Course Name: Fostering Inclusive ParticipationLesson Name: Access to InformationTopic Name: Lesson OverviewPage 1:Welcome to the “Access to Information” lesson. I’ll be your guide.This lesson will help you understand access to information as a human rights issueand why it is central to UNDPs poverty reduction mandate and support fordemocratic governance.Page 2:Lesson ObjectivesBy the end of this lesson, you should have a better understanding of: • Trends, concepts and issues relating to access to information • How access to information supports democratic governance, underpins initiatives to eradicate poverty and is crucial to achieving the Millennium Development Goals • UNDP’s pro-poor approach to supporting access to information • Specific areas of programming support • Practical tips for programming and where to find further informationTopic Name: Trends, Concepts and IssuesPage 1:Topic ObjectivesWelcome to the ‘Trends, Concepts and Issues’ topic. This topic discusses what wemean by access to information and other related terms.By the end of this topic you should have a better understanding of: • Recent trends impacting access to information • Access to information and freedom of expression as international human rights issues • The differences between public, private and state broadcasting models and challenges related to their existence and coexistence • Communication for empowerment • The importance of conflict sensitive reporting in areas of violent conflictPage 2:Background and ContextEfforts are underway by the UNDP and other actors to establish a good regulatory
environment and working structure for public and private communication indeveloping countries.At the same time, a push is developing to make the media more participatory byempowering the disadvantaged and giving them a greater say in: • The content and • The production of media contentHowever political tensions and insecurity, media privatisation and new technologieshave a significant impact on access to information. • Insecurity can lead to increased government surveillance, censorship and ‘national security’ restrictions. • Government media control can threaten the promotion of public service legislation which aims to safeguard the public interest in programming. • Increasing privatisation of the media, while often a welcome source of funding and diversification, has also led to trends whereby content is being shaped by the demands of advertisers and sponsors rather than public interest factors. In this context, even if state-funded media are committed to retaining public interest content, it may find it difficult to retain its audience in the face of competition by private media outlets focusing on entertainment and sensationalist news. • While new communication technologies such as the internet and email open for a freer exchange of information and cheaper equipment, censorship is a major threat.It is often necessary to find a balance between national security demands andprivacy concerns on the one hand and access to information and communication onthe other.Page 3:Access to Information is a Human Right: Article 19Access to information and freedom of expression are international human rights.Article 19 of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that:"Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includesfreedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impartinformation and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers."Similarly, article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights(ICCPR) reiterates that the right to freedom of expression includes not only freedomto "impart information and ideas of all kinds", but also freedom to "seek" and"receive" them "regardless of frontiers" and in whatever medium.Click the button on screen to read a country list for access to informationlaws (2006).Click the button on screen to view a map
of access to information laws (2006).Page 4:How is Access to Information Connected to Other Freedoms?Freedom will be bereft of all effectiveness if the people have no access toinformation. Access to information is basic to the democratic way of life. Thetendency to withhold information from the people at large is therefore to be stronglychecked.– Abid Hussain, UN Special Rapporteur on freedom of opinion and expression (1995).The human right to access information is important for the development ofdemocratic societies. Crucially it contributes to: • Creating more open and democratic societies • Challenging corruption • Enhancing transparency • Reducing poverty.According to UN General Assembly Resolution 59(l) of 1946:"Freedom of information is a touch-stone of all freedoms to which the UN isconsecrated."Click the Examples icon on screen to view an example of how a small activist in thenorth Indian state of Rajasthan has highlighted ways of combating specific instancesof corruption.Page 5:Access to InformationUNDP uses the term access to information to include both:1. Freedom of expression and2. The right to informationIt also encompasses the understanding that providing information is not enough;that information must also be accessible to everyone.Access to information therefore: • Is not only about promoting and protecting rights to information but is equally concerned with promoting and protecting communication (the use of information). • Implies that people must have the ability to voice their views, participate in democratic processes at all levels (community, national, regional and global)
and set priorities for action.Page 6:Freedom of ExpressionFreedom of expression refers to the free flow of information and ideas andemphasises the communication dimension of access to information.However, the term is used within international conceptions of human rights toinclude not just freedom of speech but the protection of any act of seeking, receivingand imparting information or ideas, regardless of the medium used.It therefore embraces cultural expression and the arts as much as political speechand implies not just protection of the media and individuals to freely expressthemselves, but their right to official information.How does your country deal with freedom of expression?Click the icon on screen to view an enlarged image.Click the Examples icon on screen to view an example of how freedom of expressioncan be hotly contested.Click the Quick Facts icon on screen to view the ten most censored countries in2006.Click the Resources icon on screen to read more about the freedom of expression.Page 7:Right to InformationFreedom of expression and the right to information held by public authorities arerelated but different concepts, emphasising different aspects of access toinformation.The right to information is not only about the existence of legislation – it alsodepends on the content of that legislation, its legal guarantees and the scope of thelegislation.But the right to information also depends on there being effective measures forimplementing the right. In other words, there must be: • Efficient and well-organised information management systems • An open culture within the civil service • Practices within organisations and society as a whole that make information readily available.Click the icon on screen to view an enlarged image.
