimate action, differences that become clear even in the element of culpability, as a fundamental condition of engaging each of these responsibilities. So for instance, the criminal responsibility is often based on facts performed on purpose by the author, while the civil responsibility of causing the damage will be engaged even for aimless forms of culpability, like imprudence. Even though, fault represents one of fundamental conditions of civil responsibility, in civil code we do not find a special provision of culpability definition; of its sorts and of queries of its definition. Different from civil code, the criminal code and doctrine of criminal law have paid a special importance to the approach of this element of criminal responsibility. But considering the fact that the notion of culpability remains the same, the doctrine of civil law and the judicial practice are based continuously on the notion of culpability defined in criminal law. Culpability represents the subjective, psychic behavior of the author towards an illegitimate act and to its consequences. In all cases, the concept of culpability is present in a negative subjective attitude, of not respecting or by violating legal provisions. Violation of legal liabilities is preceded by a complex psychic process that includes the conscience and will, and ends in the form of an illegitimate act. This psychic viewpoint consists in two factors: •Factor of understanding the facts; this factor means the existence of conscience to realize the significance of act to be committed. The culpability at any of its forms, presumes a certain level of conscience to understand the importance of acts and the consequences that come from it. •The factor of will; in the process of forming the behavior, the factor of conscience is followed by the factor of will, which represents the analyze of act that the author wants to commit and the decision to commit an illegitimate action. Both of these factors are found unified and if they are present by committing the illegitimate action, they represent in their unison the 100
  • 101. phenomena called culpability. In the function of this viewpoint for the act committed, culpability is performed in several ways, which start from the simple imprudence, gradually varying up to the direct goal to commit an illegitimate action. In our civil code, we do not find any provision referring to the form of culpability regarding the extra contracting responsibility determination. In cases when such determination is absent, unanimously it is accepted from juridical literature, that, the guilty entrepreneur will be considered the one who regardless the form of culpability, negligence or imprudence, has violated the rights of the client. For all mentioned above, it is clear that if in the process of assessment of culpability, there are circumstances that have impeded the freedom of conscience and will, they will impact to elimination or by the case to reduce of author’s culpability. The judicial practice and law literature have accepted unanimously some factors that exclude culpability. They are: the act committed by the client himself; the act committed by a third one, for whom the entrepreneur is not responsible; and the major force. III. Perspectives of improving Albanian legislation in the field of civil responsibility of tourism operators Today, tourism is ranked in the group of the most developed industries of world economies. The positive effect of development of tourism industry is not limited only in this sector, but it also guarantees the development of other economic sectors too. Basing on this special importance, Albania is involved in supporting and extending tourism, aiming the transformation of our country to a Mediterranean tourist destination and installing it in the world tourism map. In order to fulfill this priority, the main demand continues to be not only the improvement but even the extension of infrastructure, but even of legislation, which provides the legal instruments for development of this activity in conformity with European standards. Even though Albanian legislation which establishes the extra contracting responsibility, which includes also that of operators in the field of tourism, was compiled in the beginning of years ’90, while the legislation that provides licensing and supervision of these operators is of last decade, 101
  • 102. the dynamic of development in this sector considers to be indispensable the intervention of legislator to make amendments in order to improve this sector. Basing on a comparable overview of legislations of EU member states, and on Resolution of European Parliament of 6 of April 2011 “For the proposal of Regulation of European Parliament and of European Council regarding European tourism statistics”, we think it’s an urgent need to improve this legislation in direction of extending the objective responsibility even to some cases of services offered by tourist operators. Another quality required today from tourist product, is the chance to be used in conditions of security, without causing any damages to physical integrity or to his things. This ubiquitous concept of “security” accepted even from Directives of European Union, sets the private initiative before a responsibility different from that already known up to today. As we have seen during this paperwork, the actual legislation provides that civil responsibility of a tourist entrepreneur will be active in those cases when it is proved that the illegitimate act is made on purpose. So, this way it is clear that the objective responsibility is excluded. But, this juridical principle, which on its side it is based on the moral principle that no one is responsible for the damage caused at least from imprudence, it is still not accepted even nowadays for several fields of activity or business, where the entrepreneur together with his profits must assume even the risk of an objective responsibility. Only this way, the rights of the clients would be guaranteed, because in most cases the client does not profit the reward for the damage as it is impossible for him to prove the author’s culpability. The extension of objective responsibility domain, even in cases of tourist operators is related with the character of industrial civilization which is based on using some means that in itself are an added risk resource accepted as an unavoidable component of actual technologic developments. As it is already accepted, if the science and technique still do not offer means and measures capable to stop the means that derive from them, for some risky activities, and when the subject still continues to exercise such activity, we have to accept that the subject exercises this activity at his risk. In these circumstances he must respond for the damages caused, without having the possibility to prove the absence of fault. 102
  • 103. The objective responsibility is based only on casual relation, which has to be proved that exists between an illegitimate act and the damage caused to the client. Failure of this responsibility will be realized through excluding this causal relation or by proving the fault of a third from where the product which has caused the damage during the exercise of a tourist activity has derived. The responsibility of tourist operator does not have to be effective in all those cases where basing on all scientific and technical knowledge at the moment when the product is in circulation, the predictability of damage is impossible. According to European directives in this field, the so called “development risk” is charged to the consumer. Bibliography Lucy William., Philosophy of Private Law., Oxford University Press Inc 2007 Hinteregger Monika., Environmental Liability and Ecological Damage In European Law., Austria 2009 Francesco Galgano., E Drejta Private., Luarasi 1999 Nuni Ardian., E Drejta e Detyrimeve., Morava 2008 Bussani Mauro., La colpa soggettiva. Modelli di valutazione della condotta nella responsabilità extracontrattuale., Cedam: Padova 1991. 103
  • 104. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN ALBANIA Dr. Alketa VANGJELI Faculty of Economy University “Aleksandër Xhuvani”, Elbasan Abstract The strong and sustained rise of tourism activity over the past decades is one of the most remarkable economic, social and cultural phenomena of our time. Recently, tourism has been seriously considered in the national sustainable development strategies in many developing countries. The tourism is an important industry in Albania, growing faster, thus becoming a source of increasing stress on the environment, natural and cultural resources. But the present inclination to evaluate short-term gains over the long-term environmental consideration constitutes one of the main concerns in respect to the future of the national natural and cultural wealth. Within this prospective, Albania recognizes the important role of tourism in its economical future and the need to promote a strong interest in sustainable tourism. The development of sustainable values in tourism requires above all, the optimal use of environmental resources, as well as the respect of the socio-cultural authenticity of the country host communities ensuring viable and long-term benefit to all stakeholders. This paper attempts to look into and evaluate the performance of the tourism sector in Albania. It aims to identify the problems facing tourism in Albania and propose some policy recommendations for the development of a modern and sustainable tourism industry. Key words: sustainable tourism, development, resources. 104
  • 105. 1. Introduction Tourism is arguably the world’s largest and fastest growing industry, accounting for about five percent of the world’s Gross National Product and six percent of the employment (Glasson et al, 1995). Most governments encourage tourism for its ability to spread economic development and reduce inequalities in income distribution by providing jobs (Wahab and Pigrim, 1997). For poor countries, regions, towns and cities, tourism is seen as the fast track to development. Tourism is therefore viewed by government as a catalyst for national and regional development, bringing employment, exchange earnings, balance of payments advantages, and important infrastructural developments benefiting locals and visitors alike (Glasson et al, 1995). Defined by the impressive network of businesses and services and by the infrastructure needed to support it, tourism is one of the world`s largest industries involving the wide range of stakeholders, including the private sector tourism businesses, governmental and intergovernmental organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) networks, consumers and host communities. In recent decades, the tourism industry has shown sustained growth in both revenues and number of tourists, and has left broad economic, social, cultural and environmental footprints reaching almost every part of the world. Touristic activity generates significant economic benefits to both host countries and tourists’ home countries alike. Especially in developing countries, one of the primary motivations for a country to promote itself as a tourism destination is the expected economic improvement, mainly through foreign exchange earnings, contributions to government revenues, and generation of employment and business opportunities. The recent years in international tourism indicate that touristic activity is still concentrated in the industrialized countries of Europe and Americas. However, there has been a substantial proliferation of new tourist – generating and tourist – receiving markets in the developing regions as well. After many years of isolation, Albania has changed rapidly toward a free market economy, offering many opportunities to become a new tourist destination in the Mediterranean. The tourism is an important industry in Albania, growing faster, thus becoming a source of increasing stress on the environment, natural and cultural resources. But the present inclination to evaluate short-term gains over the long-term environmental consideration 105
  • 106. constitutes one of the main concerns in respect to the future of the national natural and cultural wealth. Within this prospective, Albania recognizes the important role of tourism in its economical future and the need to promote a strong interest in sustainable tourism. The development of sustainable values in tourism requires above all, the optimal use of environmental resources, as well as the respect of the socio-cultural authenticity of the country host communities ensuring viable and long-term benefit to all stakeholders. Until recently, the literature on sustainable tourism development in the Albania was undeveloped and it seems to have received very little attention by previous researchers. Therefore, the main aim of this paper is to provide an analysis of tourism development in Albania by considering and identifying the existing problems. In particular, this paper seeks to address three objectives: first, to analyse challenges and opportunities for sustainable tourism development; second, to evaluate the performance and to identify the problems facing tourism sector in Albania; and third, to provide interesting policy implications and recommendations for policy makers, public authorities and managers of tourism in order to identify the priorities for the development of the sustainable tourism in Albania. 2. Challenges and opportunities for sustainable tourism development In both theory and practice, the adoption of a sustainable development strategy and the consequent sustainable development policies seem to guarantee long term viability of the tourism product. In an attempt to apply sustainable development in Tourism, World Tourism Organisation defines sustainable tourism development as development “that meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunity for the future. It is envisaged as leading the management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems” (WTO, 1995). This definition allows to consider sustainable tourism development as a multidimensional concept that attempts to harmonise development and environment in an integrated way. Specifically the concept 106
  • 107. can be analyzed along the following dimensions (Spangenberg, 2005): Ecological, Economic, Social, Cultural and Institutional. Within the framework of the above, sustainable tourism development consists of: • The environmental challenge in the form of resistance against degradation of the natural basis of human life; • The economic challenge in the form of increasing present income while guaranteeing future income; • The social challenge in the form of promotion of social justice, security and equality; • The cultural challenge in the form of preserving and promoting culture and aesthetic values; • The institutional challenge in the form of promoting participation of the local societies in strategic decision making. Under such circumstances, policies toward sustainable tourism development require the integration of environmental, social, economic, institutional and cultural objectives into a coherent strategy, safeguarding the essential interests of each dimension. Over the past decade, tourism has become the largest industry worldwide in terms of employment and share of global gross domestic product. Economic gains have been a major driving force for the growth of tourism in developing countries. The initial period of growth happened in the late 1960’s and 1970’s, when tourism was perceived as a key activity for generating foreign ex-change and employment by both development institutions, such as the World Bank, as well as by governments (Goodwin, 2000). Despite the negative economic impacts of tourism (such as inflation; dominance by outsiders in land and property markets; inward-migration eroding economic opportunities for domestic industry including the poor) the demand for travel and tourism continues to grow. As more people are interested in spending leisure time in nature, ecotourism has become one of the fastest-growing segments of the tourism industry. This creates opportunities in areas characterized by natural attractions, wildlife and wilderness habitats. Local communities may benefit in economic terms as well as create a commitment to conservation and sustainable development. Careful planning and assessment are important parts of sustainable tourism development. Officials responsible for national parks and other nature areas will have a major responsibility for handling the challenges and 107
  • 108. deciding which opportunities for tourism development can be sustained over the long term. Local communities will also have to participate in planning and assessment when culture and heritage are important parts of ecotourism. It has been noted that the principles for ecotourism have not yet been firmly established in order to guide planning and assessment. However, two basic principles of ecotourism that have been identified are: (1) encourage conservation and (2) provide benefits to the local populations. However, planners and policy-makers must also keep in mind certain realistic truths about tourism: it consumes resources, creates waste and requires certain kinds of infrastructure; it creates conditions for possible over-consumption of resources; it is dominated by private investment with priority on maximizing profits; its multi-faceted nature makes control difficult; and it may be seen as simply entertainment services consumed by tourists. The challenge of sustainable tourism development, therefore, is to balance the principles with these truths, and this can be done only through integrated, cooperative approaches involving all stakeholders and related economic activities in the area. There are certain tools that can be used to help achieve balance, such as assessment of carrying capacity, finding the limits of acceptable change and doing cost/benefit analysis. Tourism policy-makers, planners and managers should consider these tools as helpful only if they take a holistic, coordinated approach, especially since benefits and costs in terms of sustainable tourism development are not easily defined in monetary terms. Furthermore, measuring the success of tourism involving nature (for example, national parks) and culture (for example, village-based tourism) should not just be based on number of visitors or amount of income; rather measurement should include the length of stay, quality of the experience and whether natural and cultural resources have been conserved. Environmental management of tourism development Tourism plays an important role in economic development at community, national, regional and global levels by using natural resources and environments as key physical inputs. In making use of the environment and natural resources, the negative impacts have to be minimized to assure sustainable use, as well as generate enough tourism revenue to reinvest a certain portion of funds. The reinvestment should aim at enhancing the 108
  • 109. quality of the resources and build the management capacity at various levels. There is a complex relationship between tourism and the environment, such that tourism has inevitable and important environmental impacts, including: resource use, consumption, waste, pollution and effects from tourism-related transport. At the same time, beaches, mountains, rivers, forests and diverse flora and fauna make the environment a basic resource that the tourism industry needs in order to thrive and grow. While the viability of tourism could be threatened by negative environmental impacts, tourism could also contribute significantly to environmental protection. This shows that tourism and the environment are interrelated and interdependent in complex ways, and together they could provide a sustainable economic base for development. In light of these observations, tourism policy-makers, managers and planners must address the issues of environmental management of tourism development in a sustainable manner. All of these issues make it evident that formulating policies to preserve the environment are decisive and must be made while meeting economic development goals, especially eradicating poverty, at the community, national, regional and global levels. Making effective policies require that the roles of different stakeholders be considered. The major stakeholders involved with issues of sound environmental management are: the community, the tourism industry, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), the government and international communities. Each type of stakeholder should be actively involved and aware in managing the sustainable development of tourism, and they must also work in partnership. If all stakeholders work in partnership to sustain tourism development plus protect the environment, then the present generation will provide a meaningful legacy for future generations. Understanding the limits to economic growth, the carrying capacity of natural resources and the need for sustainable action should be the guiding forces in the management of tourism development. Promotion of cultural tourism and heritage site management The major contribution of the tourism industry as a vehicle for economic development in many countries around the world has been widely acknowledged. At the same time, tourism should be seen as an activity that contributes to a better understanding of places, people and their cultures. 109
