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  1. 1. Endurance
  2. 2. Ernest Shackleton’s Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition
  3. 5. <ul><li>On 19th January 1915, after a five-week sail from South Georgia & 3 days after sighting land, the Endurance was beset by early pack ice at the extreme south east corner of the Weddell Sea </li></ul>
  4. 8. Tom Crean “The Irish Giant” & 2 nd Officer He took great interest in caring for the dogs on the journey south aboard the Endurance
  5. 9. The crew’s smallest member, Meteorologist Dr. Leonard Hussey, & Samson, the largest sled dog
  6. 10. Frank Hurley, the expedition photographer
  7. 11. Frank Hurley would go to any lengths to get a photograph On rigging filming as Shackleton examines the ice ahead
  8. 12. <ul><li>Shackleton, who had aimed to achieve the crossing of the Antarctic continent from west to east, was forced to abandon his expedition in the face of a more immediate & dangerous challenge </li></ul>
  9. 13. “ The night watch arouses his friends, & they sit in a quorum around the bogie fire, discoursing in subdued whispers”
  10. 14. <ul><li>After 9 months wedged on floating pack ice, the Endurance was finally crushed & sank </li></ul>
  11. 15. Frank Hurley
  12. 16. When the Endurance became solidly embedded, dogs were housed in “dogloos”
  13. 17. An iceberg ploughed through the pack & bore down upon the imprisoned ship
  14. 18. The night photograph of Endurance held fast in the ice of the Weddell Sea, is one of the most famous & enduring of the 120 images to come out of Shackleton’s expedition
  15. 19. <ul><li>Saving as many supplies as they could (including Frank Hurley's photo archive), the crew of 28 set up camp </li></ul>
  16. 20. Endurance among ice pinnacles: As time wore on it became more & more evident that the ship was doomed - February 1915
  17. 21. Endurance is overwhelmed - October 1915
  18. 22. Endurance crushed by icepacks of the Weddell Sea - 1 November 1915
  19. 23. Captain Frank Wild & the Endurance in Weddell Sea - 1915
  20. 24. <ul><li>Initially they set up Ocean Camp, located on the solidly packed ice, from October l915 to January l9l6; & after the sinking of Endurance , Patience Camp, on the volatile ice floes, January-April l916 </li></ul>
  21. 25. Shackleton & Wild standing at Ocean Camp in Weddell Sea - November 1915
  22. 26. Ocean Camp - 15 December 1915
  23. 27. <ul><li>On 9th April, as the ice thawed, they hastily abandoned all non-essential supplies & took to the 3 lifeboats </li></ul>
  24. 28. Hauling the James Caird
  25. 29. <ul><li>Shackleton christened the boats the James Caird , the Dudley Docker and the Stancomb Wills , after the expedition's sponsors </li></ul>
  26. 30. At night we drew our boats up on ice & made a blubber fire to warm our frozen bodies, overhead Aurora Australis flamed & waned
  27. 31. Men on an ice-floe among many in the Weddell Sea - 1916
  28. 32. <ul><li>After a voyage fraught with peril & in appalling icy conditions they arrived at the desolate Elephant Island six days later, on April 15th </li></ul>
  29. 33. Ice canoe floating in a pool near an ice cliff on Elephant Island - 1916
  30. 34. Landing on Elephant Island, solid rock lies beneath our feet, this was Paradise regained! - 15 April, 1916
  31. 35. <ul><li>It was the first time they had set foot on land since leaving South Georgia nearly 1½ years </li></ul>
  32. 36. <ul><li>Within a few days of their arrival at Elephant Island, Shackleton decided to fetch help </li></ul>
  33. 37. James Caird launched: nearest relief 800 miles away - 24 April 1916
  34. 38. <ul><li>On April 24th, the very last day before the pack ice closed in again, Shackleton Worsley, Crean, McNeish, McCarthy &Vincent - set off through the Drake Passage </li></ul>
  35. 39. Men on Elephant Island wave farewell Shackleton as they leave for South Georgia, - 24 April 1916
