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Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi

Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Nano vlsi

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Nano vlsi Nano vlsi Document Transcript

  • Abstract<br />Technologyis shrinking fast. Computing technology that would have filled awarehouse 30 years ago can now be squeezed onto a chip a fraction ofthe size of your thumbnail. The very smallest scale of engineering is called nanotechnology. Ananometer is a billionth of a meter, about the width of ten atoms. Nanotechnology may, one day, be capable nanorobotics, nanorobots ornanobots. Working at an almost atomic level, nanobots could buildcomplex items cheaply and repair clothes, equipment and even peoplewithout being noticed. They could also be used to rid the atmosphere ofpollution and to repair holes in the ozone layer.<br />What is nanotechnology? Why are scientists, businesses, and governments around the world so excited about it? <br /> What happens when nanotechnology leaves the laboratory and enters society? <br /> How will nanotechnology change the future? <br /> Take this class and find out.<br />What is nanotechnology<br />337185012827000<br />Nanotechnology aims at the design and creation of functional materials, structures, devices and systems through direct control of matter on the nanometer length scale and exploitation of novel phenomena and properties on this length scale. The length scale is usually defined as being smaller than 100 nm, depending on the physical and chemical characteristics of the particular system that undergoes quantitative and qualitative changes when the length scale boundary is crossed. <br />Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. Essential in nanotechnology is to have a direct control of matter either between two nano-objects, or between a micro (or macro) object and a nano-object.<br />Introduction to Nanoscience<br />Nanoscience is the study of phenomena on a nanometer scale. Atoms are a few tenths of a nanometer in diameter and molecules are typically a few nanometers in size. The smallest structures humans have made have dimensions of a few nanometers and the smallest structures we will ever make will have the dimensions of a few nanometers. This is because as soon as a few atoms are placed next to each other, the resulting structure is a few nanometers in size. The smallest transistors, memory elements, light sources, motors, sensors, lasers, and pumps are all just a few nanometers in size. <br />In 1959 Feynman thought that in the great future we would be able to arrange atoms the way we want. This is now possible for some kinds of atoms on some kinds of surfaces. Below are two images of atomic scale structures made in Don Eigler's lab at IBM. A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) was used to push atoms and molecules around on a metal surface to make these structures.<br />These are benefits of Nanotechnology area. Benefits are will be very useful for humanity.<br /> Nano Fabrics <br /> Cosmetics <br /> Bio Engineering <br /> Defence and Security<br />A nanogear<br />Machines made from individual atoms, like this differential gear, have reached the computer modelling stage, but have not yet been built. For nanotechnology to work, they would need to be made in huge numbers. Scientists are looking to nature for ideas on how nanobots. May be self-replicating, like plant and animal cells than a human hair. -20345739446800<br />Building atoms<br />Each ball represents one atom. The whole gear measures just a few nanometers in diameter<br />48412406032500Bottom up   <br />A mere wisp<br />A row of 20,000 of these stick figures is more narrow than a human hair.<br />Researchers are looking at different ways to construct nanorobots the “bottom up” approach uses individual atoms and molecules as building block. This stick figure was created from just 28 carbon monoxide molecules.<br />443166522733000 <br />Magnetisierung einzelner Atome / Magnetizing single atoms<br /> Fig. 1.1. On the left, iron atoms where arranged on a copper surface to make the kanji character for " atom" . On the right is Carbon Monoxide Man consisting of carbon monoxide molecules on a platinum surface. Not every possible arrangement of atoms can be made this way but technology is moving in the direction that Feynman predicted. <br />443166518796000Top Down<br />Known as “top down” one potential way of building nanomachines is to miniaturize existing machines. There have been some incredible feats, including whis fully working electric motor, just 0.07 in (1.8mm) in size.<br />Putting it in context<br />399351518859500A plankton skeleton, just 0.008 in (0.2 mm) across, sits on one of the engine’s cogs, measuring 0.02 in <br />Medical Nanobots<br />Medicine is the on the most exciting applicaiton areas for anobots. It may become possible to inject a fleet of nanobots to perfom vital work inside a human body without resorting to surgery. Imagine toothpaste full of nanobots equipped to locate and destroy plaque or nanobots built to clean a diseased blood vessel.