  • 110. The challenge facing policy-makers is to have a broader perspective and better understanding that there can be both positive and negative effects from tourism development. Moreover, a broader perspective challenges all stakeholders involved with tourism from the community level to the national level to find the means to work together in more proactive ways that will increase the positive effects and minimize the possible negative effects of tourism development. Sustainable tourism development provides the opportunity to take proactive approaches based on broad participation by stakeholders, which would contribute to more effective policies and plans. This would increase the opportunities to realize the full social and economic potential of the tourism industry. Sustainable tourism development creates the opportunity for governments and all stakeholders in the tourism sector to aim at ensuring long-term prosperity and quality of life for future generations. Sustainable tourism development also creates opportunities to preserve natural and cultural heritages for tourists and local people in ways that address development problems and reduce risks to the environment and ways of life. 3. Some problems and challenges of sustainable tourism in Albania Albania has so much to offer to tourists in terms of its hugely diverse natural beauty, its culture, its heritage and archeological sites. It also benefits from a wonderful Mediterranean climate. Albania offers infinite potential to investors to take advantage of unexplored opportunities in tourism, and helping to develop this industry into a key strategic sector in the country’s economy. Tourism sector is wide spread in Albania. During the last years the number of tourists visiting Albania is increased (Figure 1). The data on the number of tourist in 2010 represents an increase of 30.2% compared with 2009 (2.5m visitor arrivals), mainly from Macedonia, Kosovo and Montenegro (Figure 2). An even greater amount of tourism activity occurs in the form of domestic tourism and day trips. The number of visitors accommodated in hotels is increased 13.8% in 2010 compared with the last year (Figure 3). Tourism, directly and indirectly, accounts for around 4% of country GDP and 160 thousand jobs (INSTAT, 2010). Tourism plays already a vital role in employing local population. This is a clear indicator of strong growth created by improvements in infrastruture and business 110
  • 111. conditions supporting the tourist industry in our country. Continuing improvements are being made to encourage investors to develop the infrastructure for tourism in Albania. Figure1. Arrivals of foreigners by means of transport (1995 – 2010, in thousands) Source: INSTAT, 2010 Figure 2. Arrivals in Albania from the European countries (January – June 2010) Source: INSTAT, 2010 If Albania could use its own resources to the interest of tourism it could be much more developed than it actually is. Today, Albania is gaining its rightful position as a tourist destination. This presents an ideal situation for 111
  • 112. foreign investors to step in and expand their business in Albania’s tourism sector. Of equal significance for sustainable development, however, is the special relationship that tourism, compared with other economic activities, has with the environment and society. This is because of its unique dependency on quality environments, cultural distinctiveness and social interaction, security and wellbeing. On the one hand, if poorly planned or developed to excess, tourism can be a destroyer of these special qualities which are so central to sustainable development. On the other, it can be a driving force for their conservation and promotion – directly through raising awareness and income to support them, and indirectly by providing an economic justification for the provision of such support by others. Figure 3: Arrivals of foreigners and Albanians in hotels (2000 – 2010, in thousands) Source: INSTAT, 2010 Tourism can be a tool to aid or drive regeneration and economic development as well as enhancing the quality of life of visitors and host communities. Making tourism more sustainable will contribute significantly to the sustainability of the Albanian society. Creating the right balance between the welfare of tourists, host communities and the environment, reducing conflict and recognizing mutual dependency, requires a special approach to the management of destinations. 112
  • 113. Although some improvements have been made to the Albanian tourism sector during the last decade, some problems have not changed and this has resulted in a relatively low number of foreign tourists visiting the Albanian coastline as opposed to other neighbouring Mediterranean countries. These problems include mainly the lack of information and marketing, overall poor infrastructure, environment, lack of skilled people and low level of suitable accommodation (Kushi, 2008). The present inclination to evaluate short-term gains over the long-term environmental consideration constitutes one of the main concerns in respect to the future of the national natural and cultural wealth. The existing size of the hotels on the coastline of Albania is small, largely having a capacity of up to 20 rooms (Mullai, 2005). Hotels of this size are not able to work with big tourist groups organised in package tours by the western operators. Such hotels capacities match only the demand of individual clients or small-organised groups of tourists. New accommodation capacities recommended for development have been calculated to meet foreign market demands (not including ethnic Albanians’ demands), according to projected overnight forecasts and desired number of beds per accommodation structure, as well as international standards required by these markets. Also, it is set that areas suggested for the development of such capacities should fulfill the requirements of tourist segments part of international market. However, Albanian small firms in general do not use advertising or just spend a very restricted amount of money because of the low level of revenues (Gorica, 2002). This amount is even lower in the case of the holiday hotels sector where the peak season is very short (a maximum three to four months during the summer). Sometimes advertising expenditures are conditional on annual revenues so that firms employ advertising only during prosperous periods. Key challenges on realization of strategic goals of Albanian sustainably tourism are: •The realization of ownership conditions and the completion of concerning privatization process. •Albania’s competitiveness on the international market of investment capital. •Establishing a developmental spatial plan for Albanian tourism. 113
  • 114. •Continuous protection, implementation and respect of high ecological standards, and long-term sustainable assessment of tourist potentials. •Education of all management and other staff in tourism. •Construction of transport infrastructure and the optimal organization of transportation to service tourism. •Development of an integral and integrated offer in a tourist destination. •Increasing the level of quality of all accommodation facilities, primary and secondary, and adapting categorization criteria to international quality standards. •A more effective distribution and use of modern trends in communication and marketing. 4. Conclusions and recommendations Tourism has become the largest industry worldwide in terms of employment and share of global gross domestic product. Policies toward sustainable tourism development require the integration of environmental, social, economic, institutional and cultural objectives into a coherent strategy, safeguarding the essential interests of each dimension. Making effective policies require that the roles of different stakeholders be considered. Each type of stakeholder should be actively involved and aware in managing the sustainable development of tourism, and they must also work in partnership. Tourism sector is wide spread in Albania. During the last years the number of tourists visiting Albania is increased. Although some improvements have been made to the Albanian tourism sector during the last decade, some problems have not changed: the lack of information and marketing, overall poor infrastructure, environment, lack of skilled people and low level of suitable accommodation. The existing size of the hotels on the coastline of Albania is small and they are not able to work with big tourist groups organised in package tours by the western operators. For developing of the sustainable tourism in Albania some recommendations are addressed to the public sector: Legal framework and finances (urban and spacious planning, taxes and allocation of financial sources, calming down conflicts in the fields of building and infrastructure), infrastructure (the construction of roads, waterworks, sewage water and the 114
  • 115. management of remains), buildings and equipments for education and health (capacity building in commune, general administration, checking system and polices). The recommendations to the private sector are: facilities for the amusement of citizens and tourists, designing and building attractive public parks, events and activities for tourists, awareness campaign for the protection of the ecological system, training for services and products of tourism, facilities for offering services and products. The new focus of sustainable development and management of tourism should be on the promotion of economic incentives and environmental education and on local capacity building rather than merely on the establishment of rules and regulations, which proved to be largely ineffective. Developing and raising tourism–oriented education is a key challenge for sustainable tourism. This should be accompanied by making efficient use of the mass media and other facilities to publicise and promote existing attractions and available recourses. References Glasson, J., Godfrey, K., and Goodey,B. (1995). Towards Visitor Impact Management: Visitor Impacts, Carrying Capacity and Management Responses in Europe’s Historic Towns and Cities. Avebury, England. Goodwin, H (2000) ‘Pro-Poor Tourism: Opportunities for Sustainable Local Development’, D+C Development and Cooperation, No. 5, September/October 2000 pp.12-14. Gorica, K. (2002). Albanian Tourism Management - The Future Path to Sustainable Development, PhD dissertation, University of Tirana, Albania. Kushi, E. (2008). Informaton Asymmetry, Quality and Prices in the Tourism Market: An Application to Albanian Holiday Hotels. PhD Dissertation. Staffordshire University. Stokeon-Trent, UK. Mullai, N. (2005). Tourism Development - A Catalyst for Economic Growth in Albania. Albanian Export Promotion Agency Contributed Paper. Executive Forum on National Export Strategies: Export of Services: Hype of High Potential? Implications for Strategy-Makers. 5-8 October 2005, Montreux, Switzerland. 115
  • 116. INSTAT (2010). Economic and Social Indicators. URL http://www.instat.gov.al/. Spangenberg, J., H., (2005), Reconciling Sustainable development and Growth: Criteria, Indicators, Policies, Sustainable Development, 12. 74-86 Wahab S., and Pigram, J.J. (ed) (1997). Tourism, Development and Growth: The Challenge of sustainability. Routledge, London. 116
  • 117. GLOBALIZATION DIMENSIONS AND GLOCALISATION OF CULTURE: DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN PERSPECTIVE OF ALBANIAN CULTURE CASE PhD Cand. Matilda LIKAJ 10 Abstract Globalization broadly refers to the expansion of global linkages, the organization of social life on a global scale, and the growth of a global consciousness, hence to the consolidation of world society. Globalization is a social and local phenomena with vast implications that effects all us in our everday lives. The enormous diversity of economic exchanges, political agreements and electronic communication that we have become accustomed to see in different countries of the world, depends on complex economic such as tourism and social ties that link countries and people around the World. These connections and influences between the local and the global are quite new in Albanian history. The fall of communism in countries of Eastern Europe, such as Albania, made these countries to form and have economical, political and cultural relationships with other Western countires. But unfourtanly the focusing on the western culture made the alianation of Albanian culture to the society. This situation brought the regresion for the development of the tourism in this country. But nowadays 10 Research Assistant and Lecturer Department of Political Science and International Relations Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences Epoka University 117
  • 118. are developing different policies to different societies and culture to be as global as local. That means by being conscious of the existent of so reach culture by presetting our own culture to different society’s culture by referring to the globalization. So in this paper we are going to study what glocalization is and how can the Albanian culture be glocalized to the globalized world. By discussion of Albanian culture we are going to take as the sample, Shkodra a city (as the target of tourism) that is a mosaic place of presentation different cultures and sub cultures. Also in this study we are going to explain the effect of globalization as the way the World looks and the way We look at the world and glocalization as the way of using the globalization as the tool for presetting own culture for development of tourism in Albania. Also we are going to study to the Cultural Factors and Physical Environment of Albania that are the main attractive part for the well developing of the tourism. Key words: Globalization and Glocalization in Albania, Albanian Tangle and Entangle Culture, Cultural Factors and Physical Environments in Albania, Shkodra city as a mosaic of the culture, Tourism and Its development in Albania in the context of culture. 1. GLOBALIZATION: old for the rest of the world but so young for Albania Globalization broadly refers to the expansion of global linkages, the organization of social life on a global scale and the growth of a global consciousness, hence to the consolidation of world society. Globalization is a social and local phenomena with vast implications that effects all us in our everday lives. The enormous diversity of economic and cultural exchanges, political agreements and electronic communication that we have become accustomed to see in different countries of the world, depends on complex social and cultural ties that link countries and people around the world. 118
  • 119. ‘Globalization’ is a fuzzy and so much complexity word. There is an extensive literature on globalization from a wide range of sociological, economic, cultural, political and technological perspectives. The term has further entered everyday commentary and analysis of featuring in many political, policy, cultural and economic debates. According to Trigilia, there are many good reasons for assuming that globalizing trends will go together with significant institutional changes and a redefinition of the boundaries between the different forms of economic and social regulation ( Trigilia, C; 2002: 263). But of course it is not so simple. So we must ask what are hidden histories are silenced by the fuzziness of the word ‘globalization’? We are going to explain in details the question in the other sections of this paper but first thing that we must do now is to explain what ‘globalization’ is and what is the mean of this word? What is the history of starting and continuing of globalization? The world became global five centuries ago. The rise of the West, the conquest of the Americas, New World slavery and the Industrial Revolution can be summarized as ‘a first moment of globality’, an Atlantic moment, culminating in U.S. hegemony after World War II. Europe became Europe in part through severing itself from what lay south of the Mediterranean, but also in part through a westward move that made the Atlantic the center of the first truly global empires. This Atlantic moment of globality entailed at the onset massive flows of money, capital, goods, ideas, motifs, and people not only across states but across continents ( MudimbeBoyi, E; 2002: 8-9). Here we can edit that there is also a huge impact of cultural form toward non western cultural societies. And globalization made and is still making possible the one direction exchange of culture from Western world to the rest societies cultures. The term “globalization” as used by social scientists and in popular discourse has many different meanings and definitions. Some of the social scientists contend that it is important to distinguish between globalization as a particular contemporary political ideology and what some other social scientists call structural globalization. Structural globalization means the 119
  • 120. increasing worldwide density of large scale interaction networks relative to the density of smaller networks. Social scientific approaches to globalization disagree about how the structure of the world economy has changed over time. It is believed that since the 1960’s a new transnational economy has emerged in which national societies have become integrated into a global network of trade and an interdependent division of labor under the effect of the globalization mentality. Or let conclude it with other words that the term “globalization” often refers to changes in technologies of communication and transportation, increasingly internationalized financial flows and commodity trade and the transition from national to world markets as the main arena for economic competition. (Dunn, Ch; Babones, S.J; 2006: 93). But of course, inside the economic competition, there is a new opening of a cultural and social competition. As we can see, globalization is as much heterogeneous as homogenous. That means that it they involve with its form or let me say ‘identity’ highly intricate interactions among a whole variety of social, political and economic practices and institutions across a spectrum of almost all societies of the world. Another aspect of diversity of globalization term comes from many different things and reasons for its emergence as a popular concept. The usage of this term generally implies that a recent change (within the past decade or two decades ago) has occurred in technology and in the size of the arena of economic competition. It also follows that economic competitiveness needs to be assessed in the global context rather than in a national or local context. These societies have been used to justify the adoption of new practices by firms and governments all over the world or let us to say, the political agreements and these developments have altered the political balances among states, firms, unions and other interest groups. So with few words, we can say that globalization refers to a multidimensional set of social processes that create, multiply, stretch and intensify worldwide social interdependencies and exchanges while at the same time fostering in people a growing awareness of deepening connections between the local and the distant. But, according to Anthony Giddens the core of globalization is the experience of ‘distanciation’ as social relations get stretched across time and space and thereby take on an increasingly reflexive quality. Also, Kobrin emphasizes the increasing scale of economic activity, inter-firm alliances and information flows and Gilpin the interdependence of national economies. 120
  • 121. Fig1. The globalization scholars and dimension (Steger, B. M; 2003; 40) So as a conclusion of what globalization is this picture can explain in the best form. Globalization is just a huge toy elephant that is formed from different but so important pieces like culture form, political form, economical form, religious form, ideological form and environment or technological form. 2- GLOCALIZATION: an ironic version versus to globalization It is important to distinguish that globalization has an aim such as ‘globalization project’ as a hegemonic political ideology and structural globalization that changes in the density of international and global interactions relative to local or national networks. Charles Tilly proposed a similar definition of structural globalization that is ‘an increase in the geographic range of locally consequential social interactions, especially when that increase stretches a significant proportion of all interactions (such as cultural, social, political and economical interactions) across international or intercontinental limits’. If national-level networks and global networks 121
  • 122. increased in density at the same rate, there would be no increase in globalization in the sense of connectedness. (Dunn, Ch. Ch ; Babones, S. J; 2006: 94-95). Consequently to what Tilly said can be reply with a very influential method which is called glocalization. Only minutely different from the term “globalization” regarding spelling, glocalization serves as a means of combining the idea of globalization with that of local considerations. Glocalization means to protect and to refer one society social and cultural identity to the global world. But of course this kind of presentation can occur by the help of political and economical agreement that globalization serves to all societies and states. So the increase of presenting national identity in the world by the help of features of globalization is called glocalization. A combination of the words "globalization" and "localization" used to describe a product or service that is developed and distributed globally but is also fashioned to accommodate the user or consumer in a local market. This means that the product or service may be tailored to conform to local laws, customs or consumer preferences. Products or services that are effectively "glocalized" are, by definition, going to be of much greater interest to the end user (http://www. investopedia.com/terms/g/glocalization.asp#axzz1VB5w1B9m, Accessed on 16 August 2011). For Anthony Giddens, globalization is centrally understood through the concept of time and space distanciation. This is a process in which locales are shaped by events far away, and vice versa, while social relations are disembodied or ‘lifted out’ from locales. Peasant households in traditional societies, for example, largely produced their own means of subsistence, a tithe was often paid in kind (goods, animals or labor) money was of limited value and economic exchange was local and particularistic. Modernization replaced local exchange with universal exchange of money, which simplified otherwise impossibly complex transitions and enabled the circulation of highly complex forms of information and value in increasingly abstract and symbolic forms. The exchange of money establishes social relations across time and space, which is speeded up under globalization. Similarly, expert cultures arise as a result of scientific revolutions, which bring an increase in technical knowledge and specialization. Specialists claim ‘universal’ and scientific forms of knowledge that enable the establishing of social relations across vast expanses of time and space. Social distance is created between professionals 122