  36. 40. <ul><li>They had the almost impossible hope of making landfall on South Georgia, 800 miles away & summon help at the whaling stations </li></ul>
  37. 41. <ul><li>This journey involved a crossing of the world's most inhospitable ocean in the depths of Antarctic winter </li></ul>
  38. 42. <ul><li>The boat was buffeted by mountainous & tempestuous seas - ice built up on the decking, 15” deep, threatening to overturn the James Caird </li></ul>
  39. 43. <ul><li>Hour by hour, frostbitten & numbed with cold, they had to chip away ice from the vessel </li></ul><ul><li>At other times they were forced to bale for dear life </li></ul>
  40. 44. <ul><li>Their only solace was hot meals & the glimmer of a tiny primus stove </li></ul><ul><li>Their discomfort, hunched below in the James Caird 's 5’x7’ cramped hold, must have been absolute </li></ul>
  41. 45. <ul><li>After 16 terrible days at sea, the James Caird sighted land at midday on May 8 th , 1916 </li></ul>
  42. 46. <ul><li>The boat arrived off South Georgia in hurricane conditions & only at 5 p.m. on May 10 th did they eventually land in a small, inlet </li></ul>
  43. 47. <ul><li>They had travelled 1500 miles since the Endurance had been crushed </li></ul>
  44. 48. <ul><li>With the James Caird beached in King Haakon Bay to the west, help now lay only some 20 miles away, at the whaling stations on the east side of the island </li></ul>
  45. 49. <ul><li>The mountainous interior had never been penetrated before </li></ul>
  46. 50. <ul><li>Previous attempts had been defeated by the severity of the elements and the only available map, charted largely by Captain Cook, showed merely the outline of the coast </li></ul>
  47. 51. <ul><li>As Shackleton, Worsley & Crean, set off, they were ill-prepared for climbing and had little means to prepare for the glaciers, crevasses & snow storms that lay ahead </li></ul>
  48. 52. <ul><li>As Shackleton, Worsley & Crean, set off, they were ill-prepared for climbing and had little means to prepare for the glaciers, crevasses & snow storms that lay ahead </li></ul>
  49. 53. <ul><li>But in the end, Shackleton's proverbial luck held </li></ul>
  50. 54. Overlooking South Georgia Island
  51. 55. <ul><li>In 36 hours & against incredible odds they crossed the island on the only moonlit night before bad weather closed in again, & arrived at the whaling station of Stromness </li></ul>
  52. 57. <ul><li>It took 4 more months & 4 attempts before Shackleton finally managed get through the pack ice aboard the steam tug Yelcho to rescue his remaining twenty-two men </li></ul>
  53. 58. The steam tug Yelcho
  54. 59. The Endurance is overwhelmed, October 1915
  55. 62. Shackleton’s snow goggles After crossing South Georgia to reach the safety of the whaling station at Stromness, Shackleton gave these goggles to a Norwegian whaler named Harald Nilsen
  56. 63. These boots are most likely those worn by James Mann Wordie during Shackleton's Endurance Expedition Wordie was geologist aboard Endurance
  57. 64. Frank Worsley used this pocket watch to help navigate the James Caird during Shackleton's historic open boat journey from Elephant Island to South Georgia, 1916
  58. 65. This chronometer was used by Worsley during the open boat journey, aboard James Caird, from Elephant Island to South Georgia in 1916
  59. 66. Shackleton received over 5000 applications including this letter from 'three sporty girls' who were keen to be considered alongside the men
  60. 67. The ordeal lasted 20 months Shackleton kept this diary during the months spent marooned on the ice
  61. 68. Map drawn from memory by Frank Worsley shortly after his return from the expedition. It shows the route across South Georgia taken by Ernest Shackleton, Tom Crean and Frank Worsley in May 1916 during the Endurance expedition
  62. 69. Shackleton is buried on South Georgia Island were he died in 1922 as he tried to sail around Antarctica