<br />Fig. 1.2 Researchers at IBM made a logic circuit based on the motion of carbon dioxide molecules on a copper surface. This device is a three input sorter. The left image was made by a scanning tunneling microscope and on the right is the design of the circuit showing the placement of all of the atoms.<br />Manufactured products are made from atoms. The properties of those products depend on how those atoms are arranged. If we rearrange the atoms in coal, we get diamonds. If we rearrange the atoms in sand (and add a pinch of impurities) we get computer chips. If we rearrange the atoms in dirt, water and air we get grass.<br />Since we first made stone tools and flint knives we have been arranging atoms in great thundering statistical heards by casting, milling, grinding, chipping and the like. We've gotten better at it: we can make more things at lower cost and greater precision than ever before. But at the molecular scale we're still making great ungainly heaps and untidy piles of atoms.<br />35458402921000That's changing. In special cases we can already arrange atoms and molecules exactly as we want. Theoretical analyses make it clear we can do a lot more. Eventually, we should be able to arrange and rearrange atoms and molecules much as we might arrange LEGO blocks. In not too many decades we should have a manufacturing technology able to:<br />1. Build products with almost every atom in the right place.2. Do so inexpensively.3. Make most arrangements of atoms consistent with physical law.<br />Nanotechnology is the engineering of tiny machines - the projected ability to build things from the bottom up, using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete, highly advanced products. Shortly after this envisioned molecular machinery is created, it will result in a manufacturing revolution, probably causing severe disruption. It also has serious economic, social, environmental, and military implications.<br />1428758890000<br />The simulation starts with the ring positioned at the bottom of the rod. Electrostatic repulsion accelerates the ring upward and the rod downward, with the ring reaching a speed of 1.6 km/s relative to the rod (the speed of sound in the rod is ~16 km/s). This motion terminates in a collision of the ring with the knob at the top of the rod. Asymmetry in this collision twists the knob, setting the rod into strong transverse vibration as the ring rebounds downward at a reduced speed.<br />This model should be taken as merely qualitative in certain respects: The crude treatment of electrostatics makes the speed of the ring only approximate, and the MM2 model of bonding may fail to reveal structural damage that would occur during an actual collision. It should be emphasized that molecular machine systems proposed for molecular manufacturing make no use of such rings, speeds, or collisions. These extreme conditions merely illustrate how stiff structures respond to large forces and deformations, showing how greatly these structures differ from the floppy structures common in chemistry. When the shaft and ring are subject only to thermal motion, motions are small.<br />Nanoscience in physics, chemistry, biology, and medicinePhysics is the mother of the natural sciences. In principle, physics can be used to explain everything that goes on at the nanoscale. There is active physics research going on in nanomechanics, quantum computation, quantum teleportation, and artificial atoms. While physics can explain everything, sometimes it is more convenient to think of nanostructures in terms of chemistry where the molecular interactions are described in terms of bonds and electron affinities. <br />Chemistry is the study of molecules and their reactions with each other. Since molecules typically have dimensions of a few nanometers, almost all of nanoscience can be reduced to chemistry. Chemistry research in nanotechnology concerns C60 molecules, carbon nanotubes, self-assembly, structures built using DNA, and supermolecular chemistry. Sometimes the chemical description of a nanostructure is insuffient to describe its function. For instance, a virus can be described best in terms of biology.<br />389826524638000Biology is sometimes described as nanotechnology that works. Biological systems contain small and efficient motors. There are more than 50 kinds of motors found in cells. Biological systems produce impressive control systems. The brain of an bee is tiny and consumes little power yet regulates complex flying an behavioral patterns. A cell one micron in size can store 1 Gbit of information in DNA. They self reproduce. They construct tough and strong material. Biology is an important source for inspiration in nanotechnology. Copying engineering principles from biology and applying it to create new materials and technologies is called biomimetrics.