  • 123. and their clients as in the modern medical model, which is based upon the universal claims of science. As expert knowledge dominates across the globe, local perspectives become devalued and modern societies are reliant on expert systems. Trust is increasingly the key to the relationship between the individual and the expert systems, it is the ‘glue’ that holds modern societies together. But where trust is undermined, individuals experience ontological insecurity and a sense of insecurity with regard to their social reality (Ray, L; 2007; 9). In this paragraph Anthony Giddens referred a problematic way of globalization which brings the alienation of tradition and different local cultures. It is important to stress that nowadays or let me call in post modernist period it is very important to be focus on the strength of social and cultural identity of local areas. Or let me explain with other words, almost all societies have been influenced by globalization. All the feature of globalization or Western culture features have been appeared and influenced to different societies. These features took shape in these local tradition cultures. So the young generation where they who were the most influenced group from this culture. To be alienation from your own culture does not mean just to be away from the culture of your society but also it is very important to say that in these societies will be always an identity anomie. I am not going to say crisis because the values of these cultures are replacing with new Western values. For this reason there is not any empty field for concurring the crisis. There are found just new forms and replacing of values and other cultural component with the Western’s culture values and components by forming a new shape of culture but not well fitting in these societies. For these reason we can say that in these societies and cultures are forming new social and cultural pathologies or anomies. In nowadays, it is important to be conscientious for the situation that these societies are carrying. One of these societies is Albania society too. For eliminating the social and cultural anomies forming by the effect of globalization must be applied a new form for return in identity and also not to be separate from the world, which is called Glocalization. 3-ALBANIAN CULTURE: Shkodra city as a mosaic of cultures Culture is an extremely very broad concept in social sciences and especially in sociology. In this paper we are going to see culture in a 123
  • 124. sociological and economical perspective, for this reason we can say that culture is made up of all of the ideas, beliefs, behaviors and products and a group’s way of life. Culture encompasses everything humans create and have as they interact together. Culture shapes the way we see the world. It impacts how we think, how we act, what we value, how we talk, the organizations we create, the rituals we hold, the laws we make, how and what we worship, what we eat, what we wear and what we think of as beautiful or ugly. One of the main parts that composed the culture are also subcultures. A subculture is a smaller culture within a dominant culture that has a way of life distinguished in some important way from that dominant culture (Stolley, K;2005: 49). To study culture we have to stress on several aspects of it such as cultural values, norms and symbols. The study of these aspects contributes to our overall understanding of what culture is and how it is created and passed between generations and how important culture is in everything we do. We can list the most important of aspects of the culture as following: a- Values culturally defined ideas about what is important, are central to culture. Values delineate how a culture should be. b- Norms constitute the shared rules or expectations specifying appropriate behaviors in various situations. We need norms to maintain a stable social order. Norms direct and prohibit behavior. Norms tell us what we should do and also tell us what we should not do ( Stolley, K; 2005: 46). c- Symbols are central to our understanding and sharing of culture. A symbol is something that stands for, represents or signifies something else in a particular culture. It can represent, ideas, emotions, values, beliefs, attitudes or events. A symbol can be a gesture, word, object, or even event ( Stolley, K; 2005: 47). Every culture is composed of both material and nonmaterial components. Let’s explain these components with few words as following: a-Material culture includes all the tangible products created by human interaction. Any physical objects created by humans are part of the material culture. This includes clothing, books, art, buildings, computer software, inventions, food, vehicles, tools, and so on. 124
  • 125. b-Nonmaterial culture consists of the intangible creations of human interaction. These exist as our ideas, languages, values, beliefs, behaviors, and social institutions. Material culture, such as technology, may change faster than nonmaterial culture. The result may by a cultural lag, in which a gap occurs as different aspects of culture change at different rates (Stolley, K; 2005: 41). But Schein has suggested that the components of culture can be subdivided into three levels as following figure. Artifacts Espoused Values Basic Underling Assumption Fig.2: Edgar Schein’s three levels of culture. (Middleton, J; 2002: 20) 1st Level: Is the level of Artifacts, which includes everything we might see, hear or feel. Artifacts would include the physical environment, all visible behaviors, way people dress, rituals and ceremonies, the technology used etc. 2nd Level is that of Espoused values which manifest in the artifacts of the culture an espoused value that open communication is important may show itself to the other cultures or to the tourists. 3rd Level that Schein identifies reflects the Basic Underlying Assumptions that have become so taken for granted that people in the 125
  • 126. organization such as presentation of the culture would find it inconceivable to base their behavior on anything else. So with other words we can say that the first level or Artifacts are all material components of the cultures whose we can see and touch and the Espoused values and Basic Underlying assumptions are non material component of the culture Albanian culture is one type of culture that could not be identifying as Western or as Eastern. Albanian culture is the complex form of Western and Eastern culture. This example is served for seeing into the Shkodra city. The culture of this city is building in the long period of time under the perspective and the effect of other cultures and civilization such as Byzantine (today’s Italian), Slaves (Serbs and Montenegro), Ottoman (Turks), Austria and Hungary etc. So as we may see that the culture of Albania society is formed over many different civilizations which formed a very reach mosaic of sub cultures. This mosaic of cultures is formed also in Muslim and Christian religion’s cultural issues. Shkodra became an important trade center in the second half of the 19th century. Aside from being the center of the vilayet of Shkodra, it was an important trading center for the entire Balkan Peninsula. A special administration was established to handle trade, a trade court, and a directorate of postage services with other countries. ‘Other countries had opened consulates in Shkodra ever since 1718. Obot and Ulcinj served as ports for Shkodra and later on Shëngjin (San Giovanni di Medua). The Jesuit seminar and the Franciscan committee were opened in the 19th century. It was also the main spot for transporting 'illegal' things through Montenegro and throughout Eastern Europe. In the 19th century Shkodra was also known as a cultural center (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shkodra, Accessed on August 16, 2011). Shkodra city is known as the cultural cradle of all historical period of Albania. It contains in itself not just the material culture such as Rosafa castle, Pijaca, churches and mosque of different period, old trade center place etc, but also a very rich non material culture such as the presenting of different civilizations. It present and transmits the strong identity to the persons or let say to the tourists who visit it. So as conclusion we can say that the strong Albanian identity that has been presetting from the Shkodra 126
  • 127. city, give opportunity to society to form a glocalization in front of global world. 4- TOURISM AND ITS DEVELOPMENT IN ALBANIAN: A perspective view in the contex of culture Globalization is cultural too, indicated through the growth of global consumption cultures, media and information flows, migration and identities. Throughout the latter half of the twentieth century we have seen the emergence of global brands that carry both cultural and economic significance. A related form of cultural globalization occurs with tourism. As well as the physical movement of vast numbers of people each year, tourism entails the global packaging and selling of culture that has effects on local cultures, economies and industries. This and other aspects of globalization can be viewed as either creating new opportunities or creating threats. Creating opportunities to be in touch and influence with other country in the many contexts such as culture, social, economical, tourism, political etc and create threats to the cultural identity, which most of the time is prejudice as traditional identity or non development identity. ‘The Globalization is essentially about transnational flows (of people, money, cultures, goods etc.) across borders, but its effects will always be spatially located somewhere, and virtual spaces are downloaded and accessed in particular places (Ray, L ; 2007: 6-7). By using the key elements or features of globalization we can say that globalization and modernization process at one country can be formed by the help of communication or information technology and the flow of people from one country to another. According to the Dunn and Babones, in terms of accessibility, cost, and velocity, the hitherto more local political and geographic parameters that structured social relationships are greatly expanded. Global communication facilities have the power to move things visible and invisible from one part of the globe to another whether any nation-state likes it or not. This applies not only to economic exchange but also to ideas, and these new networks of 127
  • 128. communication can create new political groups and alignments’ (Dunn,C; Babones, S. J ;2006: 96). Culture was the central focus of what perhaps was the most successful popular proposal about the process of globalization, that is the reason why McLuhan’s important and iconic formulation of the ‘global village’ has been formed. So in the contrast to global village we have opportunity to present a new form of society and culture by taking as reference the glocalisation. This presentation can be formed by the help of developing the tourism. For Giddens, by contrast, globalization is intrinsically bound up with modernization. Modernization establishes three critical processes: time– space distanciation, disembodying and reflexivity, each of which implies universalizing tendencies that render social relations ever more inclusive. Complex relationships develop between local activities and interaction across distances. Political globalization refers to the intensification and expansion of political interrelations across the globe. These processes raise an important set of political issues pertaining to the principle of state sovereignty, the growing impact of intergovernmental organizations, and the future prospects for regional and global governance. (Steger, B. M; 2003: 77). Albania was one of those states which lived a hermetical form of living. That means there were no cultural, social, political and economical exchanges with other societies. After 1990’s, in Albania happened so many changes with different dimension such as political changes, economical change and major socio-cultural changes. The reasons of these changes have been so many factors which till today are the main indicator in the today society’s changes. One of these factors has been the impact of globalization and the presentation of Western cultural image to the Albanian society. The fall of communism and the rise of globalization impact in Albanian society and culture major changes and influent the Western value by reducing the traditions one. But how is possible and what were the main reasons that Globalization have been changing the Albanian culture and what were the reason that formed a new organization of society? Shortly we can say that globalization is a wave which has a long time in influencing the change of 128
  • 129. the world. And to eliminate the alienation of one society’s culture it must be need to form a new wave which is called glocalization. To accept globalization as it is, to give opportunity to all other society members to keep in touch with Albania culture or to come as tourist in Albania is one of the most important sides of globalization. A new and more globalized form of tourism has emerged since the establishment of the pleasure periphery in the world after 1990’s. Another important aspect of the recent globalization of tourism is conceivably the most interesting. This is the postmodernizing declassification of tourist and non-tourist areas and the accompanying declassification of cultures. This is most manifest in a decline of the pleasure peripheries to follow the decline of the seaside resorts. All of the above history indicates a rapid growth in international tourism in the second half of the twentieth century. Indeed, international tourism, measured by arrival from another country, expanded more between 1950 and 1990 in the world and after 1992’s in Albania. The cultural impact of globalized tourism is multiple and complex but here can be outlined a few of the key dimensions here: a- The extent of globalized tourism indicates the extent to which tourists themselves conceptualize the world as a single place which is without internal geographical boundaries b-Globalization exposes tourists to cultural variation confirming the validity of local cultures and their differences c- The objects of the tourist gaze are obliged to relativism their activities, that is, to compare and contrast them to the tastes of those that sightsee (in certain circumstances this may imply local cultural revival, if only in simulated form) d-Tourism extends consumer culture by redefining both human practices and the physical environment as commodities (Waters, M;…: 208). So these kinds of outlines have been applied in the Albanian tourism policies. So Albania culture and identity as an unknown and undiscovered was converted as an open society to all other societies just after 1990’s.The 129
  • 130. policies of Albanian politic give opportunity to Albania to be globalize to present its culture and identity. Also the touristic policies are developing by increasing every year. So the presentation of a strong identity of Albanian culture by forming new wave of glocalization will bring a well development of globalization process to our country. 5- INSTEAD OF CONCLUSION Albanian culture is one type of culture that could not be identifying as Western or as Eastern. Albanian culture is the complex form of Western and Eastern culture. This example is served for seeing into the Shkodra city. The culture of this city is building in the long period of time under the perspective and the effect of other cultures and civilization such as Byzantine (today’s Italian), Slaves (Serbs and Montenegro), Ottoman (Turks), Austria and Hungary etc. So as we may see that the culture of Albania society is formed over many different civilizations which formed a very reach mosaic of sub cultures. This mosaic of cultures is formed also in Muslim and Christian religion’s cultural issues. Shkodra became an important trade center in the second half of the 19th century. Aside from being the center of the vilayet of Shkodra, it was an important trading center for the entire Balkan Peninsula. Shkodra city is known as the cultural cradle of all historical period of Albania. It contains in itself not just the material culture such as Rosafa castle, Pijaca, churches and mosque of different period, old trade center place etc, but also a very rich non material culture such as the presenting of different civilizations. It present and transmits the strong identity to the persons or let say to the tourists who visit it. So as conclusion we can say that the strong Albanian identity that has been presetting from the Shkodra city, give opportunity to society to form a glocalisation in front of global world. This will increase the globalization of Albania by the main clue which is tourism. 130
  • 131. Bibliography 1-MUDIMBE-BOYI, Elisabeth; 2002; History, Identity, Culture and the Challenge of Globalization; State university of New York 2-TRIGILIA, Carlo; 2002; Economic Sociology, State Market, Society in Modern Capitalism; Blackwell Publishers 3-Global Challenges and Local Responsibilities, The East Asian Experience; 2007; Edited by Jang-Sup SHIN; Routlege Study in Modern World Economy 4-Global and Social Change, Historical and Comparative Perspective; 2006; Edited by Christopher Chase Dunn & Salvatore J.Babones; Johns Hopkins University Press 5-RAY, Larry; 2007; Globalization and Everyday Life; Routlegde 6-STEGER, Manfred B ; 2003; Globalization Vary Short Introduction, OXFORD University Press. 7-WATERS, Malcolm ; …; GLOBALIZATION, Second Edition 8-MIDDLETON, John; 2002; Culture; Capstone Publishing 9-STOLLEY, S. Kathy; 2005; The Basic of Sociology; Greenwood Press; London 10- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shkodra, Accessed on August 16, 2011 11- http://www.investopedia.com/terms/g/glocalization.asp#axzz1VB5w 1B9m, Accessed on 16 August 2011 131
  • 132. THE PAST, THE PRESENT AND THE FUTURE OF THE ALBANIAN TOURISM Dr. ILIR KADUKU Faculty of Economics and Agro - Business Agricultural University of Tirana I. Abstract The issue of tourism is increasingly taking place in media debates during the recent years, due to the increased number of the visitors, our brothers from Kosovo and tourists from all over the world. Actually it is created the full concept that the tourism development should be seen as a goal to increase its influence in the Albanian economy. I have been trying to collect data over 10 years and to be in touch with every progress in the field of Albanian tourism. I agree when you say that tourism is still in our infancy stages, but although it is talked of a "golden" baby, let me remind you that it’s a baby born many years ago ... Recently it is talked about the important role that tourism plays in the economy of the country. In fact, this problem is discussed by all governments that have come to power after the 90s. But if you see reality, you are convinced that in most cases it was only PROPAGANDA. For someone who is in contact with the Albanian tourism developments, the more difficult question to answer is: Why aren’t we developing our tourism with an accelerated and perspective system and to the pace of development why are we the lowest compared with all Eastern European countries? If I used the metaphor of the train entering in the proper rails, where the train symbolizes the Albanian tourism and the rails the proper ways of development, I would say that our current tourism has begun to join the rails. I say this more to relax myself with optimism and to show the civilized world that Albania has inexhaustible resources. - Total area 28.748 km2; Population 3.6 million; Over 1 Albanians lives abroad; 132 million
  • 133. II. Toursim and environment. It is known that Albania is among the countries with severe environmental problems across Europe, and that Albania ranks among the last countries in the environmental organizations reports, especially regarding the irreparable damage to the seaside. Naturally rises the question, where are state institutions for environmental protection? Before 2001 there existed NEA National Environment Agency which was indifferent to what was happening with the sea, (perhaps it didn’t have the competences). But after the year 2001 to give to the environmental issues the importance that they really deserved, NEA became the Ministry of Environment. But it was surprising that in this case the Ministry made a blind eye and a deaf ear and didn’t take any responsibility for the irreparable damage to the coast, although the high functionaries of this " ecological catastrophe " have had lunch and dinner on the shores of this seaside and are shareholders of most hotels, villas of the Albanian coast. III. Tourism, national property. As an intensive participant during the changes of the '90s, I have seen the salvation of Albania from the economic point of view unequivocally on its own natural resources, to its geography. An old professor, a friend and a great man ( Prof. Vladimir Misja ), in a confident moment, told me " Ilir, remember one thing, tourism is our mine. Tourism is our golden baby ". Such sentences, spoken in those years represented a political heresy. I have the impression and belief that this is a national reality. It is known that tourism is the biggest industry in the world. Its development in our terms means that there is a huge political, economic, social and historical cost. It is enough if I remind to the readers that only during the last year Albanians in the position of the tourists, have spent about 567 million dollars abroad. To be attentive to the importance of this indicator, we simply mention that this figure represents 57.6 % of the remittances. On the other hand, it is important the actual ratio of the income by the services with the export of goods. Only during the year 2008, tourism generated 11 % more income than exports, or more precisely 677 million dollars. It's pitiful, but during the recent years the tendency to spend holidays abroad has increased. This 133
