Trihybrid crossTrihybrid crossMore complex by “easily” calculatedMore complex by “easily” calculatedfollowing principles o...
Trihybrid crossTrihybrid crossPUNNETT SQUARE HAS 64PUNNETT SQUARE HAS 64BOXES…BOXES…DEMONSTRATES THATDEMONSTRATES THATMEND...
Trihybrid crossesTrihybrid crosses The basic concepts are the same as with mono- or The basic concepts are the same as wit...
Trihybrid crossesTrihybrid crosses•• The basic concepts are the same as with mono- or    The basic concepts are the same a...
Trihybrid crossesTrihybrid crosses•• tall, pinched pod, axial X dwarf, inflated, terminal    tall, pinched pod, axial X dw...
Trihybrid crossesTrihybrid crosses•• Step one: Figure out the gametes   Step one: Figure out the gametes   produced by eac...
Forked-line MethodForked-line Method•• Breaks down multi-hybrid crosses into a series    Breaks down multi-hybrid crosses ...
Forked-line MethodForked-line Method             Tt Pp Aa X Tt Pp Aa              Tt Pp Aa X Tt Pp Aa     Break into Tt X ...
Forked lineForked lineFF offspring: 2 offspring:                   3/4 A   --> 27/64 TPA  2                    3/4 P      ...
Forked-lineForked-line••   Can find genotypic ratios      Can find genotypic ratios••   substitute 1/4 TT; 1/2 Tt; 1/4 tt,...
TrihybridTrihybridCrossCross
The Principle of IndependentThe Principle of IndependentAssortmentAssortment•• Factors for different    Factors for differ...
Branch Diagram of Dihybrid CrossBranch Diagram of Dihybrid CrossPhenotype
Genotype vs.Genotype vs.PhenotypePhenotype
Genetic trihybrid cross
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Genetic trihybrid cross

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Genetic trihybrid cross

  1. 1. Trihybrid crossTrihybrid crossMore complex by “easily” calculatedMore complex by “easily” calculatedfollowing principles of segregation, following principles of segregation, independent assortment and independent assortment and probability probability
  2. 2. Trihybrid crossTrihybrid crossPUNNETT SQUARE HAS 64PUNNETT SQUARE HAS 64BOXES…BOXES…DEMONSTRATES THATDEMONSTRATES THATMENDEL’S PRINCIPLESMENDEL’S PRINCIPLESAPPLY TO INHERITANCE OFAPPLY TO INHERITANCE OFMULTIPLE TRAITSMULTIPLE TRAITS
  3. 3. Trihybrid crossesTrihybrid crosses The basic concepts are the same as with mono- or The basic concepts are the same as with mono- or dihybrid crosses dihybrid crosses Just remember: Just remember: •• each gamete must have ONE COPY OF EACH each gamete must have ONE COPY OF EACH GENE GENE •• random segregation and independent random segregation and independent assortment still apply assortment still apply
  4. 4. Trihybrid crossesTrihybrid crosses•• The basic concepts are the same as with mono- or The basic concepts are the same as with mono- or dihybrid crosses dihybrid crosses•• Just remember: Just remember: •• each gamete must have ONE COPY OF EACH each gamete must have ONE COPY OF EACH GENE GENE •• random segregation and independent assortment random segregation and independent assortment still apply still apply
  5. 5. Trihybrid crossesTrihybrid crosses•• tall, pinched pod, axial X dwarf, inflated, terminal tall, pinched pod, axial X dwarf, inflated, terminal•• TT pp AA TT pp AA tt PP aa tt PP aa•• F11:: F tall, inflated, axial tall, inflated, axial Tt Pp Aa•• F1 X F1 --> ?
  6. 6. Trihybrid crossesTrihybrid crosses•• Step one: Figure out the gametes Step one: Figure out the gametes produced by each parent (use 2nn)) produced by each parent (use 2 •• Parents: Tt Pp Aa; 233 = 8 Parents: Tt Pp Aa; 2 = 8 •• eight possible gametes from each parent: eight possible gametes from each parent: •• TPATPa TPATPa TpA TpA tPA tPA Tpa Tpa tPa tPa tpA tpA tpa tpa
  7. 7. Forked-line MethodForked-line Method•• Breaks down multi-hybrid crosses into a series Breaks down multi-hybrid crosses into a series of monohybrid crosses of monohybrid crosses•• Combine the individual ratios (multiply) to get Combine the individual ratios (multiply) to get the final ratio the final ratio
  8. 8. Forked-line MethodForked-line Method Tt Pp Aa X Tt Pp Aa Tt Pp Aa X Tt Pp Aa Break into Tt X Tt; Pp X Pp; Aa X Aa Break into Tt X Tt; Pp X Pp; Aa X Aa•• Tt X Tt X Tt --> 3/4 T: 1/4 tt Tt --> 3/4 T: 1/4•• Pp X Pp X Pp --> 3/4 P: 1/4 p Pp --> 3/4 P: 1/4 p•• Aa X Aa X Aa --> 3/4 A: 1/4 a Aa --> 3/4 A: 1/4 a
  9. 9. Forked lineForked lineFF offspring: 2 offspring: 3/4 A --> 27/64 TPA 2 3/4 P < 1/4 a --> 9 /64 TPa 3/4 T < 1/4 p 3/4 A 1/4 a --> 9 /64 TpA --> 3 /64 Tpa 3/4 A --> 9 /64 tPA 3/4 P < 1/4 a --> 3 /64 tPa 1/4 t < 3/4 A --> 3 /64 tpA 1/4 p < 1/4 a --> 1 /64 tpa
  10. 10. Forked-lineForked-line•• Can find genotypic ratios Can find genotypic ratios•• substitute 1/4 TT; 1/2 Tt; 1/4 tt, etc. substitute 1/4 TT; 1/2 Tt; 1/4 tt, etc.•• Can go straight to one phenotype or genotype Can go straight to one phenotype or genotype•• ignore all branches except those leading to the desired ignore all branches except those leading to the desired phenotype or genotype phenotype or genotype
  11. 11. TrihybridTrihybridCrossCross
  12. 12. The Principle of IndependentThe Principle of IndependentAssortmentAssortment•• Factors for different Factors for different traits assort traits assort independently of one independently of one another another •• Genes are inherited Genes are inherited independently of each independently of each other other •• Segregate randomly in Segregate randomly in gametes gametes•• Dihybrid Cross Dihybrid Cross
  13. 13. Branch Diagram of Dihybrid CrossBranch Diagram of Dihybrid CrossPhenotype
  14. 14. Genotype vs.Genotype vs.PhenotypePhenotype
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