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Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010
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Fiscal Management and Governance Structure of the Archaeological Park System in Albania with particular attention to Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa, 2010

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Fiscal Management and Governance Structure …

Fiscal Management and Governance Structure
of the Archaeological Park System in Albania
with particular attention to
Apollonia and Antigonea Archaeological Parks
By Prof. Sebastiano Tusa 2010

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  • 1. March, 2010Fiscal Management and Governance Structureof the Archaeological Park System in Albaniawith particular attention toApollonia and Antigonea Archaeological ParksBy Prof. Sebastiano Tusa
  • 2. This publication is enabled by the MDG-F Joint Program “Culture and Heritagefor Social and Economic Development” jointly implemented by UNESCO andUNDP in cooperation with the Ministry of Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sportsof Albania by the Spanish Fund of the Millennium Development Goals.Disclaimer:The author is responsible for the choice and the presentation of the factscontained in this publication and for the opinions expressed therein, which arenot necessarily those of UNESCO and do not commit the Organization.The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout thispublication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on thepart of the UNESCO Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country,territory, city or area of their authorities, or concerning the delimitation oftheir frontiers or boundaries.
  • 3. 3SummarySummaryStudy on the Fiscal, Management and Governance Structure ofthe Archaeological Park System in Albania IntroductionA.1. Local assets involved in the archaeological park system. The origin and development of Archaeological Park System in AlbaniaA.2. Actualjuridicalorganizationofculturalheritageandarchaeological park systemsA.3. Possible juridical adjustments to improve archaeological park systemA.4.a Actual management of archaeological park system: National Boards of Archaeological ParksA.4.bActual management of archaeological park system: Offices for the Administration and Coordination of Archaeological ParksA.4.c SWOT analysis of actual management of archaeological park systemA.5 Project of management of archaeological park systemA.6 Bureaucracy and administration reform in the field of management and governance structure of archaeological park systemA.7 Improvement of zoning system of archaeological parks and related rulesA.8 Actual asset of scientific research in the archaeological parksA.9 Future asset of scientific research in the archaeological parksA.10 Actual asset of conservation in the archaeological parksA.11 Future asset of conservation in the archaeological parksA.12 Actual fiscal system financing archaeological park organizationA.13 Project of financial structure for archaeological park organizationA.14 Private funding and sponsorsA.15 Project of fiscal drainage useful to finance archaeological park organizationA.16 Lotto system for financing archaeological park and cultural heritageA.17 SWOT analysis of possible fiscal system to finance archaeological park organizationA.18 Project of touristic development for archaeological park organization Summarized proposals
  • 4. 4SummaryB. ApolloniaB.1 Draft study on the fiscal, management and governance structure of the archaeological park system in Apollonia: actual situationB.1a SynopsisB.1b Fiscal, management and governance structureB.2 Draft study on the fiscal, management and governance structure of the Archaeological park system in Apollonia: ProposalB.2a ManagementB.2b WasteB.2c Temporary intrusionB.2d Permanent intrusive elementsB.2e CommunicationB.2f PromotionB.2g Research and ConservationB.2h AccessB.2i BoundariesB.2j Overlapping of competencesB.2k Staff and equipment Summarized proposals for ApolloniaC AntigoneaC.1 Draft study on the fiscal, management and governance structure of the archaeological park system in Antigonea: actual situationC.1a SynopsisC.2 Draft study on the fiscal, management and governance structure of the archaeological park system in Antigonea: ProposalC.2a ManagementC.2b AccessC.2c ReceptionC.2d Research and conservationC.2e Communication and eventsC.2f Staff and equipmentC.2g Boundaries Summarized proposals for AntigoneaD. Consulted bibliography, documents and lawsE. Public administrators, scholars, professionals etc. interviewed
  • 5. 5IntroductionThe purpose of this study is not limited to the description of AlbanianArchaeological P|ark system like it is today, but, on the contrary, starting from adeep and comprehensive survey of the main parks, is dealing with the problemsthat are conditioning a correct and fruitful development towards good standardof cultural as well as touristic offering.There are some general problems, such as those connected with fiscal aspects,management, security that will give rise to general recommendations that couldbe applied to all Albanian Archaeological Park system. On the contrary therewill be problems connected to the two parks indicated by the commitment– Apollonia and Antigonea – that will require a separate study and peculiarrecommendations.All the situations will be treated in a dialectical way pointing the problemand giving the solutions that, of course, are coming from personal experience,but mainly from the knowledge of a wide panorama of archaeological parksscattered all over the world. Beyond a scientific background based on theknowledge of the not so rich bibliography connected with this topic, personalexperience of archaeological park management is the main resource and basefrom where the proposed solutions are coming. Experience in archaeologicalpark management is very important in this field (absolutely necessary) becauseonly facing the daily problems of a park you can build a real knowledge that canhelp to solve the problems.This is more valid and absolutely important if this experience is based onarchaeological parks management of the same nature and cultural as well asnatural and social environment such as those of Southern Italy and Albaniabelonging to the same Mediterranean classical civilization.Apollonia and Antigonea will have proper chapters dealing with those twomarvelous sites where risk analysis will be basic for any further activity aimedtowards a real development in order to solve those urgent problems that affecttheir actual situation and to give them a proper standard aimed to a sensiblevisitors’ increase.Study on the Fiscal, Management andGovernanceStructureoftheArchaeologicalPark System in Albania
  • 6. 6StudyontheFiscal,ManagementandGovernanceStructureoftheArchaeologicalParkSysteminAlbaniaThe original and peculiar concept of archaeological park is based on thenecessity to protect a well defined area from external dangerous interferencesand aimed to develop a precise protective as well as didactical function.Synthetically the difference with a normal archaeological area is that thepark is aimed to the protection of the archaeological vestiges not only in theirlimited surrounding space, but in a wider area where the concept of historicallandscape is involved. Moreover an archaeological park is nowadays a placewhose value is based not only on the monumental vestiges, but also on thenatural and environmental context. In this respect it is appropriate the definition of “archaeologicalpark” established in one of the most advanced laws in the world on protectionof cultural heritage: the Italian “Legislative Decree, 22 January, 2004, no.42.”Codice dei beni culturali e del paesaggio, ai sensi dell’articolo 10 of law, 6July, 2002, no. 137” (also named “Urban Codex”). On the art.101 it is clearlyspecified the difference between “parco archeologico (archaeological park)”, “areaarcheologica (archaeological area)” and “complesso monumentale (monumentalcomplex)”1. Let us see how the Italian legislator expresses those definitions thatcould be taken as an example to define and differentiate the three situations.Up to now this is the most appropriate definition so far expressed in a law: Actually nowadays, although the real archaeological parks are very few in theworld, the concept of archaeological park is changing towards a new perspectivenot based only on the protective aspects, but also on the economic developmentas well as on the improvement of life quality of human population. It means that the concept of archaeological park cannot be limitedby rigid protective rules, but it will be opened, in a systemic perspective, to thepopulation necessities. In this sense the best example of a wide archaeologicalpark that became in few years the real engine of a territorial economicdevelopment is the Archaeological Park of Bibracte in France2. 1 “1. Ai fini del presente codice sono istituti e luoghi della cultura i musei, le bibliotechee gli archivi, le aree e i parchi archeologici, i complessi monumentali. 2. Si intende per: d) “areaarcheologica”, un sito caratterizzato dalla presenza di resti di natura fossile o di manufatti o strutturepreistorici o di età antica; e) “parco archeologico”, un ambito territoriale caratterizzato da importantievidenze archeologiche e dalla compresenza di valori storici, paesaggistici o ambientali, attrezzatocome museo all’aperto; f) “complesso monumentale”, un insieme formato da una pluralità difabbricati edificati anche in epoche diverse, che con il tempo hanno acquisito, come insieme, unaautonoma rilevanza artistica, storica o etnoantropologica.”2 Bibracte was a Gaulish oppidum (a fortified city of Late Iron Age (La Tene culture),the capital of the Aedui and one of the most important hill forts in Gaul, situated near modernAutun in Burgundy (France). In 58 BC in this place Julius Caesar defeated the Helevtij, but in 52A.1. Local assets involved in the archaeological park system. The origin and development of Archaeological Park System in Albania“1. Regarding to this codex institutes and places of culture are museums, libraries, archives,archaeological areas and parks, monumental complexes. 2. It is ….. d) “archaeological area”, a sitein which there are fossilized remains or objects and/or structures belonging to prehistory or ancientage; e) “archaeological park”, a territorial context in which there are important archaeologicalremains with the presence of historical, landscape or environmental values arranged as an open airmuseum; f) “monumental complex”, a group of various buildings also of different ages that haveacquired, through the ages, a peculiar artistic, historical or ethno anthropological relevance.“
  • 7. 7This place was also important for the history of archaeology because hereJoseph Déchelette, author of a famous Manuel d’Archéologie(Manual of Archeology),excavated between 1897 and 1907. Today Mont Beuvray is generally creditedas the ancient Bibracte. The site is an archaeological park at the centre of aprotected forest, and a site of cooperative European archaeological efforts, atraining ground for young archaeologists as well as a centre for interpretingGaulish culture for a popular audience.BC, at Bibracte Vercingetorix was proclaimed head of the Gaulish coalition. A few decades afterthe Roman conquest of Gaul, Bibracte was abandoned in favor of Autun, 25 kilometers distant.Without a continuous settlement to disturb the site, Bibracte remained for modern archaeology torediscover.The site of Mount Beuvray has an area of nearly 1000 hectares of whichownership is shared between the State and the Regional Natural Park ofMorvan. L’ensemble est classé au titre des sites (depuis 1990) et en partie autitre des monuments historiques (135 hectares depuis 1984). The place isclassified as a historical monument (135 hectares since 1984). All the work ofdevelopment is made in consultation with many partners (Regional Directorateof Cultural Affairs, Regional Directorate of Environment, Committee on Sites,Regional Natural Park of Morvan and the departments of Nièvre and Saône-et – Loire). The massive forest management is delegated to the National ForestDepartment.En début d’année 2008, Bibracte s’est transformé en établissement public decoopération culturelle (EPCC).In early 2008, Bibracte turned into a public cultural cooperation (EPCC).Les EPCC ont été créés par le législateur en 2002 afin de faciliter la gestiond’équipements culturels importants, grâce à une meilleure mutualisation desmoyens entre leurs partenaires. The EPCC was established by the legislaturein 2002 to facilitate the management of major cultural facilities, through bettersharing of resources between partners. Bibracte est venu rejoindre la listeencore courte des EPCC à caractère patrimonial, à laquelle appartenait déjàl’établissement gestionnaire du site du Pont du Gard. Bibracte came to join thestill short list of EPCC patrimonial nature, which already owned the propertymanager of the Pont du Gard.The site of Bibracte on Mount Beuvray was managed since 1991 by a national companyof mixed economy (SAEMN) established to install and manage the facilities of the EuropeanArchaeological Center and the Museum of Civilization Celtic under the policy of the GreatWorks of the State.La SAEMN avait pour actionnaires l’Etat, les départements de la Nièvreet de la Saône-et-Loire, le Parc naturel régional du Morvan, le Centre des Monumentsnationaux, le Centre national de la Recherche scientifique, le Comité régional du Tourisme etla Caisse des Dépôts et Consignations. The shareholders SAEMN were the state departmentsof Nièvre and Saône-et-Loire, the Regional Natural Park of Morvan, the Center for NationalMonuments, National Center of Scientific Research, the Regional Committee of Tourismand Caisse des Depots et Consignations. Un changement de statuts est intervenu à l’arrivéeà terme du traité de concession qui liait la SAEMN à l’Etat, propriétaire des équipementset de la majeure partie des terrains du mont Beuvray. A change of status is reached at thetermination of the concession treaty which bound the SAEMN to state ownership of theequipment and the bulk of the land of Mount Beuvray.
  • 8. 8StudyontheFiscal,ManagementandGovernanceStructureoftheArchaeologicalParkSysteminAlbaniaLes membres fondateurs de l’EPCC Bibracte sont l’Etat, le Conseil régionalde Bourgogne, le Conseil général de la Nièvre, le Conseil général de la Saône-et-Loire, le Centre des Monuments nationaux et le Parc naturel régionaldu Morvan. The founding members of the EPCC Bibracte are the state, theBurgundy Regional Council, the General Council of Nièvre, the GeneralCouncil of the Saone-et-Loire, the Center for National Monuments and theRegional Natural Park of Morvan. Les statuts de l’EPCC, approuvés par lesdifférentes assemblées délibérantes et arrêtés par le Préfet de Région, prévoientnotamment le montant minimum de participation des membres aux chargesd’exploitation de l’établissement, ce qui fournit à celui-ci de nouvelles garantiespour la pérennité de son action. The statutes of the EPCC, approved by thevarious deliberative bodies and by the regional prefect, include the minimumamount of member participation in operating expenses of the institution, whichprovides one new guarantee for the sustainability of its actions. L’Etat demeure,de loin, le principal partenaire financier de Bibracte. The state remains by farthe main funding partner Bibracte. En acceptant de contribuer durablementau soutien de l’EPCC, le Conseil régional et les deux Conseils générauxconcernés ont confirmé par ailleurs leur attachement à l’établissement et leurvolonté de voir se renforcer la place occupée par Bibracte dans le paysageculturel et touristique régional. In agreeing to make a lasting contribution insupport of the EPCC, the Regional Council and the two Councils concernedhave also confirmed their commitment to the institution and their commitmentto strengthen the positioning Bibracte in the cultural landscape and regionaltourism.This is, in my opinion the best example on how a very marginal and poorarea could develop investing in culture and, particularly, in the evaluation ofancient remains and history. This experience is much more indicative becauseit was performed in an area in which real archaeological remains are verypoor. They invested not only on the scanty archaeological remains, but alsoon the evocative historical power as these areas were tied to the history ofVercingetorix, a national hero of the Gaul resistance against Roman conquer.Of course this is an example that will be difficult to establish nowadays inAlbania, but it should be an example to follow in the future for some cases inwhich the situation could be similar to Birbracte. In this sense there should bea link with Antigonea where access difficulties and marginality could be overpassed investing in activities connected to the archaeological and historicalevidence of the site. There is a peculiar similarity between Antigonea andBirbracte. Both sites are in mountain areas; both sites are known because oftwo great men of the past history: Pyrrhus and Vercingetorix. Le Conseild’administration, réuni le 10 décembre 2007, a confirmé pour trois ans JacquesFournet à la présidence et Vincent Guichard au poste de directeur général.Another indication that can positively be learnt from this experience is thatany action on archaeological parks will be successful if it is negotiated amongthe State and all the local public and private institutions and stakeholders. Forthis reason it is very important, as it will be explained in the related chapter, thecreation of a Council of Archaeological Park.