  • 134. extra flux to go abroad relates to the lack of comfort of the domestic tourism. If we add to the realized profits from businesses in the area of services, the money that Albanians spend abroad, then the approximate figure obtained would be over a billion dollars. Tourism should not be understood simply as a separate sector, but its development must first be closely connected with other sectors such as construction, agriculture, transport, etc.. We, Albanians have always been original and radical in our solutions. Once " we rushed to the mountains and hills, to make them fertile like the fields ": then we proceeded to chrome that broke through the blockade, with metallurgical and superphosphate plants, while now we continue with electric trains and air balloons. We have never had been given the chance to judge " down to earth ", for the present and the future of our country. And once that the ex - post - communist government, tried to talk " seriously " for Albanian tourism ( not the Greek one ), for the concepts of the massive tourism and the elite one, was wrong " by accident " in its demographic, geographic and regional conception. According to the so called liberal economists, who are " ex – communist " acid residues, the respect to the perspective policies of tourism varies on that of the Ionian coast and the " others ". So the anti -national and regional nippy logic of these philosophers stood in the great fact: the working class and peasant workers, so called the working mass must be cleaned and washed by the old fashioned Adriatic. The elite, the enlightened leadership will come by the Ionian seaside. With such denigrating provincial policies, nothing else is done but it is still continued with tales of childhood time, " Get opened Sazan, close Sazan ". It is now the modern time of Albanian tourism. Nobody will allow that for the sake of caprices of irresponsible people, to put in flames the greatest property that we Albanians have: tourism. Millions of Euros are spent for the master plans of the tourism development and it is unknown the fate of their implementation. I have enough friends in Ksamil. All know the feats of the former - governments and their courtiers, about the distribution of false construction permits in Ksamil. Didn’t you know honored former – governors, that Ksamil is part of this national development master plan and is not owned by the political mafia? Such schemes are nothing, except the Albanian variant of Panteleone and Sicilian mafia. One of the merits of the " starched band " is that they 134
  • 135. founded the bases of the theory of " the burnt earth ", as if they were the properties of their fathers. We are all witnesses of the telecom privatization in Albania. These " sons of the wind " tried to privatize up to 15 days before the elections, unique event in the world economy. I do not want to linger with the concessions that constitute another chapter. The undeniable fact is that these hooligans wearing ties not rarely are presented to us as anti Albanians, as dirty servants of their personal interests. Let us refer to the facts as they are numerous and stubborn. Are these the governors who sold for " five aspra " the mobile telephony and the Albanian Telecom, which have systematically robbed the Albanians, the most unique citizens of Europe? Are those the same who privatized banks, oil, power plants, different factories and plants? The former government of these starched thugs made Albanian citizen from the last citizen of Europe to a peon of foreigners on their own land. Thousands of temporary emigrants will be converted to permanent emigrants with the lack of desire to turn their head to their own country. All this has happened as a result of the current criminal governance strategy. Do not forget that the national wealth is the most sensitive part of a country that aspires to democracy. And we Albanians must become braver and protect our rights. Let’s not kill each other, " why did you see me or why I saw you ”, but arise and fight for basic democratic rights, such as private property. Let us fight with all means "even democratic ones" against gangrenes left to us by the former – clique in power. Do we expect that the so - called " socialists " to do such a thing? Every Albanian patriot knows what these monsters and their clique represent. Then we must give them a solution. The solution is: We must do it on our own. Then naturally rises the question: Do the state and laws exist that must cut Gozzilla’s hands who ruined our coast? ... Some say that the state itself was corrupted, the state of monopoles, which was occupied by mafia ( State Chapture .). So we are left to nothing, let’s hope that the government of the 135
  • 136. " Time for change " will restore our human dignity, and simultaneously return the seaside to the luxury identities of the Albanian coast? IV. Tourism and the Program of the Democratic Government. The successful realization of the project " with clean hands ", is a revitalizing " oxygen " for Mr. Berisha, to the democratic government and for the future of Albania. The success is linked to causal way with the emergency resolution of each of the above links of the chain, which forms the institutional Calvary of Albania. I mean the relationship between the public official and his relations with the private sector. The unscrupulous greed for abuses is the official morality " homos corruptuss " and " homos administratius " that mystified the criminal government during the transition period. The leitmotif of the work of the Public Administration Department near the Council of Ministers in recruiting civil clerks, has been axonometric " Militant and abusive ". To hold back the galloping access of this phenomenon it is urgently amended the law on the conflict of interests, law that the ex - governments abstracted during the years of their own " invasion ". The democratic government must ensure that the ethical rules must be applied and be unique for all public officials and their associates involved in the public service. Here must not be made exceptions even the cases when the public officials move " accidentally " or not toward the private sector. The concept of anti - corruption must pay attention to the abusive practices of the socialist government, where leaders of the most important state companies, after having stolen with both hands the state property, open private activities paralleling with those they have had in the state job. As a result of these abusive practices of corruption, in the Albanian market have sprouted dozens of mysterious companies of travel, pharmaceuticals, architecture, construction, insurance, banks, etc. It is urgent that the Parliament requested to amend the law and its rigorous implementation, a law which provides that persons who create private companies must be screened regarding their criminal record or even restricting the rights that they may be exposed. At the same time the 136
  • 137. shareholders of the private companies must show the real source of income based on the foundation of the companies. If anyone needs more information about the way they "were born" many of the mysterious Albanian companies, I am ready to provide free service. V. Tourism and Government transparency. So far the public discussions are more involved in what is called " hardware " or visible page of tourism: infrastructure and construction of accommodation units. While less attention has been paid to what constitutes " software " and that is intangible, i.e.: the service, the people, the behavior of the hosting community or the hospitality in market economy conditions and problems associated with it. I'm glad when I read that it is acknowledged that " It is time to speak openly, ... it is really true that there has been evidenced an inconsistency between the statements we make and the concrete work ". But nevertheless I am not clear why this discrepancy exists and what is the role of the specialists and the ministry that deal with this key problem of the Albanian vulnerable economy. If politics and our politicians will continue to be the regressive part of the development of this country, shall we wait until they learn to do their duty properly? Would it be better that everyone does his duty, instead of waiting for solutions from " above "? It is true that God has given us this “ golden ” baby, but to harvest its gold, a " master plan " is not sufficient, which is predicted to lay eggs of gold. A wise Shkodra saying says " With a swallow doesn’t come the spring ". The fact that we are still in the infancy steps in this field, it shows that everything must start from the very beginning with a clear strategy for the tourism development, which I think is still not complete or not totally transparent! Excuse me if I am wrong but isn’t it the duty of the responsible institution for the field of tourism with all its components? Tourism is an industry characterized by an intense involvement of the workforce. Human resources for this industry are rated as “ raw material “ 137
  • 138. or are described by experts as the most important factor to be afforded by this industry over the last decades and ongoing. But what quality do the human resources offer in the Albanian tourism? Does it satisfy the current customer requirements and needs, i.e. of the tourist? I think that despite the innovative efforts, it still remains too much to be done in this direction. It is time to assess the motivation of visitors who pay to be satisfied. But when these tourists pay that amount that may be the same or even higher than in another country, they expect that the service is just as high, or better. It is this factor that will determine competitive advantages of our local tourism, but also between it and the tourism of our competitors. During the many meetings held by CRTRA except the decision to demolish illegal buildings, often it is discussed about the future of tourism in Albania. My idea is that the time has come to have a scientific discussion on the concept of massive tourism and elite one. I want to express my opinion only on these two concepts. First is to be congratulated the fact that at last it is paid attention to the tourism as one of the most important resources of the economic growth in Albania. Tourism is one of the largest industries in the world and its effects on the economy of a country are equally great. On the other hand other than the very large and visible positive effects ( mainly economic ones ) the tourism is associated with negative effects such as big, such as environmental, culture damage, social problems etc. All these turn the dream of development through tourism disappointing, if they are not controlled or prevented by the right time. Long ago the main branch of our economy has been agriculture. Finally we are becoming even more conscious of the importance that tourism can have in the Albanian economy. Being still in the early stages of awareness on the importance of tourism, this branch has not yet reached the stage of overestimation, to consider it as "a solution to all our problems". So we must take care that in macrolevels, to combine tourism with other branches of the economy to eleminate the dependence from a single branch. 138
  • 139. VI. The massive and elite tourism Let's look inside the development of the tourism itself in our country. As we know the current developments in our tourism have been chaotic, without respecting the proper and no state-controlled laws. However, a positive factor to note is that these chaotic developments are not spread in alarming sizes throughout the country but only on a few hot points of it, mainly in Durres, Vlora and Saranda. This has kept me alive the optimism that even so far non-development of our tourism has its positive side, because it is easier to develop something better there where doesn’t exist any form of development, rather than recreate something good where the bad has given its effects on the environment and society. 10 years ago our politicians (who surprisingly had the decision-making about the fortunes of this country in every sector, ignored the opinion of the experts) : decided to make the division with a knife: the Adriatic coast shall belong to the masses and the Ionian to the elite!!! Under such a logic it results that 2 / 3 of our coast to be destined for massive tourism! It also makes you not be enthusiastic about the decision of the recent demolitions... At least for the moment we have only a few hotspots. While with this massive way it exists the tendency only for mass tourism. Which are the effects of a massive tourism I believe that all those who have little knowledge about tourism, know them. If you want to do such a thing, after several years we will need to demolish 100 times more of these that we are demolishing today. Have you ever thought to ask directly in these areas, the local residents and investors whether they agree with this kind of division? When will we begin to think more about the future prospects for tourism? To determine the future of tourism areas are made detailed studies and should be taken into account many factors. How can I believe that every decision is "well studied"? It is time that the only master plan for the tourism perspective development, doesn’t mold in the drawers of the Ministry but to fight for its rigorous appliance? My advice is that before such radical decisions, it should be thought of all the consequences. Albania is a very small country, and by now is too polluted in many areas. There should not make decisions for the death of the other untouched areas! In this case I would be more satisfied if they were left in their primitive form, as nature made them, and we could turn back to agriculture and not 139
  • 140. think of tourism. All the factors (except for the short-term economic factor) show that Albania should avoid the massive tourism. Such a small country would not need more than a few years to return to "the successive hell" with the following consequences behind. We cannot shelter massive tourists, when you think of the small space, the unspoilt beaches, our culture (we are generous to a friend, but also say "too much but badly done"). The effects of the massive tourism in such places unexplored yet, with virgin nature and unique culture, we read every day in the tourism literature, media, the experience we have when travelling in these countries. When shall we learn from these bitter experiences of the others, who need millions of dollars and years to repair the consequences and improve the image? I wouldn’t like that the Albanian generosity vanishes beacuse of the commercialization and turns to a shock and frozen smile as a result of another side of the medal of tourism, for which we hadn’t warned. I would not like that pelicans of Karavasta, carp of Shiroka, the koran of Prespa or other unique beings that we have the luck to have them, disappear from the influx of tourists masses. Instead I would like the Albanians to have the pleasure to offer his generosity to the tourists coming to know the culture, history and our nature. We don’t need massivity. What we would receive for 2 - 3 years from 100 tourists who belong to the "so-called massivity" (but which later would drastically decrease), we can get for a much longer time by 10 quality tourists (not just elite) . If we want to attract these kind of tourists, we must not become a bad copy of a phenomenon already ugly, but we should enter the tourism market as unique, as Albanians. This is the only reason why these tourists would come to us and not to our competitors. We mustn’t forget that tourism is not only the Adriatic and Ionian, but is also Korab, Lura, Thethi, the lakes, the castles, the characteristic cities etc. Tourism is not done only during summer but during the whole round. This kind of longlasting tourism needs more time to develop, requires more studies by the specialists of the tourism and the fields that are related to it, but we will harvest its fruit for a long time, and the coming generations will be grateful to us that at last we will leave something easier to be developed later and not chaos and destructions. 140
  • 141. VII. The quality of tourism. Now in Albania you can finds hotels and restaurants built with expensive materials, marbles and granite, with TVs and air conditioners, bathrooms with bath etc. But meanwhile the bathroom is not cleaned well, the hotel may not have water or lights, the shower doesn’t work, you cannot find anyone to communicate in foreign languages, the service starts to be offered after half an hour, the prices are higher for foreigners or for the Kosovars, and when you complain to the owners they say you can go somewhere else. All these have to do with the culture of service and influence in shaping the image of the tourism service in Albania. The one who tries and lives the experiences of the tourist or the client of these services observes a "feature" of the Albanian tourism: luxury buildings, but in many cases remain icy, not filled with vitality and warmth of hospitality, and lose the luxury and elegance because of the offered service. It must be emphasized that guilty for this are not only the owners and employees. The latter often have the desire and willingness to do something nice, but the lack of adequate professional culture to distinguish which are the requirements and needs of tourists and their priorities. If we analyze the history of the Albanian tourism industry we will see that we have very little tradition, taking into account the 40 year history of a regime which fought the concept of a consumer society, where the offering of the services of leisure and entertainment was considered foreign and microbourgeois, where culinary art did not develop because of poverty, where in the area of services existed only popular restaurants or social food canteens, and the construction of the hotels in the main cities was made in the 1970s only when the need for foreign currency deemed necessary. This explains the low interest of the public opinion on the tourism. Even though something has begun to move these last ten years, it still remains under the political propogandas during the tourist season. Still it is not thought about the advertising sensitizing spots that show the public the importance of the domestic tourism in our economic development. They promote civilized behavior and the service at the right level or criticize the phenomenon of benefit, robbing attempts, the indifference that is being seen 141
  • 142. frequently in the services sector in general. These should be financed by the Albanian government (in cooperation with the relevant NGOs) and to be broadcasted continuously a few months before the grand opening and during the tourist season, with the clear slogan "Message of the Albanian Government" at the end of the spot. This practice is often applied in western countries for combating negative phenomena, but also to transmit new ideas for positive development. VIII. Albanian tourism, professional education and promotion Since the time that I am watching the development of tourism in Albania, I have noticed that exhausting efforts have been made to show the profitability of this gift that nature has bestowed us. If Albania is lacking an awareness of the public on the importance of tourism, this is mainly because of the lack of a contemporary level of professional education in the field of tourism, there are no institutions that offer consulting, statistical data, studies and project designs on our tourism, seminar events, and training by foreign experts in this field (I believe you agree with the fact that some specialists who are qualified or are expected to be qualified again in the frame of "the swallow"), publications on the perspective tourism developments in our country (we heard that here are built hundreds of hotels, but the intention is to make these hotels known by the tourists) etc etc. So if you are missing all these mentioned above (and many other things that media and politics are interested to bypass), shouldn’t we think that all the above mentioned factors, may play the most important role to somehow fill this gap? Mustn’t we think that for the moment we have what to show with modesty and that the promotion is on of the main tasks of these policy makers of this field, at least if we want to make our future way simpler? Because with the image of "a country with a fragile economy in the middle of Europe" only with an aggressive promotion and well studied may be the optimal solution 142