<br />Fig. 1.3. A chloroplast, where photosynthesis takes place in plants, is filled with nanoscale molecular machinery.<br />An example of biomimetrics is trying to produce materials with the strength and lightness of seashells. Shells are strong, light materials composed of aragonite (a crystalline form of calcium carbonate which is basically chalk) and a rubbery biopolymer. Another example is a thin glass fiber grown by an ocean sponge. These glass fibers capable of transmitting light better than industrial fiber optic cables used for telecommunication. The " Venus flower basket sponge" grows the flexible fibers at cold temperatures using natural materials. If this could be reproduced in the laboratory it might avoid the problems created by current fiber optic manufacturing methods that require high temperatures and produce relatively brittle cable. Other biomimetric discoveries are enzymes taken from bacteria that break down fat in cold water have been used to improve laundry detergent and proteins from jellyfish are used during surgery to illuminate cancerous tissue. Trying to make a computer that mimics how a brain works is another example of biomimetics.<br />-15938517335500<br />Fig. 1.4 (Top) fracture surface and (bottom) polished section of mollusk shell showing the micro-laminated construction responsible for its hardness, strength, and toughness.<br />23787103302000<br />Fig. 1.5. Left: A scanning electron micrograph of the cell wall of a diatom. Diatoms are unicellular algae and major component of plankton. The circular cell membrane is about 5 μm in diameter and is made of silica (a form of glass). The algae make features in silica on the nanometer scale using just seawater and sunlight.<br />VLSI<br />Advantages Of Nanotechnology<br />Medical Advantages <br />End of Illnesses (I.e. Cancer, heart disease)<br />Universal immunity (I.e. aids, flu)<br />Body Sculpting (I.e. change your appearance)<br />Stop the aging Process<br />Painless Child births<br />Industrial Advantages<br />Computers a billion times faster and a million times smaller<br />Automatic Pollution Cleanup<br />Manufacturing at almost no cost<br />Architecture, Engineering and Construction industry<br />Materials Producers<br />Usage Superior Education<br />in Textiles Industries<br />Disadvantages Of Nanotechnology<br />Loss of jobs (manufacturing, farming, etc)<br />Oil Becomes worthless<br />Diamonds become worthless<br />Atomic weapons more accessible and destructive<br />Conclusion<br />Nanotechnology offers the ability to build large numbers of products that are incredibly powerful<br />Nanotechnology is heavily intertwined with biotechnology and information technology, making its scope very wide<br />The nanotechnology industry is mainly used to create new world<br />My Opinion<br />Any new technology has dangers associated with it. Nanotechnology is no exception. In 2003, a Canadian environmental organization called the ETC group published a document called The Big Down where environmental dangers were discussed. An analogy between nanostructures and asbestos was made. Asbestos fibers were widely used for years before anyone realized that they were a health hazard.<br />شكر وتقدير للدكتور/ سمير كمال<br />المهندسة/ سارة حسن ,<br />لعدم الحجر على الإبداع<br /> <br /> <br />Instruments and processes<br />Risks of Nano-technology<br />According to the Organic Consumers Association, ” …the most dangerous hi-tech poison of them all {is}- nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is now a multi-billion dollar Frankenstein monster industry churning out a vast menu of untested and unlabeled products containing tiny nanoparticles including non-organic vitamin supplements, food packaging, processed food, cosmetics, and sunscreens.<br />….Nanotechnology is inherently dangerous. Mounting scientific evidence indicates that nanomaterials produce dangerous “free radicals” which can destroy or mutate DNA and can cause damage to the liver and kidneys. Nanotech particles not only injure and kill lab animals – they can kill you as well.<br />Every day, new evidence of the dangers of nanotechnology emerges:<br /> * Workplace nanoparticle exposure was linked to seven cases of serious and progressive lung disease in China including two patient deaths.<br /> * Nanoparticles present in a chemical found in sunscreens – titanium dioxide – are being examined as possibly causing Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. “<br />Reference: Nanotechnology: Shaping the world atom by atom - by the U.S. National Science and Technology Council.<br />http://med.tn.tudelft.nl/~hadley/nanoscience/week1/1.html<br />Environmental Technologies at the Nanoscale, Tina Masciangioli and Wei - Xian Zhang, ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY p. 102 A (2003).<br />Powerpoint file used during the lecture.<br />