  • 9. 9Something similar was in the intentions of Albanian governors when they,in 2000, legally decided the boundaries (and, by the way, the birth) of theNational Archaeological Park of Butrint3. It is for sure that they were aware ofthe importance either from the cultural point of view and on economical base ofthe setting of an archaeological park system in Albania.Actually the Albanian archaeological park system was legally decided withthe adoption of Law No. 9048, of 07 April, 2003 “On Cultural Heritage”.With art.53, beside Butrint, other 8 archaeological parks in Lezha, Shkodra,Apollonia, Byllis, Amantia, Orikum, Antigoneia, and Finiq, were recognized. Bythis law some rules concerning the protection of the territory from unauthorizeddevelopments and constructions were established.Besides laws, a number of rules were decided by the Council of Ministersupon the proposal from the Directorate of Cultural Heritage (DCH) in theMinistry of Culture:1. DCM No. 857, of 19 December, 2003, “On the approval of the functioningregulations of the office for the administration and coordination of theNational Park of Butrint”.2. DCM No. 396, of 31 March, 2005, “On the approval of borders andadministration regulations of the archaeological parks of Shkodra, Lezha,Apollonia, Bylis, Amanatia, Orikum, Antigonea, Finiq and Butrint”.3. This rule defined the roles and rules of management of archaeologicalparks as well as of archaeological parks board as a decision-making bodyfor the activity of parks. The Board of the Parks is chaired by Minister ofTourism, Culture, Youth and Sports. This rule excludes Butrint.4. DCM No. 693, of 10 November 2005 “On the classification of themarshland complex of Butrint as a National Park”.5. Law No.8906, of 6 June, 2002 “On protected areas”6. By this law the zones near the archaeological and monumental area ofPark of Butrint are declared protected areas.7. Law No.8934, of 5 September 2002 “On the protection of theenvironment”8. Law No.7908, of 5 April, 1995, amended by Law Nr.8763, of 2 April,2001, amended by Law Nr. 8870, of 21.30.2002 “On fishing andaquaculture” This law concerns fishing activities in the area of the National Park of Butrint.9. DCM No.450, of 1 July, 1998, amended by Decision of the Council ofMinisters No.176, of 3 May, 2002 “On the administration of the ancientcity of Butrint”.3 Decision of the Council of Ministers (DCM) No. 82, of 2 March, 2000: “On the classificationas a National Park protected by the state of the archaeological area of Butrint”; preceded by Decisionthe Council of Ministers no. 450, of 1 July, 1998, of the Council of Ministers, “On the Administrationof the Ancient City of Butrint” and later by DCM no. 176, of 3 May, 2002, “On an amendment toDecision No. 450, dated 1 July, 1998, of the Council of Ministers, ‘On the Administration of theAncient City of Butrint’”, as well as DCM No. 515, of 24 October, 2002 “On the classification as acultural heritage monument with complex character and issuing of protection by the state to thearchaeological field of Finiq”A.2. Actual juridical organization of cultural heritage and archaeological park systems
  • 10. 10StudyontheFiscal,ManagementandGovernanceStructureoftheArchaeologicalParkSysteminAlbania10. DCM No.82, of 2 March, 2000 “On the classification as a National Parkprotected by the state of the archaeological area of Butrint”11. DCM No.266, of 24 April, 2003 “On the administration of protectedareas”12. DCM No.531, of 31 October, 2002 “On the classification of themarshland complex of Butrint and the territory around it as a naturalarea with special protection and its inclusion in the list of marshlands ofnational importance, especially as habitats of water birds”Most of these laws are related to the assessment of Butrint National Park alsoon naturalistic point of view. 1,3,4,6, 7, 8 and 10 are laws that were proclaimedonly for Butrint National Park. But their principles and some technical advicescould be taken as examples for further laws to be applied to the other NationalArchaeological Parks especially in the field of environmental rules.As far as new law is concerned to improve park system those will be mentionedin the following chapters. It will be necessary, as it will be mentioned, to changethe hierarchical system of the peripheral structure of the Ministry (relationshipbetween parks and central administration) as well as with other agencies of thesame Ministry (Institute of Monuments) as well as of other Ministry (Instituteof Archaeology) giving autonomy to the parks. This could be done by a law asit was done in Sicily with the L.R. n.20 (3/11/2000).Another (or more) law will be devoted to the change in fiscal system toimprove cultural heritage income.Archaeological park system in Albania is ruled under the control of Ministryof Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports in the hand of Directorate of NationalHeritage. But the Albanian legislator, in line with other European legislations(such as Italian, Greek, Spanish and French), introduced a collective element ofsupervision in order to have a wide, democratic, and professional multi visioncontrol over the main act concerning the archaeological parks.This is the National Board of Archaeological Parks that is acting for theeight national archaeological parks. Butrint Park is under Board acting onlyfor this archaeological area4.The National Board of Archaeological Parks is a decision-making body thatoversees the activities of the Offices for the Administration and Coordinationof Archaeological Parks and approves the strategy and development programsof the National Archaeological Parks.This board is headed by the Minister and consists of representatives from:a. The Ministry of Environmentb. The Ministry of Interior (Local Government)4 Outline – Background Study – Management and Risk Analysis of ArchaeologicalParks in Albania (Draft), Tirana 2009, p.7A.3. Possible juridical adjustments to improve archaeological park systemA.4.a Actual management of archaeological park system: National Boards of Archaeological Parks
  • 11. 11c. The Ministry of Public Works and Territorial Regulation.d. The Directorate of National Heritage of the Ministry of Tourism,Culture, Youth and Sportse. The Institute of Archaeology at the Center of Albanological Studies.f. The Institute of Cultural MonumentsThe directors of the National Parks are members of the board with no rightto vote.The board has the following powers:a. Drafts, examines and approves the development strategy for allarchaeological parks.b. Approves programs and projects presented by the Offices for theAdministration and Coordination of Archaeological Parks and specifiesthe manner of cooperation with other institutions responsible for theprotection of cultural heritage and natural and environmental values.c. Approves yearly plans of archaeological parks.d. Gives priority to the process of filing cultural heritage and decides onthe final destination of the administration, protection and exhibition ofmovable national heritage objects of unique value in national museums,with the aim of guaranteeing their security.e. Controls the activity and approves the budget of the Offices for theAdministration and Coordination of Archaeological Parks and thedistribution of income from the activities and the administration ofparks, based on the official report submitted by their directors.Administrative structures have been established for the archaeological parksof Shkodra, Lezha, Apollonia, Byllis, Amantia, Orikum, Antigonea, Finiq andButrint. Those structures implement the program and the project, regularlyapprove and direct the administrative and budgetary life of the park. They arefinanced by the State through related Ministry.Generally their staff is composed bya. Director;b. Finance officer c. Expert, archaeologyd. Expert, restoratione. Expert, environnentf. Expert, managementThe director is appointed and dismissed by the Minister responsible forcultural heritage, according to criteria specified for this position by the NationalBoard of Archaeological Parks. The experts are appointed and dismissed bythe director of the office, according to legal provisions of the Labor Code.Especially in Butrint and Apollonia the directors had the chance to employcontractors paid by increase in income.The Offices for the Administration and Coordination of ArchaeologicalParks have the following functions and duties:a. Prepare and implement development and administration programsapproved by the National Board of National Archaeological Parks.b. Coordinate with other central and local institutions.A.4.b Actual management of archaeological park system: Offices for the Administration and Coordination of Archaeological Parks
  • 12. 12StudyontheFiscal,ManagementandGovernanceStructureoftheArchaeologicalParkSysteminAlbaniac. Organize meetings with consultants in specific fields.d. Cooperate with natural and legal persons, local or foreign, withinternational foundations and organizations, to identify, advertiseand attract financing and donations for the preservation, protection,development and improvement of cultural and natural heritage valuesin the archeological parks as areas that are given priority in receivingcultural tourism and related stimuli.e. Administer and manage the income generated by tourist activities andother activities for programs approved by the Board.f. Implement all necessary measures for the protection of cultural andnatural heritage in accordance with existing legislation.g. Organize, support and encourage activities of a cultural and educationalnature for the general public.h. Create good conditions for visitors.Till now the National Archaeological Parks of Butrint, Byllis, Antigonea,Apollonia and Shkodra function as separate structures with administrative,judicial and budgetary autonomy. Amantia and Orikum are one managingentity. The Parks of Finiq and Lezha are under the Regional Directorates ofCulture of Saranda.Actually besides Butrint and Apollonia the other archaeological parkscannot be named in such a way because they lack some important features thatmust be considered necessary such as a sufficient amount of monuments sofar excavated and visible, easy access, touristic facilities (café, restaurant, shopsand nearby accommodation) and stakeholders confidence. Antigonea is in themiddle of the trial because it has marvelous potentiality that should be favored.The other parks, as it came out during the meeting with the responsible ofthe competent Ministry5, could be now de-classed becoming “unit” under thejurisdiction of Regional Directorates. Their uprising as Archaeological Parkswill be something that will be decided little by little in the future according tothe financial and administrative capacity of related Ministry as well as of thequalified professional personnel’s availability. But, as it is obviously understood, this must be a political decision becauseit involves economic investments. If the government decides that the otherarchaeological parks in Albania, besides Butrint, Apollonia and partlyAntigonea, must become real parks, a huge investment is required in order toprovide and create the above mentioned facilities such as easy access, touristicwelcome structures (visitor centre, café, restaurants, hotel accommodation) aswell as stake holders acceptance. It is difficult to establish the dimension ofthis investment because it is possible to calculate it only after making the realprojects dealing with the various requirements proposed in this document. Butit is realistic to think that Apollonia and Antigonea will require about € 500.000each to reach a sufficient standard (leaving aside the possible museums torealize in both sites). For the other archaeological parks that amount of moneyshould be at least doubled.5 This idea came out during the meeting with Mr.Olsi Lafe, Director of Directorateof National Heritage of Ministry of Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports during our meetingon the 19thOctober 2009
  • 13. 13An internal ruling code for the archaeological park should be settledcontaining the main indication on how to manage the relationship betweenthe park, the private owner of land as well as with visitors and other publicor private entities according to the zoning situation. This juridical tool willrule all situations internal of the park and will repeal other territorial laws.This kind of document is normally and widely used to rule the internal lifeof museums and archaeological parks (it was also recommended by ICOMin various documents and congresses) as well as the relationship with privateand public stakeholders. In Italy ruling codes for archaeological parks wererealized for Sicilian archaeological parks. They were proposed by the localSuperintendence and approved by the regional Ministry of Culture after theconsultation of regional council for cultural heritage. They are necessary aswell as compulsory to rule the life of the archaeological park.In Albania such ruling codes for archaeological parks should be elaboratedand proposed by the directors of the parks, approved by the Directorate ofCultural Heritage after having received the approval of National Council ofArchaeological Parks and, finally, enacted by the Ministry of Culture6.It is necessary an improvement in the quality of service inside thearchaeological parks making frequent quality control tests that can be alsomade by other agencies.6 A scheme of ruling code for archaeological park is enclosed in appendix 1A.4.c SWOT analysis of actual management of archaeological park systemFew persons officially involved in the variousaspect that daily management of ParkGap in capabilitiesLack of competitive behavior among park-employersLow degree of autonomyLow wagesWeaknessesEnthusiasm among the park staffSome of the park’s employers have a very highprofessional levelStrengthsBeauty of sitesImportance of sitesExpanding interest on cultural heritageOptimal geographic position of AlbaniaOpportunitiesLoss of enthusiasm if the staff will remain withoutautonomyDangerous competition with nearby GreeceLowering of the level of tourismThreatsA.5 Project of management of archaeological park system
  • 14. 14StudyontheFiscal,ManagementandGovernanceStructureoftheArchaeologicalParkSysteminAlbaniaIt is also necessary that the ticket will be electronic to avoid tricks and tohave a better and rapid statistical picture of visitors’ frequency.One of the major risks of an archaeological area is vegetation that is growingon and between the ancient monuments (among the blocks constituting thewalls, inside plaster, among mosaics and pavements etc.). The traditional wayof removing such vegetation cutting it at the base or (worse) eradicating it bypulling damages the monuments because frequently the roots are so strongto move stones and (more easily) plaster or pavements. Now the up to datesystem of removing vegetation in archaeological areas is performed usinga wide series of product based on the active principle named Glyphosate.Glyphosate isopropylamine salt solution is a kind of selective systemic sterileherbicides. It prevents the annual and biennial monocotyledonous grass, killsthe deep-rooted perennial weeds, doesn’t affect the seeds and microorganismsand it is low-toxic for people and livestock. It is used spraying the herbicide tostems and leaves of the weeds in growth period. This is the most economic andefficient way of removing weeds and invading herbs that affect the monuments.Moreover it is not affecting the livestock and the fauna (also micro-fauna) and,respecting the easy protocols of protection, doesn’t give any problems to thepeople.Instead of huge power stations, nowadays, a large amount of small scaleenergy supply systems are growing all over the world. Single buildings orfarms as well as small islands or small territorial units are supplied by lowscale alternative power stations. Moreover, there is in many countries a wideconsensus on such policies so that there is a lot of financial support given by thestates, agencies and banks. EU is giving a wide support to this policy financingalmost totally the family or small unit decisions to install solar panels and otherenergy providers.Archaeological parks are places where this kind of attitude could befollowed trying the right solutions to receive the required energy by alternativemeans. Of course it is clear that it will be impossible to occupy wide extensionof archaeological areas with solar panels or wind mills because they have a bigvisual impact. But, as it is already remembered, technological innovation in thisfield gives us the possibility to find eco-sustainable solutions that do not affectthe landscape.It will be necessary that the Directorate of National Heritage gives the chargeto proper experts to prepare projects, at least for the main archaeological parks,such as Butrint, Antigonea and Apollonia, aimed to install systems of energysupply from wind and sun based on the estimated needs and on a rigid controlof visual impact. It means that traditional wind mills with high towers and largeblades should be avoided in favor of small systems placed in such places wherethey cannot interfere with monuments and landscape sightseeing. Thoseprojects could be financially sustained by EU and other international agencies.Another aspect of park management will take care of local small andmedium-sized companies connected with agriculture, tourism, communicationand commerce.Another important aspect to bear in mind managing an archaeological park: the problem ofenergy supply. The world is quickly going towards the exploitation of the so called alternativeenergies. It is well known how technology is running very fast and brings many innovations inthe various systems of energy production beside the traditional ones based on oil, charcoal etc.A real technological innovation has been produced in the field of local and low scale systemsof alternative production.