  • 143. and what the Albanians and our brothers and friends from all over the world are looking for. The fact that it is a "real success" to know what is being done with our tourism, has to do with little changes that happen in it, or with the negligence to give it the due importance to the promotion? It can’t be different when it is not being understood that the internet is becoming the golden key of tourism in every aspect. During my stay in Germany in the year 2002, and this time I couldn’t leave without visiting the most important event of tourism here, the Fair of Keln. This Fair is one of the most famous in Europe and it is known that the German market is one of the most attractive for the business of tourism, because the German tourist, except being a tourist with high income, has the other advantage of going on vacation more than once a year in different countries of the world. Besides the professional interest, the other reason that made me visit this Fair has been the Albanian representation in it. Before visiting the Fair I checked the internet if Albania would be represented or ont, but I didn’t find it. I asked at the Information Center when I entered the Fair, if there was any section where Albania was represented, but after they checked they told me that it didn’t have any representation. Being bored I thought that our "tradition" didn’t exist, because two years ago I barely found a little Albanian stand somewhere without any representatives in it, but only a few posters, while the last year I couldn’t find them anywhere ..... So I began to see with what were represented our Balkan and Mediterranean neighbors. I started to visit the stand of Macedonia that has always been presented every time I've been in this Fair. It seemed interesting the fact that Macedonia has always had its stand near the Mediterranean countries! (which seems to me a very tactically smart solution while there is no any way out of it in the Mediterranean.). There, to my great surprise, told me 143
  • 144. that Albania is represented somewhere, but not in the Mediterranean stands, even not in those of the Eastern Europe or Balkans but......in the booths of the Farway Countries!!! (like the countries of Asia, Africa, etc.). The reason was very "simple": in those stands the Albanian presentation was sponsored by an NGO organization ..... I waited no longer and hurried to find our stand at the "Farway Countries", but just like other times for my bad luck I found there only a few posters instead...... Disappointed I asked the Macedonian who had visited our stand before to see what our stand offered, with what they were presented this year, and he showed me some leaflets which had been given to him and that I had seen them since 3-4 years... In contrast to what I found the first two years, at our stand was added the "famous" poster of the girl with the red dress that has turned her back, which for coincidence perfectly symbolized our tourism in relation to our visitors. So we "accidentally" continued to say to the visitors: "Sorry, but even this year we are turning you our back ...". On the other hand as for irony in that poster was written: "Discover (know) Albania", while those words meant to me the opinion that we should first discover and know Albania ourselves, because with that presentation we are making to our country we don’t know it properly ourselves yet... This presentation not at all dignified (in succession), and the dignified presentation of our neighbors, made me get upset at the beginning, but later the revolt converted into a sad taste. At first I was upset for that meaningless representation of an agency, which although it is not yet known whether it still exists or is dissolved, practically operated better than the Association (the legitimate one) of Tourist Agencies!!! On the other hand I was thinking if it is worthwhile to be represented in vain, or not appear at all when you do not have what to offer. Thinking to find the trace of the problem, the logic followed a spiral that led to the same weak point as well as important to our tourism: to the former main leaders of tourism or in other words, to the former - Ministry of Tourism. First of all this Ministry had to be presented itself to such important fairs like its counterparts. If it is presented itself, it should provide one or more tourist products. But to create a tourist product, the Ministry should 144
  • 145. formulate strategies for the development of the tourism in our country, should stimulate local and foreign investors to invest in a particular form of tourism, in accordance with the draft strategy, which should have taken into consideration our internal economic, social, cultural, demographic and natural factors. And this is the main problem. So, after a long term strategy was compiled, where all the factors mentioned above were taken into account, and the most important, after it is applied, it will be easier to advertise its products not only by the Ministry of Tourism, but also by the tourist agencies themselves. A good and contemporean strategy (though to my opinion - was not complete), was developed at that time (in the year 2002), with the help of GTZ, but that was not never applied... At that time, from an interview of the Minister of Tourism we could know that a new strategy was being drafted. As mentioned above, not that the previous strategy did not need to be improved but who guarantees us that the new strategy will not undergo the fortune of the former one? There are more that 20 years that we are not giving a specific direction to our tourism. There are years that we remind of our tourism only some weeks before the tourist season starts. The experience of the developed countries shows that for the summer season of this year, the work begins since the closing of the season of the last year, so around August - September. While we by November start to think only for the demolition of the illegal buildings and in January we begin working to develop a new strategy!!! But when shall we start to rebuild? What will we offer to the vacationers this summer except some fewer illegal accommodations?! The fact that we think to develop a new strategy in January makes me think that its application (if it ever happens) may impact some small effects only next year. I repeat the question: What has thought the Ministry of Tourism about this year?! Shall we go again a week before the season starts, to beg to our brothers from Kosovo to spend their holidays to us, in order not to fail the summer season? I am sure that with what we offer, they will again answer to us with the enthusiasm of the last year?! Like me, there are many others interested ones (Albanian and foreigners), who want to receive information from this Ministry what has been done, what is being done, and what is planned to be done in the field of the 145
  • 146. Albanian tourism. The invitation of the ex - Minister of Tourism in his article to the newspaper "Shekulli" for the need to exchange opinions with the other interested parties to our tourism, was to be congratulated, but first I think that this exchange of opinions should not be done in the common media but in a specialized media such as in the internet website of the Ministry. One other form of communication or information would be at that time the publication of a periodical paper by this Ministry, but when you think about the illogical lack of the website, the latter seems a "luxury". However I repeat that, the invitation for giving opinions on the future of our tourism, which I consider as an invitation of cooperation with all interested parties - can be a turning point to our tourism fortunes. It is precisely the lack of cooperation and knowledge that have left our tourism in such a passive stage. I think that together, Albanians and foreigners, interested in our tourism development, should create an independent Albanian Club Tourism, with the aim of contributing through articles in media on our tourism problems and possible ways of solutions. Let us contribute together in building a modern Albanian and longlasting tourism, and not to be presented any more at the "Farway Countries", but where we belong to. In fact, more than a full awareness on the potentials of the tourism in our country, there is a confusion, an uncertainty, either in the public sector or in the private one. Nobody is able to say what direction our tourism will take, who will define these directions, how, and when shall be applied. The "salvation" from such questions which add confusion, comes with the answer: "There is a tourism master plan". This they say when they want to "get rid of" you in the Ministry, even in the comunes with tourism development potential they say the same, although they don’t know what is this "master plan" that will come from "those who are in the government ". The most tragic result of this indifference to our tourism, is that it is still not been seen as such a potential even by the new generation. This comes precisely as a result of the lack of public awareness that was mentioned above. And therefore, Albanian students who have the opportunities to 146
  • 147. study abroad prefer far less the tourism branch. So someone who spends large amounts to be educated abroad, still doesn’t see tourism as a sector that will take sufficient importance and development, to ensure that student a source of income to build his life. But if this guarantee won’t be given by our governors (because they themselves have no idea what will be done with the tourism), the private sector should be the one who must do more. Here we do not refer to those tourist agencies held with contraband visas, or those hotels that formally kept afloat, but for those serious private entities that have experience in tourism and will try to change something. It is their duty to try to create a new generation of managers, because they should look at them the increase of their profit and the survival from the competition. Of course that they should require to do this in cooperation with the relevant ministries of tourism and education. Even a master plan that won’t be rigorously applies will not solve the problems of our tourism, even a ministry official who hears for the first time about the tourism when he is assigned to do such a task. The only solution to the problems of tourism comes through education with contemporary levels. Modern tourist today, doesn’t aske any more where he will spend the holidays, but what he will do when he gets there. Our tourism leaders, must answer to the first question, as well as to the second. Therefore, to capture the rhythm of time, it must begin to think immediately about the preparation of the new generation of future tourism managers. Conclusions : It exists a very large gap between the demand for such managers andthe educational structure of the tourism profile. The three high schools that we have cannot prepare these managers. Even that half-semester of our 147
  • 148. universities cannot do this. It is time to think seriously about opening a University (attaching hectically to the very professional job and with the genuine profile of the contemporary program completely full and with objection the professional education for the tourism that is currently developed by the University “Aleksander Moisiu” in Durres), which will prepare the best students of these high schools to the level of managers. Opening such a school is not easy when you think about our conditions and experience, but if its importance is seriously assessed, the Ministries of Tourism and Education collaborated with the private sector, and the three high schools and the existing universities, this solution is not impossible. And if all parties give their contribution, the patterns or even the experience may be taken from similar western schools, which are always ready to help in such cases, when they see a serious engagement from the local party. Until such a school is opened it must be seen the prompt opportunities (to precede the close tourist seasons) for the preparation and absorption of new managers. We think that there are alternatives: The most important is the one which deals with the absorption of those few students who have done or are doing such a school in countries with the tourism more developed than ours. To attract such students in the public or private sector, it should be taken into consideration that this is not done offering them a job as a receptionist or ticket seller. Also such students that often may have a richer background than their potential Albanian bosses themselves, cannot be paid with a salary of 10 000 lek when meanwhile the most common work they could find in the West is paid at least 1 000 Euro. It is known that such amounts are not given by all companies in Albania, so a solution (especially for those students who have difficulties finding a job abroad), may be the compensation through the commitment offset by Albanian companies to local tourism product. If for example a travel agency undertakes the challenge to "reveal", to include in the tourist package, and sell the Albanian product, then this product will develop more, which would 148
  • 149. bring the increase of the rate of profit, and therefore rewarding the employees. At the same time it will attract the attention of the foreign tour operators, and as a result the number of tourists shall be increased. So the orientation toward domestic product will provide more income and security for the future, as well as providing more opportunities for such students to put into practice their knowledge - and this may be a reason for them not to expect the same salary. The second alternative is sponsoring the best students of tourism in Albania to study in a western school. This can be done through cooperation of the private sector (individually or organized) with the respective schools in the country. With these students may be bound a contract, in which different companies can pay a scholarship (the experience shows that it’s not a big amount for these companies) to these students, while the students must achieve satisfactory results and turn back to Albania to work for that company after graduation. The latter is achieved by cooperating with the authorities that give the permission to stay in the country where the student is going to study, making this staying permission with the condition to turn back. These were just some ideas, but if the interested parties get together with the concerns and problems as treated above, we should discuss such ideas in detail through round tables, conferences or seminars on tourism (which continue to be a rare phenomenon in Albania!), to find the optimal solution, and to implement it as soon as possible in practice. Now it's time to seriously think about human resources and culture of service, before the traditional Albanian hospitality commercializes and transforms to the culture of negligence, poor service, or extortion of the customer, facing the irreparable consequences of non-refoulement and flow of the number of tourists. It is time to understand that we are actually entreating to be included in the Courtyard of the Great European family; there we cannot go with these concepts. We must make the comparisons 149
  • 150. with the owners of the courtyard, because otherwise they won’t even open the door of that yard, let alone to enter inside the house. Bibliography  “ Annual Reports for Albania “. Ministry of Finance ( ALBANIA ), 1991 - 2010.  “ Annual Reports for Albania “ Wold Bank, 1994 – 2009.  “ Annual Reports for Albania “ IMF, 1996 – 2009 .  “ Annual Reports for Albania “, Central Bank of Albania, 1993 – 2009  National Historical Museum of Tirana,  Archeological Museum of Tirana,  Laboratory of Human Paleontology in the University “ Luigj Gurakuqi “ in Shkodra, Marketingu . Autore : Palok Kolnikaj, Arben Vercuni, Behar Male ;2010 Marketingu bankar : Autor Ilir Kaduku, 2010 Bazat e marketingut. Autore : Arben Vercuni, Gjoke Uldedaj , 2009 Bazat e Marketingut : Autore : Bardhyl Ceku, Liliana Elmazi, Arian Abazi Marketingu dhe etika : Autor Ilir Kaduku, 2008 Marketingu nderkombetar : Autor Ilia Kristo, 2004 Marketing Management, Peter R. Dickson2003, Marketing of agricultural products. RicharI. Kohls, 2002 Marketing : Autor Steven J. Skinner2002 Marketing : Autor Carl McDaniel2002 Principles of Marketing : Autor Philip Kofler 2002 Fundamentals of Marketing : Autor William J. Stanton, 2002 Marketing Channels : Autor Bert Rosenbloom, 2001 Dictionary of Marketing : Autor Peter D. Bennett, 2001 Sales Management : Autor Ghosh, 2001 Marketing management : Autore Park & Saltzman, 2000                 150
  • 151.     Le marketing des product sagroalimentaires, 2000. Basic Principles of Marketing in Insurance, Pierre-Lous Dubos, Alain Jolibert , 1999, Insurance Operations, Bernard L.Webb, 1998, Customer service in Insurance, Richard Bailey, Kenneth Hjggins, 1998 151
  • 152. IT IN TOURISM AND RESERVATION SYSTEMS Brilanda Bushati, PhD Lecturer, University “Luigj Gurakuqi”, Faculty of Economy, Shkodër, Shqipëri Fatbardha Molla(Beqiri), PhD Lecturer, University “Luigj Gurakuqi”, Faculty of Economy, Shkodër, Shqipëri Prof. Dr. Arjan Abazi Lecturer, University of Tirana, Faculty of Economy, Shqipëri Abstract Recent years in our country, the development of many fields, even that of tourism began rapid strides. This development is associated with the construction of highly comfortable accommodation facilities like hotels, restaurants, travel agencies, etc., many of which are now reaching modern standards, which are observed in the city of Shkodra. In their beginnings, these structures were manually, but today out information technology is widely used which creates tourist facilities in the area helping in its advertising in many other respects. Businesses today require more than satisfy customers more than simply increase their number, for satisfying the customer will serve the firm in the long run. IT (information technology), which rules the world is rapidly in recent years, is bringing new opportunities and tourism industry Realization of this theme serves to inform about the use of the hotel reservation system "Colosseo" in town who finds Shkodës and use information technology to the hotel and generally in other similar structures. From this paper, based on the research, aim to answer questions such as: • The use of Computer skill helps in these structures work? • What is the impact of the use of a Web site where their present structure? 152
  • 153. • What is the impact of the use of the reservation system? • How is the use of this system? • What are the advantages and disadvantages of this system? In this paper will treat and theoretical elements related to the topic and also to describe the system of reservation in Hotel "Colosseo", and which we have chosen as illustrative example of this theme, SWOT analysis, primary research results and conclusions and recommendations for the case of handle. The work is concentrated in the city of Shkodra and especially the work of the aforementioned hotel. INTRODUCTION Information Technology and tourism IT (information technology) is required to return to reality and is being treated as a source of creating competitive advantages of a business. This serves as incentive to build models that are flexible to customer focus, his desires and preferences. Development of systems is a complicated process of very intensive in terms of time. It has to do with: 1. Defining the requirements of customers as a source of information for the proposed applications. 2. Transformation of these requirements in an information system based on computerization. Businesses today require more than satisfy customers more than simply increase their number, for satisfying the customer will serve the firm in the long run. IT (information technology), which rules the world is rapidly in recent years, is bringing new opportunities and the tourism industry and travel. 11 11 http://www.traveldailynews.com/new.asp?newid=17926ësubcategory_id=77 Theodore Koumelis-Monday, August09, 2004 153
  • 154. Already, online transactions in the travel industry and tourism are growing steadily, despite severe economic problems in this area. 12 Tourism is one of the industries most dynamic things in some developed countries and will continue to grow rapidly in coming years. 13 In 2006 more than 64 million Americana or 30% of the population uses the Internet to look for information about destinations or to check prices and skedulimet. Of these about 42 million trips are booked through the internet with an increase of 8% compared with 2005, according to the Travel Industry Association of American. (www.tia.org). In the same period, online travel sales in Europe grew by 44%, with revenues over $ 14 billion (www.crt.dk). During 2007 increased by 30% transactions B2C (business to consumer) in German speaking countries through the Internet. Surveys show that this growth will come in the coming years. IT (information technology) is where business transactions take place via telecommunications networks, especially the Internet. Trade electronically is the process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services and information through networkve kompiuterik including Internet. 14 Internet emerges as the largest channel of distribution of goods, services, professional and managerial duties. Electronic commerce is changing the very structure of the economy, market and industry, products and services and their flow, customer segmentation, values, behavior, the labor market impacts may be even larger in society and politics and the way how we view our world and ourselves in it. Travel and tourism are illustrating how IT (information technology) can change the structure of an industry and create new opportunities for businesses particularly in B2B2C. For the first time appear in the Dow Jones B2B2C Interactive database on 27 September 1999 at the International Computergram OrderTrust. 15 12 Hannes Werthner, Francesco Ricci, Communication of the ACM, December 2004/Vol. 47, No. 12,101-105. 13 http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/epic/internet/indsibtour.nsf/en/h_qq00102e.html, Tourism Counts: A Consultation Framework for a National Tourism Strategy,Nov, 05, 2003. 14 Efraim Turban, Jae Lee, David King and H. Michael Chung. Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective.Higher Education Press, Pearson Education, 5(2001), 4-5. 15 http://www.sfgate.com/cgibin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2000/04/11/BU81082.D TL, Whatever B2B2C Means, One Thing is Clear--It's the Place 2B with e-tailers in peril, the smart money's on those offering help, Kathleen Pender, Tuesday, April 11,2000. 154