  • 15. 15They must have the chance to get proper spaces to sell their products thatcould have an interest for the visitors. It is absolutely to avoid what happenedin many archaeological areas in Europe (mainly Italy, Greece) and elsewherewith a total unordered placing of stalls and stands that sometimes look as ifthey are strangling the monuments and the landscape. A precise planning ofthe spaces where such private companies can carry on their activity must beprepared by the staff of the archaeological parks in collaboration with the localterritorial management agencies.A.6 Bureaucracy and administration reform in the field of management and governance structure of archaeological park systemAs it will be seen in detail after the analysis of Apollonia situation,archaeological parks are suffering by overlapping of competences. There is anoverlapping of competences among different public institutions that are dealingwith the same sites although it is an apparently autonomous archaeologicalpark. The public entities involved in decision making are: Ministry of Tourism,Culture, Youth and Sport (with the units of National Boards of ArchaeologicalParks, Directorate of National Heritage, Institute of Monuments, RegionalDirectorate of Cultural Monuments and Offices for the Administration andCoordination of Archaeological Parks), Ministry of Education, Science andTechnology (with its unit of Institute of Archaeology).Actually, according to what has been recognized after many interviewswith some cultural heritage top-officers it looks as if the situation is changingtowards a simplification of relationships among the above-mentioned officesand agencies. Of course we encountered a situation in movement becauseAlbania is passing from a very defined typology of decision- making structure,in which the Academy of Science through Institute of Archaeology was almostcontrolling the entire environment of national cultural heritage, to a new onebased on the widely diffused European democratic system where the competentMinistry is ruling the entire apparatus on the basis of popular consensus.This situation gives rise to confusion, conflicts and loss of time, energy andresources. The proposal is to give to the Offices for the Administration andCoordination of Archaeological Parks more autonomy of proposal and controlmaintaining the hierarchical decision flow that will submit all the decision ofthe Archaeological Parks to the control of the Directorate of National Heritagethat has to consult the National Boards of Archaeological Parks. The cases inwhich the Directorate is obliged to inform and consult the National Boardsof Archaeological Parks must be decided and specified in the law that isrequired to change the system. Anyway, it could be proposed that in the case ofexcavation permission to national or foreign missions, restoration project, wideplanning activity, temporary exhibition and other matters to be defined, it willbe compulsory to consult the National Boards of Archaeological Parks. By thisnew law there should be also changed the role of directors of park inside theNational Board of Archaeological Parks. It will be obvious that they shouldhave the right to vote.
  • 16. 16StudyontheFiscal,ManagementandGovernanceStructureoftheArchaeologicalParkSysteminAlbaniaMinistry ofTourism CultureYouth and SportNational Boards of Archaeological ParksDirectorateofNationalHeritageRegionalDirectorateofCulturalMonumentsOffices for the Administration andCoordination of Archaeological ParksInstitute of MonumentsMinistry of Education, Scienceand TechnologyInstitute of ArchaeologyMinistry ofTourism CultureYouth and SportDirectorateofNationalHeritageNational Boards of Archaeological ParksInstituteofMonumentsOffices for the Administration andCoordination of Archaeological Parks Institute of ArchaeologyConsulting functions Hierarchical relations Non hierarchical relationsInstitute of Monuments and Institute of Archaeology must become agenciesthat will collaborate with the park on non-hierarchical base, but as partnersof specified projects. The Regional Directorate of Cultural Monuments willdeal with all the affairs concerning cultural heritage of the area except theArchaeological Parks.There is another field of confusion regarding archaeological excavationsand researches. Nowadays, there is a very unusual situation regarding therelationship between Albanian as well as foreign archaeological missions andpark director. It happens that the archaeological missions carry on theirscientific activity without even informing the park officers. This situation is notacceptable because park directorate must be not only informed about scientificand logistic activity of scientific mission but it also has to give its opinion onthe scientific project carried on yearly as well as on multiyear perspective.According to Albanian procedures, permission is granted to archaeologicalmission in collaboration with national agencies by Institute of Archaeology andNational Boards of Archaeological Parks and Directorate of National Heritage.It should be proposed that the permission for archaeological excavationsand research must be granted by the Directorate of National Heritage afterthe official positive opinion of Park’s director and after consulting the NationalBoards of Archaeological Parks.In synthesis it will be better to give more autonomy to the archaeologicalparks. But let us compare the nowadays situation with what will be a better,faster, more efficient and more economic organization.Nowadays situation Hierarchical relationsProposed simplified developing situation
  • 17. 17But there will also be the necessity of a process of simplification of lawconcerning cultural heritage and building discipline. There is now a conflictbetween rules concerning the archaeological park zoning and urban disciplinewhich competence is nowadays in the hand of municipality. It will be betterthat inside the territory of Archaeological Parks the only rule to follow will bethe ruling code of the Park. In other words the Offices for the Administrationand Coordination of Archaeological Parks must have the priority to control theterritory under its own jurisdiction and, consequently, fight properly againstillegal building.Regarding human resources, in some cases (almost 20 - 30 %) positions thatshould require a high level of scientific as well as administrative professionalismare covered by unqualified people. On the contrary, there are many executiveswith a very high professional degree. It is necessary that the professionalprofile of the different position will be respected in the future selections. Sincethere is a wide discrepancy in the information level of the people working inthe Albanian archaeological parks, it should be necessary that, according to awise and precise selection, the actual personnel of the parks will take part inan intensive period of training and learning mainly devoted to the followingsubjects: management, risk management, administration, legal aspects, qualitycontrol, foreign languages, conservation, public relations, etc.EachParkmusthaveaminimumstaffcomposedbyatleasttwoarchaeologists,one architect, one expert in administration, one expert in territorial laws, twoconservators, one restorer, one public relation expert, guardians in numberproportional to the extension of park and workers devoted to the controlof vegetation in number proportional to the extension of park. This actualsituation of staff composition and qualification is widely below this standard.a) Director a) Directorb) Finance officer b-c) Expert, archaeologyc) Expert, archaeology d) Architectd) Expert, restoration f) Administrative executivee) Expert, environnent g-h) Expert, conservation f) Expert, management i-j) Expert, restoration k) Expert public relations l) Expert in territorial laws m) Guardians n) Workers Actual Archaeological Park staff composition Proposed Archaeological Park staff compositionNowadays the archaeological parks of Albania have been delimited dividingthe controlled areas in zone A and zone B. Besides some cases in which suchzoning should be revised by a proposal of the directors due to some changesin the surrounding areas or because of some consideration derived by theexperience so far acquired (extension of Antigonea; changing of somethingin Apollonia due to the presence of inhabited areas), it should be proposed toadd a zone C. Zone C will be a zone in which there could be located activities insupport to the park. In other words zone C will be an area in which there couldbe located small resorts, B&B, restaurants, parking, camping etc.A.7 Improvementofzoningsystemofarchaeological parks and related rules
  • 18. 18StudyontheFiscal,ManagementandGovernanceStructureoftheArchaeologicalParkSysteminAlbaniaThis new idea of zoning will be made in accordance with the local authoritiesbecause it is something that is not only related to the park but also to thegeneral territorial planning of the regional future. It is something that cannotbe done on the maps, but after an intense negotiation with the municipalities.In other words enucleating a zone C devoted to infrastructures related to thetouristic development of the park will be necessary; but it will be negotiatedwith municipalities and local stakeholders because it is strictly connected withthe future economic and territorial development of the region.The actual asset of scientific research in the archaeological parks ofAlbania isn’t properly adequate to the importance of the sites. There are nocomprehensive programs with a high degree of contextual behavior in favor ofan exhaustive reconstruction of ancient ecosystems. There are several scatteredprograms of investigation aimed to the understanding of single monuments orsingle chronological as well as functional aspects of particular areas of somesites. What it comes up is a sort of micro research system based on a lot ofsmall isolated researches that are not involved in a defined strategy. It is as ifany mission or research group is working without any connection to the otherand there isn’t any supervision aiming to define a comprehensive strategy ofarchaeological research in Albania.By the way it isn’t correct to say that there isn’t quality in the scientificresearch so far carried out and in those that are nowadays running. But thereis a total absence of coordination and of a precise strategy in archaeologicalresearch in Albania today.The visible outcome of this situation is that there aren’t exhaustivepublications either in the field of analytically or of synthetically organizedarchaeology.A.8 Actual asset of scientific research in the archaeological parksA.9 Future asset of scientific research in the archaeological parksA strong need of research planning is required in archaeological researchin Albania. The various excavations and researches so far carried on should beencouraged stimulating a major dialogue and collaboration among them. Thistask must be assumed at the various levels of decision-making. For exampleinside a park the director must work in the sense of avoiding that differentteams of research will work separately without any contact among themand with the total absence of a common strategy. In a park coinciding withan ancient town archaeological research must be organized having specificobjective to be clarified. All the scientific team working in this area should workin close collaboration without useless overlapping and confronting always theirresults. Moreover, frequent work-in-progress conferences must be plannedand realized by the director of the park gathering all the team responsible inorder to find common strategies of research connected with the requirementsof the site.
  • 19. 19Moreover, all the documentation so far acquired and the future one must bedeposited in the archives of the archaeological park at disposal of the scholarsworking in the park. As far as knowledge is concerned, it will be necessary thatthe team working in the same archaeological site will coordinate their effort tobuild a common GIS with related database that will be the unique system tohave a clear idea of the importance and features of the site.The archaeological parks, besides Butrinti and partly Apollonia, arenow weak as far as monumental remains. A reappraisal of archaeologicalinvestigation is needed. This could be done in the frame of an internationalcooperation calling the most important universities and research centers thathave the required knowledge to cope with Albanian archaeological situationbut also by Albanian institutions such as Institute of Archaeology, Academy ofScience, and Universities.According to my survey of archaeological parks in Albania, there isn’t till now any GIS sofar realized. It means that there isn’t any system of real and precise geographical referencefor the monuments so far excavated in all the archaeological parks of Albania. The nowadaystopographic maps were created in a traditional way taking measurements from the establishedtopographic geo referred “stations” placed in some prominent points of the country. Thissystem was more than one decade ago bypassed by the actual GIS (Geographical InformationSystem). First of all, nowadays it is possible to take the exact position of a point with differentialGPS that isn’t the normal commercial GPS but a more sophisticated one working on the base ofa receiving system based on at least three different stations scattered on the area to be mapped.GIS needs this kind of precision in placing a complete and precise grid of referring points onwhich the real map of an area will be based. The real map will be made using zenithal photosmade by at least 6 or more meters with the camera placed at the end of a long stick remotelycontrolled. Those photos are elaborated by special software and geographically referred inaccordance to the previous established topographic points. In this way you’ll obtain a completeand precise map of the archaeological area on which you can trace what you prefer (walls,roads, particular places, single age monuments, special function monuments). You can also usethis very powerful tool to control the dynamic change of the area if you repeat the mappingany time you like. But the main result of this system is that you can link any item that yousee on the map with a data base. In this way you can know in real times all the objects thatwere found in those monuments along with all the pictures, drawings notes, publications,administrative acts etc.Nowadays this system is widely attested in almost all developed countriesand has become a powerful and necessary tool to manage not only scientificresearch, but also administration and control of data. It becomes necessary thatall the data concerning the archaeological heritage of a park in Albania shouldbe managed through GIS that will allow an optimum territorial managementof different kinds of data (files, images, documents etc.) in a geo-referredsituation. The availability of geo-referred geographical maps will be the basefor establishing a good and precise GIS. These maps could be obtained byother national agencies on the base of precise agreements. This will be thebest way to control land and to manage territorial resources in real time andin a dynamic perspective. Costs of this operation are not so high and could belowered through international cooperation making precise agreements withforeign missions asking them to operate with GIS and asking them to providealso training for local personnel.The following step will be to put on the web such information in orderto create a Web GIS that will be a very useful tool for territorial planning,scientific knowledge and territorial resources management.
  • 20. 20StudyontheFiscal,ManagementandGovernanceStructureoftheArchaeologicalParkSysteminAlbaniaBoth foreign and national archaeological missions should propose a yearlyprogram of research to the director of the park that after his approval willpass for the final decision to the Directorate of Cultural Heritage that willdecide after having consulted the National Board of Archaeological Parks.Those researches that fulfill the main absence of knowledge as well as theresolution of archaeological, monumental and functional aspects and that willbe complementary to others should be better accepted.TheInstituteofArchaeologyaswellastheAlbanianUniversitiescouldplayanimportant role in helping the archaeological parks in the field of archaeologicalresearch. The archaeological Parks could become the real training places forthe new generation of Albanian archaeologists in a frame of collaborationbetween the park administrations and the University Departments.A.10 Actual asset of conservation in the archaeological parksThere is a low degree of conservation activities in the archaeological parksof Albania either from the quantitative or the qualitative point of view. Thereis few scattered and isolated intervention of conservation, but the majority ofthe archaeological areas need a wide and systematic activity of conservation.Conservation means money involved and this could be a problem according tothe nowadays budget. Stability of some monuments is in danger as well as thereal consistency of many structures. Wind and rain erosion is a major dangerthat is affecting a wide number of monuments in archaeological parks. Mosaicsare not visible because they are temporarily covered to avoid their destruction.A.11 Future asset of conservation in the archaeological parksA wide and deep strategy of conservation must be planned in order to giveto the Albanian archaeological monuments a proper shape and preserve fromthe danger produced by wind, rain and time erosion. First of all, it will benecessary to work on those monuments that are statically in danger like thecity walls of Apollonia. Secondly, it will be necessary to find the right solutionfor those monuments whose structures are in danger from erosion. A wideinternational collaboration with the main European conservation agenciesmust be settled in order to find the best up to date solution to cope with stoneerosion. Thirdly, it will be necessary that mosaics and other more delicatesituations must be preserved with proper interventions that could also be basedon covering partially the sites. In this respect it is widely accepted that any“roof ” in an archaeological site will have a bad visual impact. For this reasonit will be necessary that a strict collaboration with the Institute of Monumentsand architectural university department must be settled in order to find theright solution for low impact roofing.Finally, it will be necessary that in Albania all the archaeological missionsworking in the field of research will also take care of conservation of themonuments that they dig. Although this will be sometimes a heavy task fromthe economical point of view, it is ethically obvious that excavating withoutconservation of what is discovered will be a crime to the culture. So any nationalor foreign mission will plan its budget keeping in mind that a consistent part ofmoney must be devoted to conservation.
  • 21. 21This should be something that must be decided and undersigned by theparties when there are any agreements for archaeological research. TheAlbanian or joint Albanian/foreign archaeological missions that are grantedto make scientific researches in the Albanian archaeological parks should beasked to contribute to the conservation of monuments. They will provide forthe restorations of the monuments coming out from the excavations.The Institute of Monuments can play an important role in this field startingand following a wide series of conservation projects in collaboration with thePark authorities. The role of this Institute, according to his experience andskill, will be guiding and giving the principle of conservation through a wideseries of pilot intervention on some particularly complex cases. Moreover, itwill be better that any conservation projects must be examined and approvedby the Institute of Monuments.Due to the extension of archaeological parks, it will be necessary to thinkof electronic control systems mainly based on video scattered in differentstrategic and dangerous areas that will be connected to monitors placed in aroom where a single guardian can have the direct sight of the situation. Thissystem will give a more efficient control and will be less expensive than thetraditional one.A.12 Actual fiscal system financing archaeological park organizationAt the moment there isn’t any fiscal withdrawal directly related to themanagement of archaeological parks as well as to general cultural heritage.This was the figure that it came up reading the reports on this subject aswell as through the meetings with the responsible people of the differentbranches of public administration. Financial resources coming to the parks aredirectly given by the Ministry of Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports throughDirectorate of National Heritage. All the income coming from tickets and otherobjects sold and from the activities of the parks are collected by the State andonly 10 % is coming back to the related park7.According to the experience so far matured, this 10% takes between eightand ten months to be given back from the Ministry of Culture to the Parkadministration. It is clear that if this, as well as other money coming from othersources, will reach the archaeological park at the end of the year, it will bedifficult to spend quietly and wisely bearing in mind that everything should beexpended not beyond the 20th of December. This delay is obviously affectingthe normal activity of parks because if you don’t get the money in time youcannot do a good financial planning for the expenses. Moreover, it will bebetter to have the possibility to spend the money throughout the year thanto be obliged to do it in hurry at the end of the year. A major efficiency in theprocessing of administrative procedures is required in order to deliver thefunds in time.7 The situation of Butrint archaeological park is slightly different because part of the moneymust go to pay the guard company that is in charge of security inside the park. In fact the amountof money going back to the park is less that 10 %.
  • 22. 22StudyontheFiscal,ManagementandGovernanceStructureoftheArchaeologicalParkSysteminAlbaniaThere are in Albania, however, some ideas to introduce a fiscal withdrawaldevoted to cultural heritage. As far as it was possible to know through directmeetings with top administrators, it comes up that, nowadays, in Albania thereis only one idea (not yet formalized as law) to raise money for cultural heritagefrom fiscal withdrawal8.The idea is to drain 0.50 % of the amount of any building activity (public orprivate) for each square meter. This model, derived from similar but not sameones so far realized in Italy and France, takes into consideration the fact thatthis fiscal withdrawal will be calculated not only for the simple surface wherethe building is placed, but also for each floor. This amount of money will bedevoted not only to archaeological parks but to the general activity of protectionand evaluation of cultural heritage under the Directorate of National Heritageof the Ministry for Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports.There is a clear necessity to increase the budget of Ministry of Culture inorder to have more resources to destine to the archaeological parks. Nowadaysthe budget for culture is about 0,40 % of GDP. A good situation could bereached if this percentage will stabilize around 1,00 %. There are many reasonsto justify the necessity of such increase. First of all, there is a strong need offinancial investment to increase the level of efficiency either in the knowledge,but mainly in the management of cultural heritage. The inadequacy ofmanagement is nowadays visible in the almost total absence of informationdevices aimed to give the visitors a better idea on what they are visiting.There is also a strong need of resources aimed to a better governance of manyarchaeological sites in the field of control of vegetation, network of internalpedestrian paths, parking, toilets, visitor centre, archaeological permanentexhibitions inside the parks, major communication with people and especiallywith local stakeholders, implementing national and international touristicstrategies etc.The archaeological park must be in the position to make budget also fromother sources. Those could come, for example, from the possibility to allownational and international companies to launch their new brands and productsinside the parks with the monuments foregrounds. Income could also comeby allowing the use of park and site name and logo in connection with someproducts. Another wide field of income could be based on the associationof park and site name with local food products that are typical of the area.Moreover, the image of the site or of different archaeological monuments ifused for commercial purposes must be paid to the park administration.8 This idea came out during the meeting with Mr.Ols Lafe, Director of Directorate ofNational Heritage of Ministry of Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports during our meeting on the 19thOctober 2009.A.13 Project of financial structure for archaeological park organizationEconomic autonomy is the basis for the development of archaeological parks. Incomeresources coming from tickets, royalties and other activities should remain at the disposalof the management of the archaeological park that will use them for developing programsaccording to annual budget that will be approved by the Directorate of National Heritage afterits presentation for comments and indications to the National Board of Archaeological Parksand to the Council of Archaeological Park (this proposed council will be later explained anddescribed).
  • 23. 23There is another possible source of income that is based on the commonbehavior in Albania, as well as in other Mediterranean countries, to pay a visitto the archaeological monuments on the wedding day to use these places asscenery for remembering “the most important day of life” through pictures.Since this is not the proper way of visiting an archaeological area a small extraticket should be imposed to those that want to “use” monuments as sceneryfor other purposes than cultural attitude, such as wedding pictures, fashionadvertisements etc. But it will be necessary that all the commercial “use” ofarchaeological areas and monuments should be taxed according to tariff listthat will be compiled for each variety of documents provided (postcards, video,commercial publications, movies, fashion and wedding pictures etc.).A.14 Private funding and sponsorsAnother field of income could come from privates and foundations. In thisrespect it is useful to take as example the French law (Act of 23 July, l987 onthe development of sponsorship) because it should be the best to be adaptedto the Albanian situation. The main features of this law are to allow firms todeduct from their taxable profit any unconditional sponsorship paid to projectsand bodies of a general interest. Such deductions are normally subject to anupper limit of 2% of turnover; this limit increases to 3% of turnover where thebeneficiaries of sponsorship are public-interest associations or foundations.To encourage commercial and industrial firms to sponsor culture and, morespecifically, the heritage, and to lend continuity to their sponsorship activities,a new legal entity known as the enterprise foundation (fondation d’entreprise) isnow available to companies. This new legal framework (established by the Actof 4 July, l990 and its implementing Decree of 30 September, 1991) is bettersuited than public-interest foundations to the needs of businesses.An enterprise foundation is a legal entity engaged in carrying out workin the public interest that cannot be funded through donations, bequests orappeals to the generosity of the public. Permission to set up an enterprisefoundation is granted by the prefect of the department in which the foundationis to be based.Firms wishing to expand their sponsorship policy now have a choice of fourtypes of foundation:• public-interest foundations;• enterprise foundations;• foundations created under the aegis of the Fondation de France;• the Fondation du Patrimoine (Heritage Foundation).The Fondation de France (Foundation of France)was set up in 1969 to assistindividuals, businesses and associations carrying out general-interest projectsof a philanthropic, cultural or scientific nature. As an autonomous, non-political and secular entity governed by private law, the Foundation is a public-interest non-profit-making organization.The Fondation de France has three main objectives:• to collect funds to be used to combat poverty and social exclusion,in support of scientific and medical research or for cultural andenvironmental projects;• to help with the development and running of associations;• to encourage private sponsorship by providing a framework withinwhich foundations can be established.
  • 24. 24StudyontheFiscal,ManagementandGovernanceStructureoftheArchaeologicalParkSysteminAlbaniaThe Fondation du Patrimoine, set up by the Act of 2 July, 1996, is designed tobe an instrument for promoting the local heritage. France has so far lacked aninstitution of this nature capable of following the example of the large Britishand American foundations and assuming financial responsibility for threatenedor neglected monuments by finding original methods of funding.The Foundation will have three main objectives:• to enhance, by awarding a national label, monuments or sites ofregional interest which are not protected as historic monuments inorder to attract public attention to them:• to promote and support action programs to conserve or enhance thelocal heritage;• to increase the number of monuments capable of becoming centersof attraction in the regions by promoting local initiatives linked to thelabeled structures or sites.The decree recognizing the Fondation du patrimoine as being of public interestand approving its statutes was signed on 17 April, 1997. The foundation, whichis a private-law body enjoying legal and financial autonomy, has the generaltask of conserving and promoting the local heritage.A system of regional and department delegations was immediatelyintroduced. The Foundation started to schedule operations to restore the ruraland vernacular heritage with the technical and scientific co-operation of thearchitects and conservators of the historic monuments department.The Ministry of the Budget and the Ministry of Culture and Communicationdecided in 1998 to clarify the precise scope of the tax relief provided for by theAct of 2 July, 1996. Agreement was reached in 1999 and will be applied as fromthe 2000 fiscal year. The agreement concerns the typical rural heritage whichwill have to be approved in order to be covered by the tax provisions.Albania is not new to this kind of entity (foundations) connected to culturalheritage as it is known according to the experience of Butrint.A.15 Project of fiscal drainage useful to finance archaeological park organizationThere are different possibilities to drain resources from fiscal mechanismsof the State without imposing new taxes to the people, but it is clear that thisshould be a political decision that must be taken approving proper laws.A system should be on volunteer base. Every single taxpayer can, withoutany obligation, assign a percentage of the amount of yearly paid taxes (rangingbetween 5 and 10 x 1000) to some public or private agency, foundationor association connected with cultural heritage, previously listed by theappointment of Council of Ministry after a proposal of Directorate of NationalHeritage. This is the widely attested system of donation that is very common inthe United States.Another system could be addressed to big companies and patrons. Thoseentities could be authorized by a law to devote to cultural heritage (and inparticular to the Albanian archaeological parks) part of their amount of yearlytaxes to a maximum of a fixed sum that could be no more than (for example) €300.000. Again also this system is very common in U.S.A., but it is little by littleincreasing in Italy and other European countries.
  • 25. 25There is another way of making fiscal drainage towards cultural heritagethat is diffusing among many world countries. It is connected to the hugepublic works (highways, bridges, ports, railways, dams, networks etc.) run bythe State or in joint venture (public/private) or as project financing. By law itcould be decided that an amount of money ranging around 3% of the total costof the work should be given directly to the Directorate of National Heritageor other public agencies connected with cultural heritage such as the systemof archaeological parks, or divided into different entities. This is a system thatis in use in Italy and it is run by a private- public consortium named Arkus.Another way to spend this money will be to create a foundation based onpublic and private contribution that will receive the money and will financethe development of cultural heritage system as well as the archaeologicalparks.Although it is not directly connected with fiscal system it is necessary toimprove and encourage private donations and sponsorship. The actual lawruling sponsorship (2003) could be reviewed introducing more stimulus andfacilities.A.16 Lotto system for financing archaeological park and cultural heritageOne of the main fiscal sources used in many countries is gambling. This is thecase of Italy where it was decided by law that a percentage of the total amountof state gambling income (lotto) will be devoted to cultural activities such asmovies, theater, drama, music and also conservation, archaeological researchand improvement of museum and monumental areas or single monument.During 2006 in Italy more than three hundred millions of Euros were investedfor this kind of activities connected with monumental cultural heritage. Italiansystem could be appointed with proper changes in relation with the Albaniansituation. For example it should be applied taking an annual sum of money thatwill be negotiated every year between the competent Ministries, or establishinga fixed aliquot of the total of gambling income.A.17 SWOT analysis of possible fiscal system tofinancearchaeologicalparkorganizationStrengthsAbsence of similar fiscal withdrawal in AlbaniaFlexibility of the young fiscal system in AlbaniaCompetitive advantages without sacrificesInnovative systemAdequacy with up-to-date European systemsStrengthening of cultural sensibilityNo further taxes for the peopleIncrease in cash flow for cultural heritageWeaknessesLow efficiency of fiscal system in AlbaniaCompetitive behaviour by other ministriesLike any new model it is difficult to be metabolizedby the administrative and political environmentsLow cultural sensibility especially in rural areas
  • 26. 26StudyontheFiscal,ManagementandGovernanceStructureoftheArchaeologicalParkSysteminAlbaniaAlthough the National Tourism Agency is doing a very good job in thefield of communication, publishing exhaustive booklets and brochure andparticipating to the most important international fairs, there is a low degreeof connection between the park system and the agency. A major connectionwill be fruitful in order to expand the knowledge of the archaeological parksas well as the stimulus to visit them either among the Albanians and theforeigners. Though an intense collaboration between park administration andNational Tourism Agency will be not only necessary, but also compulsory, thelast responsibility and competence for touristic communication will be withNational Tourism Agency.To increase the knowledge of archaeological parks it will be necessary toprogram yearly scholarships for graduated students of archaeology and ancienthistory that has done thesis on matters concerning archaeological parks ofAlbania. The scholarship will include, besides a sufficient amount of moneyand the publication of the thesis, a period of at least three months of stageinside the related park working as a member of the staff.It is necessary to coordinate the publication of archaeological guides on thebasis of different targets of interest and spending capabilities. Nowadays thereis a sufficient production of these kinds of books, but with a limited range ofvariety that should be increased.It is extremely necessary to realize a wide, rich and fully informed web siteorganized and permanently updated by Archaeological Park Administrationin the frame of a centralized web site financed by the Ministry of Culture forall the Albanian Archaeological Parks. It is to remember that nowadays theimplementation of web site is not a difficult and expensive task due to thedevelopment of software. Web master of these sites could be an employer ofArchaeological Park that will learn how to run it after a very short course.These web sites must give all the information about the archaeological parks(historical, archaeological, geographical, route connections etc.) linked withthe web sites dealing with touristic information on the area (accommodation,restaurants, sightseeing attractions etc.).Club services such as Rotary and Lyons, that have been present in Albania fora few years, could play an important role in creating in civil society a network ofattention, communication and knowledge of archaeological parks organizingconferences, forums, cultural trips, congresses and publications.OpportunitiesIncrease in investment capability on culturalheritageStimulating efficiencyIncrease in technological development applied tocultural heritageIncrease of people concernMajor financial possibility to invest in programinvolving stakeholdersMajor opportunities for the park administrationStimulating competition among parksThreatsEventual erroneous political speculationsspeaking of taxes increaseNecessity of new law and, consequently, ofconsensusA.18 Project of touristic development for archaeological park organization
  • 27. 27The Albanian or joint Albanian / foreign archaeological missions that aregranted to make scientific research in the Albanian archaeological parks shouldbe asked to contribute to the communication of the results of their activity.They will provide, according to the standards decided by the director of thepark, to realize explanatory panels to place near the monuments.It will be very important to update or to place for the first time a series oflabels with clear indications that will lead from the main roads towards thearchaeological parks. In some strategic places where people will stop (suchas petrol stations or bars, cafés, restaurants etc.) those indications should beenriched by brief accounts on the archaeological sites.Communication could be done in different ways, but one of the mainappreciated tools in this field will be promotional video that, as it was alreadydone in the past, could be framed financially in the normal activity of NationalTourism Agency. But it would be done in a better way than in the past and withversions in the main international languages, taking care to establish a realcollaboration between the video makers and the archaeologists of archaeologicalparks or from University. In other words a good video dealing with archaeologywill be the output of the collaboration between specialists of high professionalstandards either in the field of communication or archaeology. Different videoson the various archaeological parks in different languages should be done andcirculate in the schools, fairs, meetings and various entertainment occasions aswell as in the main national and international networks. The quality of videowill be the basis of its success. Quality could be granted by the professionalismof the staff either in the field of video producing or in archaeological advising.Sometimes this kind of video could become boring and uninteresting. To avoidsuch inconvenience it will be better if the video is based on a real story inwhich a well-known actor or actress, or else a writer or art maker accompaniesthe public in an ideal tour of the site. The better-known this person is, themore successful the video will be. The strategy of communication via videomust be based on the production of at least two different versions of the sameproduct. A video of about twenty minutes (long version) will be devoted tobe broadcast through the main national and international networks as well asin the scientific, political and entertainment occasions. A short version of fewminutes (about three) will be devoted to fill inserts in many crowded placessuch as airports, hotels, public places, fairs etc.Another very important and powerful tool to increase the knowledge of thearchaeological parks will be the organization of cultural exhibitions inland andabroad either with real archaeological items or only based on photographicand graphic images, replicas, models and electronic media.It is absolutely necessary that the archaeological parks take part in the maintouristic fairs in the world in collaboration with National Tourism Agency.It will be obvious that if the people don’t know a site they cannot select it as a place tobe visited. Promotional video, as well as brochure, will be, along with the so called “door todoor” publicity, the main vehicle to increase the number of visitors. An investment based onthese integrated systems of promotion will be widely absorbed by a real increase of visitors.It is widely accepted that video can have a cultural value as used in the field of scientificdivulgation in the schools and universities.