  • 155. Before you apply B2B2C, explain: First was the B2B (business-to-business) Internet companies like Commerce One and ARIBA, then as B2C, were applied business-to-Consumer companies like Amazon.com, Yahoo or America Online ; next logical step was C2C, representing the Consumer-toConsumer companies like eBay. Generally, B2B2C, represents business-tobusiness-to-Consumer, and those companies that sell products or services to the latter companies I sell to consumers via the Internet. In other words, describe transactions in which a business sells services or products to a consumer using another business as a broker. However B2B2C way is ongoing and the time, IT (information technology), and B2B, B2C and C2C are all classifications of IT (information technology). B2B2C IT (information technology) has started to become more business model of choice for many industries, especially tourism. Information technology in tourism refers to a system based on Internet business, including tourism and its distribution system in order to realize electronic. 16 Generally speaking, consumers use the Web sites of the tourism industry to find maps of roads (59%), accommodation (54%), activity programs (46%), airline fees (45%), restaurants (36%) and calendar of local events (26%) (Scott's Business Directory, 2002). In comparison with other sectors of industry, tourism industry has experienced a great success from the adoption of IT (information technology). The tourism product in particular has to do with emotional experiences and is not exactly right as a business. Tourism industry and travel as a global industry presents such features: (1) Travel and tourism represent approximately 11% of GDP in the world by the World Council of Travel and Tourism. (2) World Tourism Organization predicts one billion international coming in 2010. Tourism is expected to grow faster than other sectors of the Economy. (3) As an industry umbrella, is associated with many other sectors such as culture, sport. 16 http://www.wordspy.com/words/B2B2C.asp, Jessica Seigel, "While Nasdaq Burns, "The New York Times, April 23, 2000. 155
  • 156. (4) Supply and demand for forming a network along the production and distribution are based on cooperation. (5) presents the characteristics of its product eg a bed of unsold represents the loss in revenue. This risk can be reduced when access to information is possible. (6) Tourism provides opportunities for employment. It creates jobs for young and old, for all lines and levels, in urban and rural areas throughout the world. COLOSSEO HOTEL Background Hotel "Colosseo" in Shkodra, as the name suggests, is built by considering one of the wonders of ancient architecture. Hotel "Colosseo" offers an excellent combination of high standards, strategic position downtown and traditional hospitality. Hotel "Colosseo" is located in the center of the city of Shkodra, very close to the museum and one of the oldest areas of town. It is located at the beginning of the so-called street "pedonale", which is one of the most frequented streets, especially by foreign tourists. Located near two of the most important buildings of worship in the city, such as mosques, "Abu Bakr" and had "Franciscan." Near the hotel are also many financial and economic institutions, as different banks, shopping centers, Albtelecom, the Office of the City water supply, etc.. Not far from the hotel there are two very important state institutions, the Municipality and the Prefecture. Colosseo hotel clientele is divided into three parts: the hotel's clientele, which comprises 95% of foreign clients or local businesswoman who accommodate a maximum of two nights at the hotel. Bar and restaurant customers who comprise the majority of domestic customers and very little of the hotel customers. Customers of the conference room who are different government organizations and NGOs, foreign and domestic. 156
  • 157. Reservation System at Colosseo Hotel, functions, benefits and problems that brings. Hotel "Colosseo" is one of those hotels that our city has been recently started to attend successful information technology to facilitate the process for employees, to facilitate booking their clients but also to bring to yourself potential clients by suggesting them to this hotel, making advertising what this hotel offers but also informing them that this hotel has bids, prices, cheap rooms, etc.. Having a reservation system, this hotel allows employees to be more accurate and not have trouble. While earlier reservations were written on paper, hotel reservations now marked by a modern computerized system being the most accurate so even safer. This as receptionists can not be confused if a room is occupied or not, but everything is listed and the information obtained in myrë direct and very fast without having to browse entries made which can be made are numerous and confuse. So in this way avoid the confusion and possible delays because customers need not wait on the telephone line while workers check all reservations made, even though the employees do not have their records rifrskojnë occasionally because it is done automatically by the program but avoid the confusion as being accurate and precise everything has no reason to be given the same room two clients. But also support that this program gives customers is quite considerable. This is because those who from their homes or wherever they are, they wanted a website online that they take all the necessary information but also for hotel rooms that are currently free. This makes it easier for all reservations made so comfortable by the residence of clients but also has access easily because it can be done at any time of day or night. But besides that customers in this way avoid the long queues at the agency but also the lower cost advantage. The cost is lower after reserving themselves do not have to pay the agency for this but also avoids the path you need to do to the agency. At the same time they see the house prices, so they can choose from there if you can afford these prices without having to go to ask agencies. But not everyone has access to the internet and it does that not everyone can easily find in this system, and not everyone can make good use of the Internet. Another problem is the fact that many people have no right to trust the technology, even though they perform their bookings are not quite 157
  • 158. sure that everything will go well until the test. In line of this is the fact that many people may be afraid of using the cards online. One issue that the carpets would like the problem is that the hotel "Colosseo" still does not offer the option of booking from the internet. Customers who need to complete their reservation phone numbers given for this in the relevant page. Something that should be mentioned as benefits of using this system is memorization of data. By computerized any data, also allow their memorization in order to be used in case of need, like when a client returns to the hotel. In these cases, employees know which room has kept this client but also whether there are any special requirements in order to meet these requirements again without having to ask again, eg when a customer wants more towels in the room, or wants to bring to room coffee. Memorization of data also enables employees to have facilities where there is a group of customers who frequent the hotel for a relatively long time, ie at this time the hotel is frequented by employees of the Ashta hydropower plant. For this hotel remembers any data, starting from the number of workers who have rooms, service schedules, but also bills which are then paid by the relevant state institutions. Technical Specifications • personalized program • Ease of reservations, check-in and check-out • Partial Payments, total subscription (Payments made in parts, all at once (several days) or in some cases be prepaid for reservations) • Messages (this system enables the storage of messages to contacts. As stated above, if a customer has a specific requirement, such like that any meals, coffee or something else to bring into the room, or to awaken at a time given or will not be disturbed by anyone during their stay, these messages are stored by the system and at the right time for pulsed signal annunciator recepsionistin and thus avoid possible confusion or forgetfulness.) Clients • Customer Categories with discount rates • Definition of payments for specific client 158
  • 159. • Automatic loading of the client's financial situation by contact • Maintains customer identification information • History relevant client contact and Actions • Reservation confirmed or not (in the table presenting the rooms, it is possible to easily identify which rooms are free or not by color. For example: the color red - the client in the room, Leyla - confirmed reservation, orange - reservation unconfirmed, white - free room, green - the client has just been removed and the room still is not able to bring in free.) • Check-in Check-out • Partial payment, total, pre-payments (payments made in parts, all at the same time (several days) or in some cases be prepaid for reservations) • Messages - stores messages for contacts (this system enables the storage of messages to contacts. As stated above, if a customer has a special request, for example wants any meals, coffee or something else to bring into the room, or I awaken to a set schedule or will not be disturbed by anyone during their stay, these messages are stored by the system and at the right time for pulsed recepsionistin annunciator signal and so avoid possible confusion or forgetfulness.) • Rooms outside use (if a room has something problem, eg a shelf break, a broken faucet, etc., appear in the table where the rooms, this room gets blue, which means that even though the room is free it can not be reserved) Statistics and Reports • State of the hotel (in this way, since everything is recorded, it is easier and less time will determine the condition of the hotel, the room is occupied or not and what is their condition) • All reservations made (there are also marked all reservations made) • History of disposal rooms (all rooms disposal then blue, have listed the reasons why are in such a state. Thus has recepsionisti easier to justify why no free rooms if not available) • History of contact and the respective client (By computerized any information, facilitate the memorization of them so that they can be used if necessary, like when a client returns to the hotel. In these cases, employees know which room has keep the client but also whether there are any special 159
  • 160. requirements in order to meet these requirements again without having to ask again, eg when a customer wants more towels in the room, or wants to bring coffee to the room.) • A detailed view of the space time action (all actions taken are stored, so for every occasion, the hotel has detailed every move that is done and ready to face at any moment) Swot analysis Strengths Oportunities ¬ Advantages in communication. ¬ Generally no cost reduction ¬ The time it takes is shorter ¬ There is greater flexibility ¬ Provides customer services and online reservations ¬ Advertising is more effective ¬ Ease of Use ¬ Convenience of booking from home ¬ memorizing data ¬ Contact with prices prior ¬ Information Technology is used every day and more ¬ The Internet has spread even wider across the country ¬ Various private companies have the opportunity to provide quality and economical Internet at home ¬ Cellphone companies offer multiple offers for Internet use ¬ Each day the number of internet users. ¬ Banks provide more and more likely to use the cards on-line ¬ Having such a system creates differentiation for those businesses that use Weaknesses ¬ Not everyone has access to the Internet. ¬ Not everyone can use the internet. Threats ¬ Not all physical afford to have internet at places where ¬ There is no legal framework that supported the development 160
  • 161. ¬ There may be misunderstandings of ICT for enhancing in communication with customers ¬ Use of on-line card is not always safe ¬ Many consider structure as a superfluous and the unnecessary expense to their business, without being aware of the benefits of this system. METHODOLOGY In order to realize this study aiming at meeting these objectives we used primary research that we conducted by distributing questionnaires to the 50 clients 50 different hotel "Colosseo" in the city of Shkodra. These 50 clients who responded to questionnaires used during part of a simple random selection among customers who have made advance reservations at this hotel. The distribution of these questionnaires was conducted during the entire summer and was distributed to 20 clients and 30 Albanian foreign clients. While I have used secondary sources such as literature and resources from the internet and especially interview conversations with employees and managers of the hotel staff. •Tab1. Are you satisfied with the use of information technology that uses Colosseo Hotel? Very god God There are some Bad disadvantages. 55% 40% 5% 161 0%
  • 162. •Tab.2 Do you think that this hotel should also enable the reservation via the Internet and not just by phone? YES NO Is’n important. 75% 20% 5% •Tab.3 Since you have booked your house, does it affect your safety in that when you come, you will find free room according to your requirements although hotels may be overflowing? Yes, I was quiet But, but I had Not affected, the because whenever that more confidence in same would be. arrives at the hotel, my the seriousness of room can not be this system. caught by someone who can go before me. 70% 30% 0% •Tab.4 Do you think that the booking system is a plus for tourism in Albania? It’s a very There is Affects not Is negligible important some impact element 80% 20% 0% 0% CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 1. The most widespread in terms of presentation of the hotel "Colosseo" of his clients is through tourist agencies, but almost equally affected even personal acquaintances, brochures and prior knowledge of the hotel's 162
  • 163. official website. While few of them have found casually browse the Internet while. 2. A considerable, more than half of customers say they are very satisfied with the use of information technology that possess the Hotel Colosseo. Nearly half think that is pleasing enough, and only 5% think it has some shortcomings. But none of them thinks he is weak. 3. The fact that the hotel uses information system by which clients are presented with, or has been influential element they choose as a place to stay for 45% of respondents, while some of them has been an important element influencing the others has helped convince more choice. But none of them thinks that it has affected. 4. With regard to the opinion that this hotel should also enable the reservation via the Internet and not just by telephone, 75% were surprisingly positive and negative 20%, while for 5% it does not matter. 5. Most respondents said that because they booked their homes has made them to be quiet because whenever you arrive at the hotel, their rooms can not be caught by someone else, while only 30% expressed uncertainty. 6. About 80% of respondents think that is a booking system is a very important element for tourism in Albania, while 20% say the uncertainty over the impact but nobody says it has no influence or impact is negligible. 7. For the achievements of tourism development in the country should be sensitized managers to the introduction of information technologies in their structures. 8. Special training should be enabled to realize the effective use of this technology 9. Reservation Systems pashlyeshën have a role in facilitating the work of employees of these structures, but so worth clients to invest in having it. 10. Web sites are an element that affects many in the advertising business should therefore be owned by any business srtukturë. 11. However, should exploit the fact that the growth of Internet use in bulk is substantial. 12. Introduction to information technology should be made to children in schools. 13. Measures need to be educated that the use of computerized sys is not only reliable but brings much convenience. 163
  • 164. Bibliography •Bushati, B.PhD, 2011 “Përdorimi i TI (Teknologjia e Informacionit) sjell oportunitete të reja për zhvillimin e turizmit”, Shkodër. •Chen Guogui, Hou Weihua and Wang Yanzhang, the development and countermeasures research of Chinese tourism TI (teknologjia e informacionit), Academy Journal of Dalian University of Technology, 10. •Godbey, G. 1990 “Leisure in your Life 3rd edition”, Venture Publishing, New York. •Hannes Werthner, Francesco Ricci, Communication of the ACM, December 2004/Vol. 47, No. 12,101-105. www.hotelcolosseo.com www.oursouthwest.com www.iipt.org/conference www.nric.net/tourism 164
  • 165. THE ROLE OF CROSS-BORDER MANAGEMENT AND ITS IMPACT ON REGIONAL TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE AREAS OF ACCURSED MOUNTAINS (UES) - THE ROLE OF THE KOSOVAR INSTITUTIONS- Msc. Shqiponja Nallbani, Ass. 17 Abstract: Sustainable tourism is not only the responsibility of state institutions, but of all stakeholders and individuals who are actively or passively involved in these processes. Given that the development strategy on the basis of tourism sustainability requires coordination and multifaceted commitment, intention to increase managerial efficiency in specific cross border areas, the heterogeneous phenomenon is the fact that on one side it adds governmental duties while on the other side tourism economy becomes profitable. Relying on the rich natural resources of the western region of Kosova, this paper aims at providing some managerial models that claim to help and stimulate the development of mountain tourism of Accursed Mountains (UES). Therefore, the proposal of specific methods that are applied on similar management in the region and beyond, we believe that this will encourage an effective administration of this border region in general, making tourism the main backer of the regional economy of the three states involved in the area of the Accursed Mountains (UES). 17The author are teachers at the Faculty of Applied Science in Business-Peja, University of Prishtina 165
  • 166. Key words: natural resources, sustainable development, mountain tourism, environment, economy, border management. Introduction For several years regional development in our country was not considered as an integral part of socio-economical development. Due to domination of many social-political factors, the essence of regional development was marginalized and analyzed only as a separate and unimportant aspect of the general development. The fact that such a development in the regional and spatial aspect was continuously ignored which reflected on the regional development mechanisms to be neutral. Now rapid development of undeveloped areas is determined as the primary objective to necessarily distribute resources and invectives as required. The main objectives of regional development were defined in general for years and now they are repeated. Policies of such a development and its forms should manage to accelerate the development of particular undeveloped areas. This approach has inevitably led to a deeper identification of problems and creation of methods and models for a regional and structural development. Main reasons for places to engage in this field are huge and under the determined regional diversities which not only encourage economicaltourism growth, but also prevent the phenomenon of migration process. It is known that even today big and important strategic areas remain uninhabited and with unexploited resources. At the same time inhabited centers are distinguished with a maximum growth of both population and economy, which is leading to negative consequences in the economical, social, spatial and ecological scope. Role of government in new regional policies should reflect by eliminating and mitigating limits which face unprivileged areas. This applies especially to support areas with development problems through investments and to incent flow of capital to be used to remove structural defects. In order to support this process, state should be efficient and permanently active for a longer period of time. Complexity of regional problems, in parallel with the necessity for tourism development now have resulted with a new social approach with the 166
  • 167. aim to achieve the necessary development level to create a new concept of regional development. In this term, main objective of the action strategy should be focused in showing new institutional regulations on the basis of all previous experiences, but also with the use of new ones which are built according to the logic of sustainable development. Current trends of regional development have shown that improper regional development is not only the result of bad implementation of regional development policies, but also of lack of systematic and institutional mechanisms. Great regional differences show that municipalities close to Accursed Mountains necessarily need a document which deals with identification of ways to achieve the main objectives in order to stimulate balanced regional transborder development. In achieving this objective the following should be included separately: Increase of regional competition; Decrease of regional inequality and poverty; Creation of institutional and regional infrastructure to implement tourism activities. Management action strategy in the area of Accursed Mountains Considering that the Republic of Kosovo together with the Republic of Montenegro and the Republic of Albania have already started to compile a document on research of tourism capacities, summarized in the Project called “Dukagjini and Rugova valley access action program” 18, the process should be operational in three stages: 1)Setting the development levels– in classification and typology term of cooperation between countries which gravitate in the area of Accursed Mountains in order to estimate the development possibilities of tourism; 2)Setting development policies to incent regional development, and 3)Policies of Institutional development. Execution of such a strategy and documents is important for the Republic of Kosovo to orient towards the European Union. This orientation not only would show a clear and proofed pro European position, but also it 18 Project “Dukagjini and Rugova valley access action program” , a document about researches of tourism capacities Peja 2011 167