  • 28. 28StudyontheFiscal,ManagementandGovernanceStructureoftheArchaeologicalParkSysteminAlbaniaSummarized proposalsHigh priority Timing ResponsibilityLaw to the change in fiscal system to improvecultural heritage income.short termGovernmentVegetation removal with active principle(GlyphosateIsopropylamine salt solution) (circa €5.000per park)short term Arch. Park OfficeUpgrade of personnel’s professionalqualification with respect to management,risk management, administration, legalaspects, quality control, foreign languages,conservation, public relations, etc.short term Direct. of Cult. Herit.GIS (around €50.000 per park) short term Direct. of Cult. Herit.Planning of conservation strategies short term Arch. Park OfficePayment of archaeological park imagesroyalties short termDirect. of Cult. Herit.Setting of an intense collaboration betweenArchaeological Park administration andNational Tourism Agencyshort termDirect. of Cult. Herit.Law to change the hierarchical system ofthe peripheral structure of the Ministry(relationship between parks and centraladministration) as well as with other agenciesof the same Ministry (Institute of Monuments)as well as of other Ministry (Institute ofArchaeology) giving autonomy to the parks.medium term GovernmentInternal ruling code for the archaeologicalparkmedium term GovernmentEconomic autonomy of archaeological parks medium term GovernmentLaw to devolve a percentage of public works’budget for cultural heritagelong term GovernmentLaw to devolve a percentage of State incomefrom Lotto and gambling to cultural heritagelong term Government
  • 29. 29Medium priority Timing ResponsibilityQuality control tests on archaeological parks(Around € 5.000 per park)short term Direct. of Cult. Herit.Electronic tickets (around € 20.000 per park) short term Direct. of Cult. Herit.Improvement of zoning system short term Arch. Park OfficePlanning of archaeological research short term Arch. Park OfficeImprovement of foundation’s system forcultural heritageshort term GovernmentProgram of yearly scholarships for graduatedstudents of archaeology and ancient historythat has done thesison matters concerning archaeological parks ofAlbania (around € 10.000 per park)short term Direct. of Cult. Herit.Web site setting (around € 10.000 per park) short term Direct. of Cult. Herit.Promotional video (around € 30.000 per park) short term Direct. of Cult. Herit.Cultural exhibitions (around € 200.000 perpark)short term Direct. of Cult. Herit.Participation to international tourism fairsand events (around € 20.000 per park)short term Direct. of Cult. Herit.Planning of the spaces for private stalls medium term Arch. Park OfficeIncrease of number of archaeological parkstaffmed-long term GovernmentIncrease of percentage of GDP income tocultural heritage from 0,40% to 1,00%long term GovernmentTax relief law for cultural heritage long term GovernmentLaw for a volunteer system of devolving a partof taxes to cultural heritagelong term GovernmentHigh priority Timing ResponsibilityAlternative energies (around € 50.000 perpark)long term Direct. of Cult. Herit.
  • 30. ApolloniaApollonia
  • 31. 31Apollonia, a Greek colony with a strong Illyrian component, is one ofthe most important and impressive archaeological sites of Albania due to itsdimension (the walled town is about 80 ha), to its past importance and to thelong history of studies and researches that contributed to its knowledge. It issituated on a low hill whose height above sea level slightly reaches m 100. It isabout 10 km from the large town of Fieri and close to the village of Pojani.Its morphological situation is widely changed since the classical period inwhich the town was flourishing (mainly during the Vth cent.B.C.). The wideand large plain that is connecting Apollonia to the sea on the western sidewas at that time covered by sea or lagoon with a direct connection with thesea through channels. Its position is very strategic since it is at the end of thevalley of Vjosa, one of the most important natural routes towards inland. It wasmost probably because of the alluvial deposits that were brought by Vjosa thatthe town lost its relation with sea (nowadays the coast is far about km 10) anddeclined during late Roman period, although it maintained a free state (civitaslibera e immunis), leaving the role of primary port to Dyrrhachium.During the first centuries of Christian era it played an important role due tothe passage of the via Egnatia. It was also remembered because Octavian tooksome education in Apollonia before becoming emperor.ApolloniaB.B.1 Draft study on the fiscal, management and governance structure of the archaeological park system in Apollonia: actual situationB.1a Synopsis
  • 32. 32StudyontheFiscal,ManagementandGovernanceStructureoftheArchaeologicalParkSysteminAlbaniaApollonia was already declared and protected as archaeological site since1963. It was declared National Archaeological Park with DCM No 396, of 31March, 2005 “On the approval of borders and administration regulationsfor the archaeological parks of Shkodra, Lezha, Apollonia, Byllis, Amantia,Orikum, Antigonea, Finiq and Butrint”, although its boundaries were decidedon 20.02.03 (DCM No. 109).The staff of the park is composed by 6 permanent people including thedirector (Director, expert in finance, expert in archaeology, expert in tourismand environment, guard, guide (under 6 month contract), worker (plus anothercontracted worker), rangers in necropolis (contracted as part time workers).So far the activity of Apollonia park made in collaboration with otheragencies and institutes has been devoted to excavations in necropolis, in theextra urban temple of Bonjaket, in the planned road to Vlora. There wereorganized events such as Apollonia International Festival, Sofra Ilire, Oliveoil Fair, Musical events, ballet, chorus, festivals in the Odeon and workshopson cultural heritage. There were organized also the following meetings andexhibitions: -”Protecting together the Cultural Heritage”, “Apollonia – ourcommon treasure”, “The Renaissance of Apollonia” – exhibition dedicated tothe archaeologist Leon Rey.International collaboration was carried out with the excavation projectorganized by French-Albanian Archaeological mission in the agora area since1994. A geophysical survey in West area of Apollonia was conducted by theFrench School at Rome. German – Albanian collaboration has been realizedfor the excavation and study of theater of Apollonia since 2006. The extraurban temple of Bonjaket was excavated in collaboration with Institute ofArchaeology and University of Cincinnati.At the ticket office leaflets are distributed. An audio-guide in English andAlbanian is produced and will be ready soon. A website is also being constructed.The director of the park has proposed to improve the signage system, tocreate a visitor center to welcome the tourists, toilets and gift shops, picnic areasand stop points and benches for visitors, information panels and the openingof the Museum of Apollonia (the project looks to be already prepared).B.1b Fiscal, management and governance structureB.2 Draft study on the fiscal, management and governance structure of the archaeological park system in Apollonia: ProposalThe traditional way of removing such vegetation cutting it at the base or(worse) eradicating it by pulling damages the monuments because frequentlythe roots are so strong to move stones and (more easily) plaster or pavements.Now the up to date system of removing vegetation in archaeological areasis based on a wide series of products based on active principle Glyphosate.Glyphosate isopropylamine salt solution is a kind of selective systemic sterileherbicides. It prevents the annual and biennial monocotyledonous grass, killsthe deep-rooted perennial weeds, doesn’t affect the seeds and microorganismsand it is low-toxic for people and livestock. It is used spraying the herbicide tostems and leaves of the weeds in growth period.B.2a Management
  • 33. 33This is the most economic and efficient way of removing weeds and invadingherbs that affect the monuments. Moreover it is not affecting the livestock andthe fauna (also micro-fauna) and, respecting the easy protocols of protection,doesn’t give any problems to the people.In the vast area of Apollonia archaeological park there are wide areaswithout remains where rich and interesting vegetation is wildly growing.Beautiful dense fields of ferns are, for example, sometimes appearing alongthe way to the archaeological remains. Beside ferns many are wild botanicalvarieties that enrich the park area. Till now it is impossible to have a clearidea of the real consistency of wild vegetation inside the park area and thisis a gap that should be filled. A precise picture of vegetation distributioninside the archaeological park will be obtained creating a geographical mapof the distribution of wild varieties. This could be useful in order to proceedto a necessary planning of vegetal management of the park. It is necessaryto understand scientifically where some botanical varieties could remain andwhere they should be removed because they could damage the archaeologicalremains due to their roots.A vegetation survey of the area could be also useful to create various areasof botanical interest where appropriate information labels will describe theirnames and features. Those labels could be also placed on the different treeslike it was done in Butrinti. Besides all a small but interesting botanical gardenshould be created in an appropriate area of the park in order to give properinformation about the herbal population of the area.The zone B of the park is expanding towards the hilly area where the landscape is stillmaintaining its original rural aspect that is one of the most interesting features of its geographicalcontext. But this situation could be changed by the normal development of agriculture and bythe modernization that will inevitably affect this part of Albania. People are living in this partof the archaeological park and they will of course have the stimulus to increase and improvetheir life standard acquiring more developed life style and tools to carry on their activities. Thisdevelopment cannot be stopped for many obvious reasons, but it is necessary to take care andto avoid that such inevitable changes will affect the traditional landscape and, let’s say, its flavor.This beautiful rural landscape constitutes the surrounding scenery ofApollonia on both sides eastern and western. This means that, through theproposed ruling code of the archaeological park, there must be inserted suchrecommendations aimed to maintain the shape of rural landscape. This meansto maintain the actual cultivations or changing them without imposing changesin the distribution of fields and of vegetation. Just to give an example: wine-grapes cultivation could be made in different ways. Nowadays it is run withthe ancient system of isolated plants sometimes connected by wires in lineararrangement. If this way of cultivation will be changed into the so called “roofway” or “wide curtain” it will give to the landscape a total different shape thatwill lose its traditional aspect.The same arguments must be done for the houses scattered in thesurrounding landscape of Apollonia. People can maintain their traditionalway of life and activity giving them the obvious chance to make the normalmaintenance of their houses as well as to improve their standards of life andparticipate to the modernization of the entire Country.The traditional cultivations of cornfields and wheat should remain althoughthey could be modernized using innovative mechanical tools and system. Theonly recommendation will be to maintain the general shape of fields.
  • 34. 34StudyontheFiscal,ManagementandGovernanceStructureoftheArchaeologicalParkSysteminAlbaniaThe park must live and let the people use it in the most natural way. For thisreason it is advisable that the church must be left open to the cult and visitedlike it is after a proper conservation of frescoes, walls and wooden parts.A small cafeteria could be placed inside the courtyard of monastery withsome (few) tables to give the public the chance to consume some beverages.Nearby it should be placed also a place devoted to bookstore and museumshop.Picnics in the archaeological areas look like a major problem for Apolloniaarchaeological park. But it could be ruled finding proper areas for picnicsoutside from the actual areas where archaeological monuments are placed. Inthose areas appropriate furniture should be realized such as tables, benches,roofing, waste basket, safe barbecue etc.B.2b WasteAlthough a great effort has been done by the staff of the park, the presenceof garbage scattered in different places is still a problem especially in theboundary area near the villages. This bad behavior cannot be solved easilywithout a general improvement of education level of the people. But of coursea major presence of waste baskets and control system could limit this problem.Negotiation with the authorities of the villages must be carried on in orderto force them to have more care for the waste disposal that are scattered alongthe boundaries of park. This could be the only solution because it is out ofdiscussion that the administration of the park will afford the task to collect allthe daily waste and garbage produced by the houses near the archaeologicalarea! So it will be better to think of a strategy of continuous demand to the localmunicipality authorities convincing them that it will be not decorous for themto give this sightseeing to the guests coming to visit Albanian beauty.An interesting project, in this respect, will be also to settle a small plant touse waste and garbage in order to supply energy after a selected collection.Again this kind of project (that could be financed by international agencies)could give the park a high quality standard that will be important as generalappeal and to get more chances in EU and international funding.B.2c Temporary intrusionLooting of antiquities is a common problem of many archaeological sitesin Mediterranean. The system that the actual director of the park adoptedto control illegal excavation in the area is appropriate because it is based onhuman resources. He is appointing a guard that has as main job the control ofland and to give immediate communication to the police and to the director ofPark if looting activity is going on.Camping and camper parking should be avoided inside the area ofarchaeological park for at least three reasons. On one side it is to avoid anynight presence inside the park for security reasons. Secondly, the presenceof camper will give a bad visual impact. Thirdly, a public site as the park,according to international standards, cannot allow the presence of campersin its premises, but must provide them with all the necessary facilities such aswater, electricity, garbage pit and surveillance.
  • 35. 35It is obvious that this should be a heavy task for the park because it involvesthe presence of more employers. On the contrary this could be a service thatwill be run by a small company or cooperative on a place provided by the parkon its neighboring areas with an independent entrance.B.2d Permanent intrusive elementsWhen planning an archaeological park there are certain situations whereany compromise will be a disaster both for the park and for the private actors.The author is not a politician; he is an expert in archaeological parks witha long experience in this field. By the way his duty is to propose the rightsolutions for the sake of the park. According to these principles the presenceof a permanent (day and night) passage through a road in zone A to connectsome private houses and the village of Kryegjat to the main road cannot becompatible with the archaeological park. It is absolutely out of any logic havingan archaeological park where there is a continuous transit of private vehiclesamong very interesting ruins. It is better to stress the point that this road ison archaeological structures that suffer permanently by the passage of carsand trucks. This is something that is against any principle, law and national /international convention for the protection of cultural heritage.Moreover for obvious security reasons it is absolutely impossible that insidethe park during the night there is any uncontrolled transit.For the above clearly described reasons, it is so evident that it doesn’t deserveany further detail, removal of the two roads and of the restaurant in the LeonRey house must be a focal point if there is a real intention of making Apolloniaa real archaeological park with a minimum of international quality standard.If there will be consensus on such principles it will be easily possible todiscuss how to reach the solution of the problem without disappointing localvillagers and giving to the responsible of the restaurant the right compensationfor his moving. In this respect it will be obvious that an alternative road outsidethe park must be built to connect the village of Kryegjat to the main road.As far as the restaurant is concerned it will be necessary and fair to give tothe keeper the chance to follow his activity in another building that should beplaced near the parking area in the lower plain beside the village. Probably(but this will be a legal point beyond my competence) a sum of money shouldbe given to him as compensation for the carriage and implementation of a newrestaurant.Just to clarify the position regarding restaurants in archaeological areas, itis obvious that their activity not only can be allowed, but it is very important togive more appeal to the park. But a restaurant, if it will be open also at night,must have a separate entrance from outside because nobody can circulateinside the park in closing time. Moreover, both the restaurant and its accesscannot be on archaeological monuments, even still buried.Similar considerations must be advanced for the road that is passing through zone Ato connect the restaurant on top of hill 104 to the main road. This situation is much moreincredible and absolutely intolerable because it allows the passage of cars day and night on anarchaeological field that for sure is hiding the remains of one of the most important areas ofApollonia: the sacred hill consecrated to Apollo or Arthemis whose impressive temple remainsis indecorously placed among the tables of a private restaurant! Again this situation cannotsurvive in an archaeological park because all the principles, laws and conventions are againstsuch contamination that, in this case, is also destruction because of continuous car transit.