  • 168. will prove that there are real regional cooperation and development strategies which take into consideration the potentials of regional development being in compliance with European standards. Crucial principles of the regional development strategy in the area of Accursed Mountains The abovementioned strategy and document aiming at developing cooperation and regional development in the area of Accursed Mountains, firstly it should be based in the main principle that every success of the regional development policy is reflected with:  Partnership – Partnership between local communities and partner institutions from the private sector;  Subventions – gradual territorial decentralization, transfer of state responsibilities to lower levels (local municipalities)  Compliance – activities being in compliance with the ministry and EC regulations```;  Oriented program- a consolidated strategic and political one, and other development strategies;  Support and evaluation of results – creation of systems to stimulate a balanced regional development (permanent fund resources), monitor and evaluation of results. Increase of regional competition and reduction of regional poverty It is considered that the objectives of the three participating countries in the agreement should be in compliance with the purpose for significant development by providing the best standard for their citizens. In order to achieve this goal these countries should focus their economic development strategies in increasing regional competition, reducing unemployment and poverty. Only the increase of regional competition in the future would impact in the increase of national incomes. To achieve this it is necessary to successfully implement the transition process, which should cause a potential human, material and natural regional development, thus impacting on the economy of these countries to be more attractive for a more rapid development of the local private sector and a rapid flow of foreign capital. The main objective of these countries should be creation of more favorable 168
  • 169. market conditions for direct foreign investments. The strong focus of the three countries towards the European Commission should require “functioning of a sustainable market system’ and ‘the capacity to face the competition pressure for EC’ (Copenhagen criteria), in the sense of creating the most competitive economy in the world based on knowledge and increase of sustainable economy with more working places and greater social cohesion: (purposes of Lisbon process). 19 It is known that regional inequalities in development levels and in the countries signing the agreement are quite evident, whereas in the Republic of Kosovo it is increasing each year. Implementation and successful management of this agreement would result with decrease of poverty, considering also the development of transition process. Moreover, unfavorable economical systems and social-economical transition process should be treated because they have led to deterioration of traditional backward parameters in the term of economical and tourism development and also decline of industrial zones which serves to the increase of undeveloped areas. Current income trends in tourism The purpose of this regional cooperation above all is development of tourism with the focus on increase of tourism capital through best quantity offers ( best use of the existing sources and construction of new and modern housing facilities, and different ones) and quality tourism factors (further development of different kinds of tourism by selective promotion of natural anthropogenic and cultural phenomenon)which would for sure lead to greater regional competition in internal and external European market. Presence of tourism trends which cannot be used in closed markets, unfinished privatization and reconstruction of capacities are considered as weakness in a small part of tourism as a sector of economical activity. Without hesitation the aim should be based in the reduction of local visitors and the increase tendency should be focused to foreign visitors, due to high dependency on foreign visitors to secure much higher incomes. We have to be specific also on the side issues dealing with storage capacity and 19 http://ec.europa.eu/archives/growthandjobs_2009/ 169
  • 170. unimportant investments which should be reduced. In addition, we have to mention the weaknesses related to internationals, that is improve of information, improve of tourism activities in the regional level, etc. Great impact that the tourism sector reflects in regional development is the reasons for this sector to be considered of benefit in the future for all participating countries. Characteristic of tourism is that it provides employment and increase of new working places. Tourism as an economical activity in these places not only has a significant importance in collecting national incomes, but also it has the positive impact in payment balance sheets. This collects money in the state budget and encourages investments. Tourism could encourage the development of undeveloped areas beyond the national aid mechanisms; it increases awareness of local governing on the potential of tourism to achieve economical aims (courses of foreign languages, catering, local management, and training guides) in small businesses and investments in infrastructure in areas with tourism potentials. Main action objectives for the development of regional cooperation and tourism economy The main objectives of regional development and tourism development are formulated on the basis of the Tourism Development Strategy of countries. For an action with multidimensional profit results could not be encouraging. Therefore, related to the implementation of strategic documents for regional development in the areas of Accursed Mountains, we consider that there should be four main orientations for strategic development to be analyzed, compiled and implemented as follows: Development of international tourism by stimulating economical growth, employment and life standard Creating a positive international image through tourism; Providing and ensuring long-term protection of natural and cultural resources through sustainable development of tourism Identification and creation of new regional tourism products by fulfilling international standards mainly by protecting costumer rights in tourism, in compliance with European practices. 170
  • 171. In order to achieve these aims and objectives activities should be oriented towards creating an efficient management system with the assistance of ‘destination management organizations’; creating necessary tools to impact on development, increasing tourism competition; formulating development programs for tourism in regional and local level, especially in protected areas to improve organization, management and to stimulate tourism development; development of a program for tourism statistics which should be clear and a monitoring system to monitor the impact of tourism in regional economies; creating a proper organization for tourism development as a part of institutional organization of the system to provide incentives for tourism investments and foreign investors, by improving tourism infrastructure and by creating control systems for the quality of tourism activities. Policies, measures and activities on implementing strategic tasks Gaining several effects from tourism could be achieved only through the compilation of policies and objectives in fields that have a direct impact in the development of this activity. Development objectives in special fields should be set by referring to documents and policies related to: infrastructure and transport in the tourism region and tourism product in the area. Moreover, we have to consider also human resources and labor market, relation with other sectors, marketing system for national tourism, organization, direction and stimulation of tourism development according to tourism development strategies of the respective Republics. It would be worth that until 2015 to set nine main products of tourism which could develop and commercialize the market. We have to move towards city tourism, round-trips, business + mini-tourism, health tourism, mountains and lakes, occurrences, rural tourism and of special interest. Investment in tourism products and in the region would contribute in the development of tourism in the entire region. The elements below are included in competitive programs: touristic companies and competitive companies-this refers to size structure and market conditions, and the field of storage capacity, development and mutual cooperation between companies and the public sector, development of legal regulations, and so on; The characteristics of demand, motivation, the socio-economical level, attracting and protection of costumer, touristic destinations, etc.; Sector support which provide a relation with additional activities such as facilities in the tourism market, 171
  • 172. travel agents, accommodation facilities, food and drinks, attraction, thus developing a network of local manufacturers, and so on; Production factors related to infrastructure, technology, financial and human resources, researches and innovations and so on. Investments in infrastructure not only can revive the existing tourism offer, but they can for sure stimulate the private sector to represent the application of environment standards in touristic destinations, being an active relation between the public and private sector and to enable the state government to improve the system of commercializing the country. The investment policy in the tourism sector should e oriented towards: 1) Reconstruction and improve of quality of existing tourism facilities (settling market, implementation of categorization criteria). This includes not only catering facilities in big urbanized communities, but also a number of additional accommodation facilities of the private sector, or of the state property, and other traditional destinations which have not been properly used yet due to bad conditions and which have not fulfilled the modern standards. It should be pointed out in particular that rehabilitation of the existing housing in the transition process should be given priority for investments with new projects ("Greenfield"); 2) The new development provides warehousing capacity, according to sustainable development concept, which is related to creating new tourism products or bigger projects that serve to open new unknown zones which were not discovered before/ and their valorization from less important to valuable locations (national parks, natural parks, archeological parks, industrial compounds, rural heritage, forest, etc.); 3) Large projects that involve urban rehabilitation in order to perform an effective evaluation about the possibilities that tourism has threatened industrialism in urban zone. 20 20 Krasniqi Dr.& Ukaj F, Menaxhimi i organizatave dhe destinacioneve në turizëm, (Management of organization and tourism destinations). Prishtina 2010, pg. 45 172
  • 173. Cross border cooperation in area of tourism between the boundary zones of Bjeshket e Nemuna (Cursed Mountains)- a theoretical approach It is obvious and widely known that actual tourist destinations are under continuous competitive pressure from the new markets that are increasingly rising. The area noted here is set in a suburban area of tourism. The equality of markets occurs rapidly if a strategy is into place which manages to clearly identify the appetite of the tourist for new products. It is characteristic that in Mediterranean area there are not plenty of tourist locations there is a need to establish additional new destinations in order to open the doors for tourists and multinational companies, including the international operators. In these circumstances, if a firm strategy is used, and a proper cooperation in tourism development takes place firstly in regional level shall develop the tourism, will encourage innovations and boost the productivity. This has become a conclusion and widely known fact that new services and goods arise if conditions are set to travel in certain destinations through the cooperation of two or more parties aiming to fulfill needs of the tourists with the goal of making this journey efficient and effective. This way of cooperation can contribute in sustainable development of tourism and increasing of competencies in terms of tourist operators and creating a competition amongst main partners in the region by not leaving aside the effectiveness of environment protection. The structure of international tourism shows that the managerial strategies are essential to form a sustainable development of tourism. In this context the majority of scholars argue that traditional tourist destinations are more capable to attract massive forms of tourism. This aims to involve industrial sector in tourist activities without forgetting perseveration and protection of environment. Improvement of tourist infrastructure aiming to attract a new category of tourists it is something that every single country is capable to establish. This requires cooperation between local governments in form of joint entrepreneurships by setting up projects amongst countries in the region surrounded by Cursed Mountains (Bjeshket e Nemuna) by involving cooperation of private companies based on agreements made by governments. It is believed that cooperation in development of marketing strategies, marketing planning, implementation and control can lead to a mutual interest not only for countries included in cooperation, but for tourists and other stakeholders within the tourism sector. It is apparent that 173
  • 174. cooperation in area of tourist marketing between the countries can be achieved in various manners. Especially in tourism, marketing is complex process which includes long terms strategic and tactical plans. Within this cooperation marketing more than one participant may benefit because individuals, groups, companies, institutions and organization may join and establish connection aiming to generate maximal profit and increase the participation, efficiency and effectiveness. The cooperative marketing can be implemented in several ways and various levels. The conventional strategy based on mix elements (i.e products, locations, prices and promotion) 21. Instruments of cooperative marketing can increase profit, reduction of weaknesses, enhancement of authority of countries in terms of tourist operators and it results in opening new opportunities for further cooperation. In micro level, strategies include cooperation by creating a “joint force” which means “ a situation, where two or more activities, processes fulfill each other which will work in joint effectiveness. 22 Cooperation – a need to create penetrating strategies Local representatives of tourism sectors need to propose several cooperative strategies which need to be taken into account within the concept of market penetration. Most of participants admit and agree that municipalities belonging to the region of Cursed Mountains can cooperate to improve the current tourism products. As a part of strategy it is necessary to analyze and implement three main approaches. Firstly, countries can encourage the current visitors to endure their stay and to purchase as more goods as possible. Secondly, through inter municipal cooperation to attract tourists that want to visit competitive destinations. Thirdly, to convince potential tourists who have been once in these locations to make such visits again in the future. In order to meet these approaches 4 cooperative activities are proposed as following: In order to attract more tourists, management of joint promotional campaigns which would be less expensive if are made in joint efforts. For instance, participants are engaged in working together to 21 Stefan J. Page., Turism Management, Butlerworth / Heinemann, London 2003, fq. 102 Krasniqi Dr.& Ukaj F, Menaxhimi i organizatave dhe destinacioneve në turizëm, (Management of organization and tourism destinations). Prishtina 2010, pg. 45 22 174
  • 175. promote a magazine with largest tourist destinations. Also, they may benefit out of this events in world market as well as an opportunity to make joint travel in Kosovo, Monte Negro and Albania. Jointly these municipalities can expand the participation which would very costly if performed individually. Elimination of all tourist tariffs that desire to visit these countries at the same time. Participants involved in drafting strategies need to agree that they need to invest in air and in transport for tourists. A special importance needs to be paid when setting special tariffs for restaurants, shelters (hostels), etc. which will be provided in a particular period during summer season for tourists, especially for those that at least once have visited the destination and has planned to make visits in the coming year. Publication of brochures, leaflets, flyers, maps that show historical, cultural and natyral destinations as well as tourist structures (such as hotels, restaurants, resorts, fun and entertainment spots, etc). Creating a joint website which contains information about addresses, prices and all other relevant information about hotels, tourist agencies, museums, festivals, various important tourist attractions, religious monuments and tourist operators. Provision of contact numbers for booking and reservation and provision of contact details of relevant tourist organizations and non governmental organization which need to be available in different languages. Conclusions: Strategic and tourist development of countries in the region that surround the area of Cursed Mountains is considered a firm and possible establishment in creating a joint local economic development especially in rural zones. In this way, the municipalities and central governments itself of the respective countries should stimulate balanced economic, natural and cultural development by revitalizing historical sours for tourism purposes and simultaneously improving living conditions of the rural population. In order to develop and implement strategic documents for development and in a tourist industry there has to be an establishment for a systematic action. Such development strategy in these circumstances and in these locations need to be determined and detailed in master documents which further will stipulate balanced documentation on regional tourism development. Here 175
  • 176. additionally need to be taken into account plans for local tourism development, strategies for city development of those belonging near to Cursed Mountains area which need to be part of national strategies. Regional cooperation strategy along with tourism development above all has to be ensured that proper analysis and reviews are made for potential tourist locations and destinations. This than will determine the vision of development and strategic objectives for developing tourist activities and lastly measures need to be determined in systematical approach in order to achieve this vision. Additionally, these documents will help key agents of tourism development, particularly the local level when drafting their own local strategies, marketing plans and other documents for local tourism. The result shall be an effective usage and proper management of tourism potential. The action methodology of this strategy is based on the principle “from bottom to top”, which means that local internal players have the main role in enhancing the tourism development and in this way will have an effective approach about the problems of local development. By attending in series of seminars and meetings with tourism participants aiming to analyze the current situation in area of tourism, evident problems and dynamic plan for tourism development with specific measures in long term and short term basis. The strategy of tourism in the noted zones is a result of a team work which derived from an already taken political decision and out of the discussion made by competent personnel of the municipalities located in the area of Cursed Mountains. This paperwork aims to provide a part of the project to the team that will develop the strategy, particularly in the sphere of marketing and management. Also a series of modalities have been provided about the ways and methods of cooperation between the local players aiming to develop tourism. Within these proposals there are specific data provided, particularly for tourist association in cities and municipalities, employees of the local and regional government including the businesses involved in various tourist activities. Furthermore this paper presented a launch point for the relevant players which enables them to measure the progress of tourism and economic development by identifying which steps need to be undertaken at a later stage of development. Founding of a tourism strategy between three countries is considered a continuous process therefore it is mandatory for all 176