  • 36. 36StudyontheFiscal,ManagementandGovernanceStructureoftheArchaeologicalParkSysteminAlbaniaAfter removing the restaurant the former house of Leon Rey on top of “hill104”(property of Ministry of Culture), could be used as a building where it willbe possible to organize a permanent exhibition on the history of archaeologicalresearch in Apollonia since the beginning. In this way the park will be enrichedby a further place and occasion of visit following the idea that the itineraryinside the park should be articulated through various and different visitor’scenters devoted to the wide and rich topic connected to the history, archaeologyand environment of the park. By the way since this building is placed above theimpressive basement of a temple probably dedicated to Apollo or Arthemis, itwill be also necessary that inside this house there will be information on it.The visit of the park should become a sort of adventure that will lead thevisitors to discover little by little the various aspects of ancient and modernhistory of the park and of the area.The second restaurant and bar situated between the monastery and ancientdefense wall, few meters from the actual entrance to the archaeological area,should be also removed giving the chance to the nowadays keeper to followhis activity on another building that could be placed near the parking in thelower plain. Its closeness to the monastery and to the ancient defense wall isabsolutely incompatible.Building abuse is another negative factor of Apollonia Park. Although theenvironment is still sufficiently safe and without huge and wide situationsof “concrete invasion”, there are, according to park officers , some cases ofillegal building. There will be a major concern to control such cases and informcompetent authorities of what is going to happen.A possible warning should be given to the foreseen building of a highwayin the plain between Apollonia and the sea. There are fears that such road willdamage the environment (and subsequently also Apollonia) for two reasons.On one side this asphalt line that will cut the landscape still characterized by thepresence of archaic road systems and by the ancient land partition system, willcertainly impose a strong imprint that will affect the natural sightseeing fromApollonia towards sea. Secondly, the passage of this very important way nonfar from the sea and from Apollonia will give chance to build not far from theroad and also from the sea. An increase of land prices is also to be considered.There is a big problem concerning a series of houses that were recentlybuilt on the western boundary of the park nearby the remains of the ancientdefense city wall. Actually the houses are not built on the state property land,but some of their backyards gardens are placed on state land and in somecases also include areas in which there are fragments of the mentioned ancientdefense wall. A precise survey of this situation should be done starting withpositioning of the exact boundary of the park. After that, single cases should besolved in terms of negotiating, if possible, or imposing the law if not possible.This territorial survey will give also the chance to understand if there are somepieces of land that are necessary to be acquired by the State to enlarge the zoneA for a better protection of monuments.One of the main problems of Apollonia park is the existence of a moderncemetery inside the A area of the archaeological park. It should be unfairand impossible to avoid people to go to pay visit to their dead relatives orfriends. Special free entry permission should be given to those who want topay visit to this cemetery. But it should be taken a precise decision to stop anyfurther burial in this area. If such decision will be taken the visit to cemeterywill decrease and in the future it will be reduced to some days of the week andsome limited hours.
  • 37. 37A major and more diffused presence of information panels should be realizedbecause most of the ruins scattered in the wide area of the archaeological parkcannot be identified by the visitors unless they are archeologists or they areprovided by guides and maps.One of the main features that makes Apollonia one of the most attractivearchaeological sites in Mediterranean is its geographical position betweentwo different morphological areas. Apollonia is exactly placed at the junctionbetween the inland hilly area on one side and the wide coastal plain on theother side with the sea visible in foreground. This situation is not widelyunderstood by the visitors. The internal pedestrian routes of this park shouldbe realized taking into consideration this aspect. In other words visitors shouldalmost always have cleared this unique position of the ancient town because itis one of the main topics to understand its life, its importance and why it wasfounded in that place (in other words its existence). This topic must be alsoexplained placing some rest points along the pedestrian routes in such placeswhere the surrounding landscape gives the opportunity to understand bettersuch aspect of Apollonia geographical situation. Of course in such resting pointsappropriated panels will explain such topics with the help of maps, drawings,three-dimensional images of ancient landscape and limited text.B.2e CommunicationApollonia is lacking of museum. This situation should be solved finding an agreement withthe responsible of local church in order to obtain the possibility to make a deep conservationand restoration of monastery that will be the base to elaborate a project aimed to the creationof a new museum inside it. The project will have a wide part devoted to solve static problemsthat deeply and badly affect the eastern porch. Beside this static problem the project will findthe right museographic solution based on a museologic feedback that will be done togetherby archaeologists specialized on Apollonia antiquities and history and architects specializedin arranging archaeological museums. A section of the museum could be devoted to theethnographical aspects of the area with particular attention to the traditional way of runningagricultural activities (cultivations of cotton, tobacco and sunflower) as well as to the old way ofpeasant’s life and ideology.It is also necessary to give to Apollonia visitors the chance to understandhow was the environmental situation during the various periods of city lifesince prehistory up to now. Of course wide information about this aspect ofApollonia ancient ecosystem will be given through a proper section that will besettled inside the museum with maps and other multimedia tools. But it willalso be important to give to the visitors the possibility to understand and “see”how was the ancient geography of the area on the sea side selecting appropriatesightseeing points where he/she will have the idea of the different territorialmorphology through maps that must have a clear and easy reference with theactual landscape.Nowadays audio-guides are becoming common in museums as well as inopen air monuments and archaeological areas. A project to settle audio-guidesin Apollonia is going on. Nevertheless, it is necessary to keep in mind thatthis kind of electronic apparatuses will have a considerable cost. It means thathaving a priority scheme to follow, the creation of this kind of useful systemscan be taken into consideration after having fulfilled the basic necessities ofthe archaeological park. Considering the potentiality of such system, it mustacquire the proper wisdom to understand when it will be the moment to investresources to give to Apollonia a system of audio-guides.
  • 38. 38StudyontheFiscal,ManagementandGovernanceStructureoftheArchaeologicalParkSysteminAlbaniaA major attention to road signage must be reserved in order to facilitate theapproach to Apollonia from the main roads.B.2f PromotionThe wide area that is surrounding Apollonia could be cultivated withbiological systems. Some of those products coming from this area could besold in the park with a special certification of origin. Those are corn flour,maize, bread, oil, wine and fruits. These agricultural products will have anadjoining value because of their origin connected to an archaeological parkwhere a famous ancient town was situated, but also because they are biologicallycertified.Regarding promotional strategies to diffuse the knowledge of Apolloniain Albania and overseas it is necessary to find a good coordination with theNational Tourism Agency that is doing a very good work promoting the imageof Albania inland and abroad.B.2 g Research and ConservationPlanning will be necessary not only in the field of management but also inscientific archaeological research. In Apollonia a particular attention should bepaid as priority to the excavation and study of the defense wall system that willgive to the archaeological area a better shape to understand the boundaries ofthe ancient city.Secondly, it will be important to investigate the relationship between the city and the lagoonthrough which it was related to the sea. A port should have guaranteed the commercial lifeof Apollonia. According to some hypothesis this port was situated in the plain just below thesouth-west boundary of the city. Investigating with electrical system the land on that area willgive important archaeological results that should be confirmed by proper excavations. Theinvestigation on the western side of Apollonia will enforce park boundaries on this side keepingin mind that this is the weakest point in relation with urban expansion of the nearby village.Unveiling archaeological structures on this side will enforce the consistency of arguments aimedto the protection of archaeological park in its weakest area. Another area that will deserveattention will be the temenos area on hill 104 after removing the restaurant.The situation on the Acropolis is a disaster from the archaeological pointof view because it was completely flattened to give place to several guns andrelated bunkers. Nothing could be done to recover the archaeological situationas it was in the past. But this disaster could be changed into resource if it will beremembered that those bunkers are the stereotype of the last page of history ofAlbania before democracy came into the picture. Cleaning and partly restoringthem could give the chance to revaluate an interesting area of Apollonia. Thisarea could become a place where people could enter in the atmosphere of “coldwar” when Albania, being ruled by a strong communist regime, was totallyisolated waiting an invasion from the “West” that never arrived. Bunker andgun stations could become the occasion to show final step of the long story ofApollonia area as well as entire Albania. In this area it will be also interesting toread what some soldiers have written on the walls during the long wait of anenemy that never arrived!
  • 39. 39This should become a pilot project because till now nothing has been donein Albania with the remains of last regime. Moreover, since it is somethingconnected to a contemporary period this project could contribute to start thenatural process (very common in the world when there were political changes)of looking to the past with an historical perspective and leaving aside all thosehappy or sad sentiments and behaviors connected with individual experiences.This pilot project will become a test to understand which will be the behaviorof the people towards proper recent history. According to this test it will bepossible to have an idea on how to manage with the huge amount of bunkersand military structure belonging to the past communist regime scattered allover Albania. This project could become a sort of invitation to the Albanians tostimulate a real debate on the recent history of the country dismissing any fearto remember events that could have been happy or tragic.Speaking about another of the interesting aspects of Apollonia, it should benecessary to stress the point that the park is full of turtles, mainly belonging tothe specie Testudo hermanni ssp. robertmertensi (Wermuth, 1952), Testudo hermannissp. hermanni (Gmelin 1789) and Testudo hermanni ssp. boettgeri (Mojsisovics,1889). But it is possible that other species of turtles live in the area of parksuch as Testudo marginata and Testudo graeca. Since it is a species that is goingtowards extinction due to demographic expansion and pollution, Apolloniaarchaeological park could be for this animal an area of reproduction andprotection. It is necessary to study the presence of this animal in the area ofthe park in order to know which are the existing species and, consequently,to activate all the required tools and situations to protect this very useful andpretty animal. This study could be done by the National Museum of NaturalHistory of Tirana whose director Ferdinand Bego has shown interest and skill.B.2h AccessThe actual situation of pedestrian routes inside the archaeological areashould be reviewed on the base of a complete and systematic considerationof the areas to be visited. The pedestrian routes should be made of simplebeaten earth adjoining, where it is necessary, some stabilized material (coarseaggregate, gravel, touvenant etc.) strengthened by some aggregating resins,where it is necessary (mainly where the gradient becomes steep). In makingthose routes it will be necessary to give particular attention to the drainageavoiding collecting of water. The width of such routes should be not less thanthree meters because groups and electric cars such as those that are used ongolf courses must pass through.A precise project of the layout of the trials inside the archaeological park ofApollonia must be planned and projected by an appropriate architect. Whatit must be here indicated is that this network of trials has to pass through thedefense walls and the so far unveiled monuments? Practically the trial could startfrom the parking area near the actual ticket office and will proceed touchingthe following points of Apollonia archaeological area : Monastery (futureMuseum), gate near the actual bar with sight on the defense wall and towerbelow the Monastery, south-eastern defense wall up to the eastern tower, hill104 (house of Leon Rey, temenos and base of temple of Apollon or Arthemis),area of agora (bouleutérion, odeon, library, pritaneum, houses etc), niche’s porch,ancient stores, acropolis (modern bunkers), theater and nymphaeum.
  • 40. 40StudyontheFiscal,ManagementandGovernanceStructureoftheArchaeologicalParkSysteminAlbaniaOther monuments outside such trial could be seen on purpose such as thetemple of Shtyllas and some tumulus. Along this trial resting areas near thesouth-eastern defense wall, on the hill 104, near the Odeon, on the acropolisand near the theater could be projected and realized.A service parking should be placed west of the actual residence for thearcheologists. Visitor’s car should be parked near the ticket office outside thearchaeological area at the base of the hill. A wide parking area should be madeof simple beaten earth adjoining, where it is necessary, some stabilized material(coarse aggregate, gravel, touvenant etc.) strengthened by some aggregatingresins and with proper drainage system. From this parking visitors will proceedwalking inside the archaeological area. For those people that have problems ofwalking (such handicapped, over aged, children) or don’t want to proceed onfoot it will be necessary to foresee the creation of a service of small electrical carsof that type used for golf courses that can carry between 4 and almost a dozenof persons. This service could be run by private companies that will receive thepossibility of having it by a system of public tender. The fare for this service willbe obviously paid in the entry ticket to the park. A percentage of money of thiscar ticket will go to the park.B.2i BoundariesThe control of an archaeological area is always a problem because of itsextension and morphology. Nowadays it is absolutely out of discussion the oldway of protecting archaeological areas with fences and walls or barbed wires(illegal in many countries). Green limits, low and eco sustainable wooden fencesor trenches could be taken into consideration to define the boundaries of zoneA of Apollonia archaeological park.But there will also be a direct system of electronic control based on videocameras placed in appropriate points in order to have the possibility to covera wide area. Video cameras must be accurately placed trying to hide themto avoid damaging and visual impact. These video control systems are notexpensive. They can be also used in the night and allow a single person tocontrol the various parts of the park from a single place. These systems arealso useful to control fire. The initial cost of a system of video control like thatcould be about € 150.000.B.2j Overlapping of competencesCar circulation should be avoided inside the archaeological park besides some service routesdevoted to the passage of vehicles used for maintenance, first aid, fire emergency, internalservice of the park officers and other authorized activities. By the way it would be necessary tohave a ring road used only for emergency in case of fire, first aid, any kind of disaster etc. Thisroad should be done in the same way as others internal to the park (coarse aggregate, gravel,touvenant etc. strengthened by some aggregating resins and with proper drainage system). Itscost could be around € 200.000.Inside the area of Apollonia archaeological park (A zone) there are somebuildings that are under the control of other state agencies such as theInstitute of Archaeology and the Institute of Monuments. This situation createsconfusion and irregularity in the control of the area. It is absolutely necessarythat all the building inside the park must be under the direct control of parkdirectorate.
  • 41. 41There is an overlapping of competences between: the Office of Administrationof the Archeological Park of Apollonia, the Regional Directory of the Monuments,Tirana branch, the Institute of Archaeology, the Institute of Cultural Monuments,the town administration of Dërmenas (which is actually giving permissions tocultivate olive trees within the borders of the Park).Like it was already explained it is advisable that the park should be reallyautonomous without any interference beside the normal hierarchic relationshipwith National Board of Archaeological Parks and Directorate of National Heritageof the Ministry for Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports.For this topic see the previous chapter with the enclosed schemes, as well.B.2k Staff and equipmentThe staff of the park should be increased. An optimistic situation will be basedon 5 workers dedicated to the maintenance of the site, 3 day guardians, 4 nightguardians, 1 archaeological guardian to control looting in the surrounding area, 3technical staff and director.It should be necessary for the park a four wheel car and gardening tools.N.B. For budget situation and fiscal drainage proposals see the proper previoussection dealing with the total Albanian Archaeological Park SystemSummarized proposals for ApolloniaHigh priority Timing ResponsibilityVegetation removal with active principleIsopropylamine salt solution. (Around € 5.000)short termArch. Park OfficeUpgrade of personnel’s professionalqualification with respect to management,risk management, administration, legalaspects, quality control, foreign languages,conservation, public relations, etc.short term Direct. of Cult. Herit.GIS (around € 50.000 per park) short term Direct. of Cult. Herit.Planning of conservation strategies short termArch. Park OfficePayment of archaeological park imagesroyaltiesshort term Direct. of Cult. Herit.Setting of an intense collaboration betweenArchaeological Park administration andNational Tourism Agencyshort term Direct. of Cult. Herit.Waste disposal system in collaboration withlocal municipality (around €30.000 yearly)short term Arch. Park OfficeRemoval of restaurantsshort termArch. Park OfficeDirect. of Cult. Herit.Creation of a visitor center in the Leon Reyhouse (around € 100.000) short termArch. Park OfficeDirect. of Cult. Herit.Fighting of building abuse short termArch. Park OfficeDirect. of Cult. Herit.Removal of internal roads connecting thevillageshort term Arch. Park OfficeDirect. of Cult. Herit.Creation of an adequate information systemfor public. (Around € 20.000)short term Arch. Park Office
  • 42. 42StudyontheFiscal,ManagementandGovernanceStructureoftheArchaeologicalParkSysteminAlbaniaAvoiding landslide of part of the monastery(Around € 500.000)short termArch. Park OfficeDirect. of Cult. Herit.Turtle’s protection program short term Arch. Park OfficeBuilding of a circular service road (around €200.000)short term Arch. Park OfficeDirect. of Cult. Herit.Electronic boundaries’ control system (around€ 150.000) short termArch. Park OfficeLaw to change the hierarchical system ofthe peripheral structure of the Ministry(relationshipbetween parks and central administration)as well as with other agencies of the sameMinistry (Institute of Monuments) as well asof other Ministry (Institute of Archaeology)giving autonomy to the parks.medium term GovernmentInternal ruling code for the archaeologicalparkmedium term GovernmentEconomic autonomy of archaeological parks medium term GovernmentMuseum in the monastery (around € 500.000) long termArch. Park OfficeDirect. of Cult. Herit.Low priority Timing ResponsibilityCreation of a sort of small botanical garden medium term Arch. Park OfficeAlternative energies (around € 50.000) long term Direct. of Cult. Herit.Medium priority Timing ResponsibilityQuality control tests on archaeological parks.(around € 5.000 per park)short term Direct. of Cult. Herit.Electronic tickets (around € 20.000) short term Direct. of Cult. Herit.Improvement of zoning system short term Arch. Park OfficePlanning of archaeological research short term Arch. Park OfficeImprovement of foundation’s system forcultural heritage short term GovernmentProgram of yearly scholarships for graduatedstudents of archaeology and ancient historythat has done thesis on matters concerningarchaeological parks of Albania (around €10.000)short term Direct. of Cult. Herit.Web site setting (around € 10.000) short term Direct. of Cult. Herit.Promotional video (around € 30.000) short term Direct. of Cult. Herit.Cultural exhibitions (around € 200.000) short term Direct. of Cult. Herit.Participation to international tourism fairsand events (around € 20.000)short term Direct. of Cult. Herit.Planning of the spaces for private stalls medium term Arch. Park OfficeReshape of Acropolis with musealization ofcontemporary bunker system) (around €50.000)medium termArch. Park OfficeDirect. of Cult. Herit.Avoiding new burial in the modern cemetery medium term Arch. Park OfficeIncrease of number of archaeological parkstaffmedium-long term Government
  • 43. 43The ancient town of Antigonea is situated between m 600 and 700 abovesea level on the eastern (left) side of the Drinos valley on the opposite side ofGjirokastra that is very well visible from the site. The ancient vestiges of thistown, included in the park area of about ha 95 (with buffers), are situated on aridge (1 km in length with north-south direction) whose top is almost regularlyflat with a slight inclination towards south. The top of the hill where the ancienttown was situated is almost naturally fortified by steep cliff. A beautiful defensewall was strengthening this natural situation.The epic of this ancient town was increased thanks to its founder: the famousand mythic commander Pyrrhus. He founded Antigonea in 297 BC giving tothe town the name of his first wife.During roman occupation (first half of II cent. B.C.) the town was probablyabandoned to be reoccupied during the first centuries of Christian era.In the frame of an exceptional landscape still showing the original flavorof ancient Albania partly covered by forestry (oak and Mediterranean bushes)the visitors can enjoy an uncontaminated nature and an archaeological firstclass site that, besides the absence of impressive monuments due to limitedresearches so far carried on, reveal its identity of ancient stronghold in theheart of mountains.AntigoneaC.C.1 Draft study on the fiscal, management and governance structure of the archaeological park system in Antigonea: actual situationC.1a Synopsis
  • 44. 44StudyontheFiscal,ManagementandGovernanceStructureoftheArchaeologicalParkSysteminAlbaniaAntigonea was already declared a monument since 1963, but it was listedas an archaeological park in 2005 according to DCM N.396 of 31 March2005, “On the approval of borders and administration regulations for thearchaeological parks of Shkodra, Lezha, Apolonia, Bylis, Amantia, Orikum,Antigonea, Finiq and Butrint”.Nowadays the park is run by 6 people including the director (Director,expert in finance, expert in archaeology, expert in tourism and environment,expert in restoration, worker).Although its short life and the difficulty of approach Antigonea Park wasvery active mainly thanks to the enthusiasm of the director.Scientific activity was carried on in collaboration with the University andEphoria of Joannina in the frame of Albanian Greek Archaeological Mission(October 2006, September 2007 and October 2008) that was the majorarchaeological investigation after the researches done by Dimosten Budinasome decades ago.In the field of conservation there was organized the Summer School for theyoung conservators from Balkan countries in collaboration with the SwedishAgency “Heritage without borders” (Sarajevo) and the Albanian organizationMJAFT.An International Conference on “The impact of the cultural heritagemonuments in the development of the sustainable tourism” was organized incollaboration with Gjirokastra town administration (18 – 19 April 2007).C.1b Fiscal, management and governance structureAmong the major events that the director organized it is worth to mention: “Pagan ritualsand Popular Games” (May 2007, May 2008, May 2009), “Young painters in ancient Antigonea”( in collaboration with the Artistic High School of Gjirokastra), “ The theater in the citiesduring Classical Period” (in collaboration with the NGO Gjirokastra and the High School“Asim Zeneli”, 2007, 2008), “The pagan ritual of the shepherd’s migration” (in collaborationwith the town administration of Gjirokastra, 2006, 2007, 2008), the fair of traditional productsof the Gjirokastra region” (in collaboration with the administration of the Gjirokastra 2008)and the “Promotion of the domestic tourism package Saraqisishtë-Antigonea” (in collaborationwith the inhabitants of the village Saraqinishtë 2008, 2009).Communication and information activities were performed placinginformation panels within the park in collaboration with the InternationalCenter for Albanian Archaeology, funded by Packard Humanities Institute(2008). It was published the Guide of Antigonea (Albanian and Englishversion), in collaboration with “Gjirokastra Conservation and DevelopmentOrganization” funded by Packard Humanities Institute (2007 – 2008). Itis also available an illustrated guidebook “Antigonea – The dream of KingPyrrhus “(Albanian and English versions)The Antigonea Park is nowadays offering guided visit of the site and visitto the local workshops for wool production in Asim Zeneli. On the site thereis a ticket service and toilets. The staff of the park is also giving informationand help to organize riding and horse-cart tours from Gjirokastra to AsimZeneli and Antigonea. They give information or organize the visit of othersurrounding monuments such as the church of St. Nicolas, Saraqinishtë,Manastir and Spille caves. They help the visitors in finding places to stayovernight especially in the villages. Visits to the traditional house are organizedby the park in the villages of Lunxhi, Krinë, Tranoshishtë and Saraqinishtë.
  • 45. 45At the moment there isn’t any fiscal drainage directly related to themanagement of archaeological park of Antigonea. This was the figure thatcame up reading the reports on this subject as well as through the meetingswith responsible people of the different branches of public administration.Financial resources coming to the parks are directly given by the Ministry of theMinistry of Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports through Directorate of NationalHeritage. All the income coming from tickets and other objects sold among thearchaeological parks are collected by the State and only 10 % is coming back tothe related park.According to the experience so far matured, there were in the past longdelays in getting this money back from the Ministry of Culture. It is clearthat if this, as well as other money coming from other sources, will reach thearchaeological park at the end of the year it will be difficult to spend quietly andwisely bearing in mind that everything should be expended not beyond the20th of December. This delay is affecting the normal activity of parks so a majorefficiency in the processing of administrative procedures is required in order todeliver the funds in time.For the future there are many programs elaborated mainly by the dynamicdirector of the Antigonea Archaeological Park Engjell Serjani. Most of them aredescribed in the document that he prepared to plan the activity for the future(Management Plan of Archaeological Park of Antigonea 2008 – 2012). Amongmany proposals the following ideas are worth mentioning:Increase of archaeological surveys, excavations and research inside andoutside the archaeological area. Creation of a “Mini-archaeological museum”where they should be collected replicas of the most important antiquities sofar discovered in Antigoneia. Building of storage facilities. Creation of anarchaeological research archive with the collection of all the reports done byBudina. Production of archaeological website. Study for a long term programmefor the conservaion of the city walls and towers. Study and programme tocontrol the vegetation. Project to restore the basilica mosaic. Optimization ofgeneral information on the park. Study of habitat, vegetation and fauna. Studyfor a touristic ring itinerary starting and arriving in Gijrokastra and touchingAntigoneia, Labovë e Kryqit, Libohovë, Melan. Hadrianopolis, Manastiri iDhuvjanit. Installation of electronic ticket system, of new toilets and coffee bar.Design of a system of internal trials of the park. Publishing of guides in differentlanguuages. Various activities aimed to attract visitors and to communicateAntigoneia in Albania and abroad such as partecipation to international fairs. Itis also proposed to mantain all the tickets revenues to the parkSince the park is situated not far from one of the main routes of Albania(km 15) the director, rightly, has thought to find solutions and ideas in orderto attract people passing through this important highway. For this reason hethinks that there should be set up a group that will study management plansformed by the most relevant local stakeholders.C.2 Draft study on the fiscal, management and governance structure of the archaeological park system in Antigonea: Proposal
  • 46. 46StudyontheFiscal,ManagementandGovernanceStructureoftheArchaeologicalParkSysteminAlbaniaDealing with the management of vegetation, it is necessary to remember thatthe traditional way of removing weeds by cutting them at the base or (worse)eradicating them by pulling damages the monuments because frequently theroots are so strong to move stones and (more easily) plaster or pavements.Now, the up-to-date system of removing vegetation in archaeological areasis based on a wide series of products based on active principle Glyph sate.Glyph sate isopropyl amine salt solution is a kind of selective systemic sterileherbicides. It prevents the annual and biennial monocotyledonous grass, killsthe deep-rooted perennial weeds, doesn’t affect the seeds and microorganismsand it is low-toxic for people and livestock. It is used spraying the herbicide tostems and leaves of the weeds in growth period. This is the most economic andefficient way of removing weeds and invading herbs that affect the monuments.Moreover, it is not affecting the livestock and the fauna (also micro-fauna) and,respecting the easy protocols of protection, doesn’t give any problems to thepeople.C.2a ManagementC.2b AccessOne of the few negative aspects of the visit of Antigonea archaeological parkis the road that you have to drive to reach to the site. The road to Asim Zeneli,the village in which there is the office of the park, the handicraft center andwhere it has been said that a small visitor center (small museum) will be realized,is quite good. But from the village to the ancient city of Antigonea the road isactually a track where normal cars can hardly pass through. The accessibilityto the ancient city is, by the way, the main problem of Antigonea because alsothe pedestrian trial that was done from Asim Zeneli to the archaeological areais only for good and strong walkers trained to this kind of physical efforts. Thiskind of approach is now strongly selective. A major task to improve the parkwill be a new road from Asim Zeneli to Antigonea, leaving the pedestrian trialto those who enjoy hard walking.The new road could be done not necessary by asphalt, but by stabilized material (coarseaggregate, gravel, touvenant etc.) strengthened by some aggregating resins where it is necessary(mainly where the gradient becomes steep) and good drainage. A parking area before theentrance to the archaeological area must be realized. Through these road private cars, electricalsmall cars (like those used in golf courts) and horse-cars could pass. This operation to makeeasier the approach to Antigonea will definitely provoke an increase in the number of visitors.It is widely proved that an easy access will encourage people to reach monumental, natural andarchaeological sites. It was the case of several world sites starting from Egypt (Abu Simbel or theKing Valley), to go to Indonesia (Borobudur) and to Mount San Michel in France (just to givesome real and known examples. Of course it will be not the simple road to favor the increaseof visitors and, consequently, of money. Such increase will be the result of a comprehensivestrategy of brand communication in which the good access will be a pre-requisite necessary togive the site the proper sufficient standard to become a touristic appreciated site.By the way the position of the site and the difficulty of its approach (evenif the road will be reshaped) encourages a different way of visit in which theaspect of the “discovery” and of “adventure” could become a strong appealfavored by a marvelous landscape. In this frame a big role could be played byorganizing trekking and cycle-trekking from the village of Asim Zeneli to thearchaeological site and back.