  • 177. of those responsible for implementation to continuously abide with the timetable and the review of the strategy in order to meet the conditions set. Literature used 1. Buell P. & HeleyV. Handbook of Modern Marketing, New York 1970 2. Bakic O., Marketing u turizmu., Univerzitet Singidunum, 2010 3. Kaspar C., Einfuhrung in das touristtiche Management, Bern 1990 4. Krasniqi Dr.& Ukaj F, Menaxhimi i organizatave dhe destinacioneve në turizëm, Prishtinë 2010 5. Stefan J. Page., Turism Management, Butlerworth / Heinemann, London 2003 6. Dokumenti rreth hulumtimit të kapaciteteve turistike – Projekti Dukagjini and Rugova valley access action program / Peja 2011 7. http://ec.europa.eu/archives/growthandjobs_2009/ 177
  • 178. “TOURISM AS A RESPONSIBILITY FOR GROWING ALBANIAN ECONOMY” Rovena TROPLINI MSc Adela ÇAFULI MSc Abstract Tourism is considering an important contributor for the development of many countries. Our attention to this sector should be higher. The paper aims to evidence how recent developments in tourism sector have affected the economy of Albania. We are going to mention some important economic indicator as Tourism’s contribution to GDP (economic growth), employment and creating opportunities for new businesses. We base on data provided by the World Trade and Travel Council offers about the economic impact of tourism in different fields of economy, including also an overview on the number of tourists visiting Albania in the recent years, on their origin and on the amount of revenues. The second part of the paper emphasizes the importance of EU’s projects to help the tourism sector in Albania. The EU faces brought many benefits of impact to Albania, by improving the access to the European policies and funds. The tourism sector is one of the fast growing industries in the country and it has strongly benefits from the EU’s projects, making Albania, so far, one of the main destinations to discover. Increased attention by well management of these projects and investments in this sector, will make that tourism will always come in increasing competition with other neighboring countries and contributing so to the economic development of Albania. KEY WORDS: tourism impact, economy development, WTTC, European Union’s benefits. 178
  • 179. 1. INTRODUCTION In many countries the activity of tourism is considered most important than production regarding to the economic aspect and social as well. The tourism is an excellent potential being a catalyst for the economic growth and for this it is a key sector in macroeconomic level. Before the democratic changes of 1990 the former communist regime did not allow the tourism industry in Albania to become established. While the country has a tradition of domestic visitation, its venture into international tourism has only been possible since the fall of communist regime in 1991. After many years of isolation, Albania is now changing rapidly toward a free market economy, offering many opportunities to become a new tourist destination. In many economies, the travel and tourism sector has for some time been recognized as a major area of activity which both draw upon the resources of those economies and affect their nature and development. Additionally, governments have increasingly considered it appropriate to use tourism as a subject or agent of macroeconomic policies. Tourism often has a high involvement in policies related to employment levels or the balance of payments, whose significance in modern macroeconomic management is high. 23 The contribution of tourism sector is going to be significant, especially the share of international tourism revenue to GDP. Albania Tourism is part of the Tourism Development Strategy (TDS) 24, showed that Albania could use its own resources to the interest of tourism much more than it has actually done. The TDS also covers a longterm period until 2012. The main macro-economic objectives for tourism development are thus to: •generate jobs and income; •accelerate the economic and social development throughout the country; •improve the living conditions in Albania; 23 The Impact of Tourism Sector in the Economy of Albania, Esmeralda URUÇI, Albana BORIÇI (BEGANI) 24 TDS describes the strategic concept of tourism development by giving the strategic directions and the development of tourist products so that Albania would become a future tourist destination in the international tourist market for attracting the foreign tourists. 179
  • 180. •initiate economic activities; •create a positive image of the country internationally as tourism destination; •increase the revenue of foreign currency and the tax income for the government; •develop sustainable and environmentally friendly tourism. The following vision shows the expected outcome from tourism in Albania. It has been oriented towards the end of 2012, in order to bring to the present time the expected results, thus expressing the achievement of the objectives outlined in the strategy. The tourism sector has strongly benefited from the EU integration, making Albania, so far one of the main destinations to be discovered. Albania has to do a lot of things in order to be part of EU, a lot of reforms in all the fields and especially in tourism, because it has good resources to develop it. There have been some preoccupation with the sector of tourism in Albania, and there is awareness of the important role that tourism plays in job creation, in the increase of income per inhabitant and, in many regions, in the development of infra-structures, skilled labor and economic diversification. Why Tourism? Irrespective of its diverse impacts we focus on tourism because we are convinced it has a significant influence not only on the institutions, people and facilities that are engaged in tourism activities but also on the local host communities. We are more particularly interested in tourism key positive characteristics, which include the following: • Tourism is a labour intensive industry, which generates employment opportunities at semi-skilled, technical and managerial levels. This is a very important aspect as most of the labour force in Albania is non-skilled. • Tourism consists of predominantly small-scale businesses, in spite of the fact that there has been increasing investment and involvement in the sector by multinationals and local medium size and some bigsize companies. 180
  • 181. • Tourism is a relatively decentralized industry that is highly capable of diversifying regional economies, and hence is more suitable in affording the region equitable development. • Tourism is a relatively less-pollutant industry, which if properly managed, can enhance the conservation and promotion of our natural and cultural heritage. • Tourism is an important vehicle for promoting cultural exchanges that enhance international understanding and goodwill among the diverse peoples of the world. • Inherently, tourism activities act as catalysts for the development of other sectors of the economy – i.e. tourism provide strong forward and backward linkages, and is therefore conducive in inducing macroeconomic incentives and motivations for development in the region. 2. THE IMPACT OF TOURISM IN THE ECONOMY OF ALBANIA Travel and tourism is likely to figure in all aspects of GDP. Most expenditure by tourists would be regarded as consumption spending (C), if it is for domestic tourism or for the home-provided elements of an international trip. Form the other side tourism receipts by businesses are transformed into payments for factors of production – rent, wages, interest and profits – which swell income (Y) and provide consumption tax and income tax revenue (T) to governments 25. Governments may stimulate development of a tourism industry through grants and loans, and by undertaking their own fixed investment (G); if the capital required is obtained from capital markets by government or private businesses, there is a direct increase in (I) investment. Also expenditures by businesses on buildings, plant, and equipment and so on, to provide tourism services, are part of the GDP investment (I) component, together with similar government expenditures, especially on infrastructure. When a country sells its transportation or tourism services to 25 The Impact of Tourism Sector in the Economy of Albania, Esmeralda URUÇI, Albana BORIÇI (BEGANI), 2009 181
  • 182. international tourists from elsewhere, this is obviously considered export (Ex) activity for this country, while the contrary occurs when its residents buy transportation or tourism services provided by other countries. The later becomes part this country’s imports. So the outbound tourists take expenditure out of an economy which is equivalent with an import (M), but the method of funding trips may put aside money towards the trip for some time, either in advance or by credit installments afterwards. In the short term this may represent increased savings (S), and less consumption of other items We are referring to the data from the MTCYS 26, shows that the number of foreign tourists visiting Albania has increased in recent years, but tourism officials say the country could accommodate far more. Calculation of number of foreign tourists visiting Albania is done by identifying nights they have spent in Albanian hotels, according to tourism officials. Official data published, reveal that the total number of tourists visiting Albania was 2 million 990 thousand visitors entered during the period January- August of 2011 of which 2 million 120 thousand were foreign visitors by nationality and 870 thousand are Albanians not resident guests. In comparison with the same period of last year the increase was recorded with 16% of more foreign visitors non-resident, i.e in 2011 have entered 300 thousand more visitors. Statistics from MTCY inform that 63% are overnight visitors, 26% are day visitors and 11% were transit visitors. The largest number of visitors is from Kosovo with 51%, followed by 11% Macedonia, Montenegro with 5%, Italy with 5%, Greece 5%, Germany with 3%, America with 2% etc. The majority of visitors, 86% came by land, 6% by air and 8% by sea. So in July and August have entered 1,355,599 non-resident guests with foreign citizenship. The major reception capacities of accommodation have Vlora, Tirana and Durres. The number of visitors has increased and archaeological areas and parks, showing even more interest from foreign visitors, as their numbers in the period from January to August 2011 to the national parks, archaeological sites and museums has been 79 094 versus 62 976 or 6118 visitors more than the previous year. Their goal is to increase the number of visitors from neighboring countries, but also to be expended into new 26 Ministry of Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports 182
  • 183. markets such as Germany, England, USA, who are the biggest exporters of tourists in the world. 2.1 The contribution of Travel & Tourism Different Components of Travel & Tourism Leisure travel spending was ALL182.383bn in 2010 (5.4% of GDP) and is expected to total ALL 194.1bn (5.4% of GDP) in 2011, rising to ALL293.7bn in 2021. Business travel spending was ALL67.295bn (2% of GDP) in 2010 and is expected to total ALL77.4bn (2.1% of GDP) in 2011, rising to ALL168.8bn in 2021. Domestic travel spending is expected to generate 12.3% of direct Travel & Tourism GDP in 2011 compared with 87.7% for visitor exports. (i.e foreign visitor spending or international tourism receipts). Domestic travel spending was ALL28.428bn for 2010 and is expected to total ALL33.5bn in 2011, rising to ALL75.1bn in 2021. Visitor exports were ALL220.638bn (56.2% of GDP) in 2010 and are expected to total ALL238.0bn in 2011 (51.7% of GDP), rising to ALL387.5bn in 2021. Source: WTTC, report 2011 for Albania Tourism economic significance can easily be assessed in terms of the contribution it makes, both directly and indirectly, to the total value of goods and services produced in the economy, the export foreign currency it earns through the sale of goods and services to overseas visitors, and the jobs it creates. So by addressing some of aspects of tourism in the economy, its macroeconomic role, its consequences, and most related topics to our study, we will address its involvement in economy level. Source: WTTC, report 2011 for Albania 183
  • 184. 2.2 Travel &Tourism's Contribution to GDP 27 In order to see the contribution of the tourism in the economy of Albania we are referring the data provided by World Travel and Tourism Council by comparing 2010 with 2011. The direct contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP 28 for 2010 was ALL92.012bn (7.4% of GDP) and is expected to be ALL99.8bn in 2011 29 (7.6% of GDP). In fact the real growth of the T&T’s contribution to GDP for 2010 was 9.7% and for the 2011 is expected to decrease to 5.2%. This primarily reflects the economic activity generated by industries such as hotels, travel agents, airlines and other passenger transportation services (excluding commuter services). But it also includes, for example, the activities of the restaurant and leisure industries directly supported by tourists. The direct contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP is expected to grow by 5.5% per annum (pa) to ALL169.9bn (8.5% of GDP) by 2021. The total contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP 30 (including wider effects from investment, the supply chain and induced income 27 All values are in constant 2011 prices & exchange rates The direct contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP reflects the ‘internal’ spending on Travel & Tourism (total spending within a particular country on Travel & Tourism by residents and nonresidents for business and leisure purposes) as well as government 'individual' spending - spending by government on Travel & Tourism services directly linked to visitors, such as cultural (eg museums) or recreational (eg national parks). The direct contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP is calculated to be consistent with the output, as expressed in National Accounting, of tourism-characteristic sectors such as hotels, airlines, airports, travel agents and leisure and recreation services. The direct contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP is calculated from total internal spending by ‘netting out’ the purchases made by the different tourism sectors. 29 The data provided for 2011 is taken from the T&T as expectations and are used here as the result the 2011 is not finished yet and helps us to make comparisons through years. 30 The total contribution of Travel & Tourism includes its ‘wider impacts’ (ie the indirect and induced impacts) on the economy. The ‘indirect’ contribution includes the GDP and jobs supported by: -Travel & Tourism investment spending – an important aspect of both current and future activity that includes investment activity such as the purchase of new aircraft and construction of new hotels; -Government 'collective' spending, which helps Travel & Tourism activity in many different ways as it is made on behalf of the ‘community at large’ – eg tourism marketing and promotion, aviation, administration, security services, resort area security services, resort area sanitation services, etc; -Domestic purchases of goods and services by the sectors dealing directly with tourists including, for example, purchases of food and cleaning services by hotels, of fuel and catering services by airlines, and IT services by travel agents. 28 184
  • 185. impacts) was ALL319.524bn in 2010 (25.9% of GDP), and is expected to be ALL344.2bn in 2011 (26.3% of GDP). It is forecast to rise by 5.4% pa from ALL582.7bn by 2021 (29.0% of GDP).The total contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP is three times greater than its direct contribution. 2.2 Travel & Tourism's Contribution to Employment Graphic 1. Albania: Direct Contribution of Travel & Tourism to Employment 31 Travel & Tourism generate 64,000 jobs directly in 2010 (6.6% of total employment), is expected to generate 67,000 jobs directly in 2011 (6.8% of total employment). This includes employment by hotels, travel agents, airlines and other passenger transportation services excluding commuter services. It also includes, for example, the activities of the restaurant and leisure industries Source: WTTC, report 2011 for Albania directly supported by tourists. By 2021, Travel & Tourism will account for 88,000 jobs directly, an increase of 21,000 (32.2%) over the next ten years. The total contribution of Travel & Tourism to employment (including wider effects from investment, the supply chain and induced income impacts) for 2010 was 226,400 jobs (23.5% of total employment) and is expected to be 233,000 jobs in 201 (23.9% of total employment). By 2021, Travel & Tourism is forecast to support 304,000 jobs (26.9% of total employment), an increase of 2.7% pa over the period. The ‘induced’ contribution measures the GDP and jobs supported by the spending of those who are directly or indirectly employed by the Travel & Tourism industry. 185
  • 186. 2.3 Travel & Tourism's Contribution to Investments Graphic 2. Travel and tourism capital investments as % of whole economy capital investment Travel & Tourism attracted ALL20.697bn of capital investment in 2010 and is expected to attract capital investment of ALL22.8bn in 2011, rising by 5.7% pa to ALL39.7bn in 2021. This means that Travel & Tourism’s share of total national investment rose from 4.4% of GDP in 2010 to 4.5% of GDP in 2011 and will rise to 5.1% of GDP in 2021. Source: WTTC, report 2011 for Albania In terms of Travel & Tourism's total contribution to GDP Albania is ranked 89th in WTTC's league table of 181 countries. The country’s visitor exports in 2011 are in 67th place, and 7th out of 18 countries in Europe. 3. EU- ALBANIA, Impact on Tourism Tourism is an important economic activity in the European Union (EU). It comprises a wide variety of products and destinations and many different stakeholders are involved – both public and private – with much decentralized areas of competence often at regional and local levels. Tourism has great potential as regards contributing to the achievement of several major EU objectives, such as sustainable development, economic growth, employment and economic and social cohesion. These elements and the fact that many Community policies have a significant effect on the various activities of the tourism sector justify renewed political attention on the part of the main EU political institutions. 186
  • 187. Community tourism is largely domestic. 87% of tourism activity recorded is attributed to its own citizens with only 13 % to visitors from non-member countries such as Albania. As for the tourism of EU citizens, three-quarters remain within the EU, the remaining quarter going to other parts of Europe and the world such as Albania9. Owing to the multidimensional characteristics of tourism, the tourism sector is highly influenced by the new demands derived from the widening, deepening and enlargement of the European integration. The policies adopted by the regional area and the implementation of the more advanced degrees of integration with its resulting consequences are decisive factors in the development of the tourism sector in member countries. 3.1 EU and tourism in Albania The tourism sector is one of the fast growing industries in the country and it has strongly benefited from the EU integration, making Albania, so far one of the main destinations to be discovered. It plays an important role in job creation, in the increase of income per inhabitant and, in many regions, in the development of infra-structures, skilled labor and economic diversification. The EU impact has brought many benefits to Albania by improving the access to the European policies and funds. Monitoring from EU has its own direct impact on the economy and mainly in political stability, which will have indirect impact on the other challenges that the country represents for the future: tourism and the way to manage inputs. Within the EU reforms in the country seeks to develop measures to improve the quality of Albanian communities, although tourism policy remains the remit of individual local authorities. This is important, all the more local authorities need to know the contribution which tourism makes to the economy in terms of income, Albania has participated to many events organized in the countries of EU such as 32: 9 Dr.Carmen Chasovski,The new context of European Tourism generation, employment, balance of payment and investment. Moreover, authorities in local and national level, need to compare their tourism with other countries, at the same time they define their strategies to attract tourist to the country (Cardoso and Ferreira, 2000) 10 National Tourism Agency, 2011 187
  • 188. • Munchen Fair 26 February -03 March 2009: Our participation was new for 2009 and it was realized with the project of GIZ in Albania. The main focus is related with the camping. • The International Fair for Tourism ITB - Berlin 11- 15 March 2009: The promotion of the Albanian tourism in the German and International trade. It is the greatest tourism fair. • The International Fair for Tourism RDA Coach Tourism – Germany, 4 - 6 August 2009: His importance is the attraction of a lot of tourist from the world. • Tourism fair Rimini, 16 - 18 October 2009. • The International Fair for Tourism BIT-Milano 18 - 21 February 2010 • The International Fair for Tourism ITB - Berlin 10 - 14 March 2010 • The International Fair for Tourism MITT - Moscow 17 - 20 March 2010 • The International Fair for Tourism RDA Coach Tourism Germany 27 - 29 July 2010 • The International Fair for Tourism WTM - London 08 - 11 November 2010 • Participation of the National Tourism Agency in International Tourism Exhibition ITB Berlin, Germany, 9-13 March 2011: In this exhibition Albania was represented with a stand of 117 m2, creating in this way its profile in this important tourism event. The participation in this activity presents great interest, because it encourages the development of the country's tourism. Part of this fair was also the tour operators, the travel agencies, airlines, the accommodating units, etc. Besides the National Tourism Agency, part of the stand of Albania was also some