  • 47. 47A major attention to road signage must be reserved in order to facilitate theapproach to Antigonea from the main roads.C.2c ReceptionSince one of the most impressive aspects of Antigonea is its beautifullandscape full of history and life, it will be interesting and attracting to organizea “welcoming center” in Asim Zeneli in an old traditional house where visitorscould understand the real traditional way of life of this area of Albania. It will bealso interesting and attractive to organize the reconstruction of the old systemsof production such as water mills, granaries, threshing, distilling etc. In oneword it will be very attractive to have a complete idea on how original systemsof production were realized. This could be accompanied by the possibility toconsume food produced in the old way using traditional recipes.Picnics in the archaeological areas look like a major problem for Antigoneaarchaeological park. But it could be ruled finding proper areas for picnicsoutside the actual areas where archaeological monuments are placed. In thoseareas appropriate furniture should be realized such as tables, benches, roofing,waste basket, safe barbecue etc.Nowadays audio-guides are becoming common in museums as well as inopen air monuments and archaeological areas. Nevertheless, it is necessary tokeep in mind that this kind of electronic apparatuses will have a considerablecost. It means that having a priority scheme to follow, the creation of this kindof useful systems can be taken into consideration after having fulfilled the basicnecessities of the archaeological park. So considering the potentiality of such asystem, it should be necessary to have the proper wisdom to understand whenit will be the moment to invest resources to give to Antigonea a system of audio-guides taking in mind that the distance between the headquarters of park inAsim Zeneli and the archaeological area is big so that some radio-bridges haveto be placed in order to connect the mainframe with the peripheral stations.This will increase the costs of such system.Nowadays there is a small wooden visitor center built near agora. The areain which this small house is placed should be arranged in a proper way curingvegetation and removing debris.The visit of Antigonea could be inserted in wider itinerary that will allowthe visit of other very important places from cultural point of view with greattouristic potentiality. These are, for example, the ancient city of Adrianopolisand the ancient monasteries of Labova é Kryqit and Libohova. Those two lastmonasteries with churches are very beautiful and inside small and agreeablevillages.C.2d Research and conservationArchaeological investigation should be promoted and improved invitingthe collaboration of archaeologists. One of the priorities could be theinvestigation of the beautiful defense walls that are surrounding the ancientcity. An accurate stratigraphic excavation should be done in order to havethe exact chronology of defense walls since there are different masonry stylesand techniques that could be referred to different periods of manufacturing.An accurate analysis of the fallen parts of the walls and the gates should bedone in order to proceed to limited anastylosis (reconstruction) that will makemore impressive the site.
  • 48. 48StudyontheFiscal,ManagementandGovernanceStructureoftheArchaeologicalParkSysteminAlbaniaIt is necessary to proceed urgently with conservation because some wallsare falling due to the consistency of stone. Moreover it will be necessary torestore the mosaics of the small basilica. Due to instability and degradation ofthe platform on which it is placed, it will be necessary to remove and replaceit on a new level that will assure proper drainage. The new techniques used inthis kind of conservative approach could be made using platform of alveolarfiberglass or aluminum.C.2e Communication and eventsThe festival so far organized by the Antigonea archaeological park shouldbe improved. An idea will be the improvement of the transhumance festivalthat is held on the 25thof May. In the frame of this festival an internationalprize could be given to those international personalities that have given acontribution in the landscape conservation and evaluation. The “AntigoneaPyrrhus prize” will be an achievement that will give visibility to Antigonea.The director of the park is very active in planning and realizingcommunication strategies to diffuse Antigonea in Albania and overseas. Buthis activity should be more efficient if these strategies will be coordinated withthe National Tourism Agency that is doing a very good work promoting theimage of Albania inland and abroad.C.2f Staff and equipmentThe staff of the park should be increased. An optimistic situation will be basedon 5 workers dedicated to the maintenance of the site, 3 day guardians, 4 nightguardians, 1 archaeological guardian to control looting in the surroundingarea, 3 technical staff and director. In absence of such virtual organizationthe actual park staff should be increased at least by an archaeologist and by aworker dealing with vegetation management. Territorial control could be alsorun by appointing a private company on yearly or seasonal base.It should be necessary for the park a four wheel car and gardening tools.A major problem for Antigonea is the absence of electricity that should be solved in twoways: local power supply by diesel engine (the last generation of such power station is based onengine with low CO 2 emissions and highly reduced noise) or electrical line from the village.First solution is rapid, but it means that the park staff has to worry about its functioning andrefueling. Second solution is, by the way, much better but avoiding electrical wires to run onpoles. Electrical wires must run in a proper cable system along the road adjoining to Antigoneaunder the soil to avoid visual impact. A third solution will be based on power supply byalternative energies such as wind and sun. Both solutions are expensive and could be invasivein the environment. Nevertheless there are wind generators based not on the traditional polesand wings, but on small rotating cylinders that could be easily hidden. Similarly there are sunpowered generators that are based not on the traditional solar panels but on frames that couldbe easily placed on roofs and fences.Providing energy with a new system that will avoid any pollution will givethe park a high standard of quality that could be useful either in the field ofcommunication and in that connected with EU and international funding. Itis widely diffused among various projects and funding procedures the requestof ecological standards based also on the capacity to use and produce energywith less or no CO 2 emissions and to be self sufficient. The project and thesetting of such system of energy supply could be also financed through EU andinternational funding.
  • 49. 49The control of an archaeological area is always a problem because of itsextension and morphology. Nowadays it is absolutely out of discussion theold way of protecting archaeological areas with fences and walls or barbedwires (illegal in many countries). Green limits, low and eco-sustainable woodenfences or trenches could be taken into consideration to define the boundariesof Antigonea archaeological park where it will be necessary.But there will be also a direct system of electronic control based on videocameras placed in appropriate points in order to have the possibility to covera wide area. In Antigonea this will also help to prevent fires. Video camerasmust be accurately placed trying to hide them to avoid damaging and visualimpact. These video control systems are not expensive, can be used also inthe night and allow a single person to control the various parts of the parkfrom a single place. In Antigonea such system could work only if electricitywill reach the archaeological area. This system will be much better than thatbased on day/night guardians because it can give the total control coverageof the park area simultaneously and not only when the guardian is passing.Moreover, it is much more economic than employing guardians or appointinga private company on purpose. Finally, there is a further facility because thevideo control could be associated with an automatic alarm system.N.B. For budget situation and fiscal drainage proposals see the properprevious section dealing with the total Albanian Archaeological Park SystemC.2g BoundariesN.B. For budget situation and fiscal drainage proposals see the proper previoussection dealing with the total Albanian Archaeological Park SystemSummarized proposals for AntigoneaHigh priority Timing ResponsibilityVegetation removal with active principleGlyphosate isopropylamine salt solution.(around € 5.000)short termArch. Park OfficeUpgrade of personnel’s professionalqualification with respect to management,risk management, administration, legalaspects, quality control, foreign languages,conservation, public relations, etc.short term Direct. of Cult. Herit.GIS (around € 50.000 per park) short term Direct. of Cult. Herit.Planning of conservation strategies short termArch. Park OfficePayment of archaeological park imagesroyalties short term Direct. of Cult. Herit.Setting of an intense collaboration betweenArchaeological Park administration andNational Tourism Agencyshort term Direct. of Cult. Herit.Creation of an adequate information systemfor public (around € 20.000)short term Arch. Park Office
  • 50. 50StudyontheFiscal,ManagementandGovernanceStructureoftheArchaeologicalParkSysteminAlbaniaAvoiding landslide and erosion (around €500.000) short termArch. Park OfficeDirect. of Cult. Herit.Electronic boundaries’ control system (around€ 150.000)short term Arch. Park OfficeReshaping of the access road (around €200.000)short term Arch. Park OfficePromoting of a real network of visiting facilitieswith Gjirokastra and the other monumentaland culturalareas of the region (around € 30.000)short term Arch. Park OfficeLaw to change the hierarchical system ofthe peripheral structure of the Ministry(relationship between parks and centraladministration) as well as with other agenciesof the same Ministry (Institute of Monuments)as well as of other Ministry (Institute ofArchaeology) giving autonomy to the parks.medium termGovernmentInternal ruling code for the archaeologicalparkmedium term GovernmentEconomic autonomy of archaeological parks medium term GovernmentMuseum in the village (around € 200.000)long termArch. Park OfficeDirect. of Cult. Herit.Medium priority Timing ResponsibilityQuality control tests on archaeological parks.(around € 5.000 per park)short term Direct. of Cult. Herit.Electronic tickets (around € 20.000) short term Direct. of Cult. Herit.Improvement of zoning system with the insertof an adjoining archaeological part of theancient townshort term Arch. Park OfficePlanning of archaeological research short term Arch. Park OfficeImprovement of foundation’s system forcultural heritageshort term GovernmentProgram of yearly scholarships for graduatedstudents of archaeology and ancient historythat has done thesis on matters concerningarchaeological parks of Albania (around €10.000)short termDirect. of Cult. Herit.Web site setting (around € 10.000) short term Direct. of Cult. Herit.Promotional video (around € 30.000) short term Direct. of Cult. Herit.Cultural exhibitions (around € 200.000) short term Direct. of Cult. Herit.Participation to international tourism fairsand events (around € 20.000)short term Direct. of Cult. Herit.Planning of the spaces for private stalls medium term Arch. Park OfficeAnastylosis (partial reconstruction) of somepart of the external walls (Around € 200.000)medium termArch. Park OfficeInst. of MonumentsIncrease of number of archaeological parkstaffmedium-long terms GovernmentLow priority Timing ResponsibilityAlternative energies (around € 50.000) long term Direct. of Cult. Herit.
  • 51. 51• Cultural Policy in Albania, Strasbourg 31 August 2000• Strategy of Action Plan for the Development of Tourism based on Cultural andEnvironmental Tourism (2005)• Outline – Background Study – Management and Risk Analysis of ArchaeologicalParks in Albania, Tirana 2009• F. Benhamou, L’economia della cultura, Il Mulino, 2001• A.Besana, L’arte in chiave economica. Letture ed approfondimenti di economiadella cultura e dell’arte, LED Edizioni Universitarie, 2003• J. M. Keynes, Art and the State, The collected writings, Royal Economic Society,London 1989• M. Korkuti, A. Baçe, N. Ceka, Carte archéologique de l’Albanie, Tirana 2008• I.Pojani, Management and Risk Analysis of Archaeological Parks in Albania, Tirana2009• W.Santagata (a cura di), Economia dell’arte. Istituzioni e mercati dell’arte e dellacultura, UTET, 1998• E. Serjani, Antigonea, an interesting new tourist destination, Gjirokastra 2007• M. Trimarchi, Economia e cultura. Organizzazione e finanziamento delle istituzioniculturali, Franco Angeli, 1999• L.Zanetti, Gli strumenti di sostegno alla cultura tra pubblico e privato: il nuovoassetto delle agevolazioni fiscali al mecenatismo culturale, AEDON, n.2, 2002• Law on Cultural Heritage (1994)• Law Nr.7908, of 5 April 1995, amended by Law Nr.8763, of 2 April 2001, amendedby Law Nr. 8870, of 21.30.2002 “On fishing and aquaculture”• Law Nr.8906, of 6 June 2002 “On protected areas”• Law Nr.8934, of 5 September 2002 “On the protection of the environment”• Law Nr. 9048, of 07 April 2003 “On Cultural Heritage”• Law of Sponsorship (2003)• Law on Museums (2005)• DCM nr. 450, of 1 July 1998 “On the Administration of the Ancient City of Butrint”,amended by Decision of the Council of Ministers Nr.176, of 3 May 2002 “On theadministration of the ancient city of Butrint”.• DCM Nr.82, of 2 March 2000 “On the classification as a National Park protected bythe state of the archaeological area of Butrint”• DCM no. 176, of 3 May 2002, “On an amendment to Decision Nr. 450, dated 1 July1998, of the Council of Ministers, ‘On the Administration of the Ancient City ofButrint’”• DCM Nr. 515, of 24 October 2002 “On the classification as a cultural heritagemonument with complex character and issuing of protection by the state to thearchaeological field of Finiq”• DCM Nr.531, of 31 October 2002 “On the classification of the marshland complexof Butrint and the territory around it as a natural area with special protection andits inclusion in the list of marshlands of national importance, especially as habitats ofwater birds”• DCM Nr.266, of 24 April 2003 “On the administration of protected areas”• DCM Nr. 857, of 19 December 2003, “On the approval of the functioningregulations of the office for the administration and coordination of the NationalPark of Butrint”.• DCM Nr. 396, of 31 March 2005, “On the approval of borders andadministration regulations of the archaeological parks of Shkoder, Lezhë,Apollonia, Bylis, Amanatia, Orikum, Antigonea, Finiq and Butrint”.• DCM Nr. 693, of 10 November 2005 “On the classification of themarshland complex of Butrint as a National Park”.Consultedbibliography,documentsandlaws
  • 52. 52StudyontheFiscal,ManagementandGovernanceStructureoftheArchaeologicalParkSysteminAlbania• Decreto Legislativo 22 gennaio 2004, n. 42. “Codice dei beniculturali e del paesaggio, ai sensi dell’articolo 10 della legge 6luglio 2002, n. 137” (also named “Codice Urbani”) (Italy)• Act of 23 July l987 on the development of sponsorship (France)• Act of 4 July l990 and its implementing Decree of 30 September1991 on the “fondation d’entreprise “ (France)• Act of 2 July ,1996 on the “Fondation du Patrimoine” (France)• Act of 17 April, 1997 establishing that the “Fondation dupatrimoine”is of public interest and approving its statutes(France)• Act of 2 July, 1996 on tax relief (France)• Alma Baze (Director of Directorate of Tourism, Ministry of TourismCulture Youth and Sports)• Ferdinand Bego (Director of National Museum of NaturalSciences)• Lorenc Bejko, MA, PhD (Professor of Archaeology, Faculty ofHistory and Philology, University of Tirana)• Spartak Derrasa (Director of the Regional Directorate of CulturalMonuments, Gjirokastra)• Arian Dimo (Archaeologist of the Office for the Administrationand Coordination of Archaeological Park of Apollonia)• Stephan Dompke (Programme Coordinator, UNESCO – UNDPJoint Programme)• Shpresa Gjongecaj (Director of Institute of Archaeology)• Nikoleta Gjordeni (Director of Albanian Copyright Office, Ministryof Tourism, Culture, Sports and Youth)• Zhulieta Harasani (National Professional Officer, UNESCO-BRESCE)• Marin Haxhimihali (Director of the Office for theAdministration and Coordination of Archaeological Park ofApollonia)• Ilir Jipali (Director of the Archaeological Museum of Institute ofArchaeology and ICOM representative for Albania)• Nada Kallciu (General Director of National Tourism Agency)• Muzafer Korkuti (Vice President of Academy of Sciences)• Suela Kusi (Director of Directorate of Developing Strategies’Coordination and European Integration, Ministry of TourismCulture Youth and Sport)• Ols Lafe, MA (Director of Directorate of National Heritage,Ministry of Tourism Culture Youth and Sports)• Iris Pojani, MA, PhD (Professor of Archaeology, Faculty of Historyand Philology, University of Tirana)• Albana Pulaj (Head of Registration – Certification & InspectionUnit, Ministry of Tourism , Culture, Sports and Youth)• E. Serjani (Director of the Office for the Administration andCoordination of Archaeological Park of Antigonea)• Valter Shtylla (Director of Institute of Monuments)Public administrators, scholars, professionals etc. interviewed

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