Click the Important to Know icon on screen to view the minimum internationalstandards legislation must meet.Click the Resources icon on screen to read more about the Right to Information.Page 8:Public Versus Private InformationPublic versus private information is a prevailing issue in many countries and is hereexamined in the context of three main media control models.1. Public Service Broadcasting2. Private or Commercial Broadcasting3. Direct Supervision of State AuthoritiesThe different models are not mutually exclusive and can coexist.Click each model to learn about its features.Click the Important to Know icon on screen to find out what can happen whenpublic service functions are taken over by private sector organisations.Click the Resources icon on screen to read more about the broadcasting models.Page 9:Communication for Development and EmpowermentHow do you think Communication can help Development?Communication for empowerment and communication for development are conceptsthat are used interchangeably and focus on the use of participatory approaches thataim to empower disadvantaged communities.Traditional approaches to media development have focused almost exclusively onthe mass media and national communications structures, relying on them forrepresentation of disadvantaged communities. Similarly, communicationsinterventions by NGOs and international organisations have preferred to use themass media to spread development messages, in what is known as the diffusionapproach.However, increasingly both media development and development communicationspractitioners are considering ways of increasing the visibility and power of thedisadvantaged by using more local and participatory ways of communicating.A focus on community media could help to promote two-way and bottom-upcommunication. The point is to avoid top-down media programming that does notunderstand local problems and to make it easier for people to have their voices
heard.Click the Important to Know icon to learn more about the aim of Communicationfor Empowerment.Click the Resources icon on screen to read the Practical Guidance Note onCommunication.Page 10:Conflict and CommunicationIn unstable regions it becomes particularly important to be aware of the kind ofmessages that are projected through communications channels such as the media.Highly politicised and even propagandist messages can inflame tensions and polarisesocieties.Even ordinary media which can be adversarial and focused on dramatic events andbad news, when seen through a prism of instability, can exacerbate tensions.In response some are advocating for conflict sensitive reporting by journalists that iscareful to include: • More context • More reasoned debate • More victim perspectives • Ordinary people…rather than focusing predominantly on explosions, antagonisms and authorityfigures.International organisations are also actively involved in media projects that seek topromote peace and dialogue.In addition, NGOs are developing several innovative communications projects topromote peace. Building on experiences from other development communicationsprojects NGOs are developing a range of innovative peace interventions.Sudden liberalisation of communication channels as part of democratisationinterventions, where not accompanied by adequate regulatory measures, can alsocontribute to violent conflict. In Rwanda, rapid and under-regulated liberalisation ofthe media gave room for radio stations to play a role in inciting the 1994 genocide.Balancing liberalisation and regulation must be based on a judgement of the socialand political climate.Click the Examples icon on screen to view an example of how the U.N. hasused peace radio interventions.Click the Quick Facts icon on screen to view a range of innovative peaceinterventions developed by NGOs.Click the Resources icon on screen to access additional resources in the area of
conflict and access to information.Page 14:Topic SummaryYou have successfully completed this topic. You should now have a betterunderstanding of: • Recent trends impacting access to information • Access to information and freedom of expression as international human rights issues • The differences between public, private and state broadcasting models and challenges related to their existence and coexistence • Communication for empowerment • The importance of conflict sensitive reporting in areas of violent conflictTopic Name: Access to Information and DevelopmentPage 1:Topic ObjectivesWelcome to the ‘Access to Information and Development’ topic.By the end of this topic you should have a better understanding of: • How access to information supports democratic governance, underpins initiatives to eradicate poverty and is crucial to achieving the Millennium Development Goals. • How access to information can strengthen development processes.Page 2:Why is Access to Information Important for Development?Access to information has intrinsic value as an international human right. But it alsohas instrumental value because it is crucial to democratic governance and thereforecentral to reducing poverty and achieving the Millennium Development Goals.In short, access to information is important for development because it: • Increases participation and • Reduces povertyClick each button to learn more about how access to information deals with eachaspect.
Page 3:Why is Access to Information Important for Development?Here are some examples.Click the Bolivian flag for an example of how the people of Cochabambacampaigned against the fraudulent activities of a water company.Click the Brazilian flag for an example of how corruption within the Colloradministration ended his presidency.Page 4:How can Access to Information Strengthen Development Processes?There are three prerequisites for access to information to enhance developmentprocesses:1. An enabling environment2. Effective implementation of access to information interventions3. Empowered vulnerable groupsOver the next few pages, well examine each prerequisite.Page 5:What Makes an Environment "Enabling" for Access to Information?Good access to information depends on a robust and effective legal and regulatoryenvironment which protects and promotes the right to information. It also requires aculture of openness and transparency in government, the private sector and widersociety.Right to information legislation and policies are necessary to protect and promoteaccess to information. The right to information can be guaranteed in a number ofways, as seen in the table.In the next page, we will see how information became key to the liberationmovement in South Africa.Page 6:An Enabling Environment - ExampleThe scope of right to information legislation may vary. It may cover only publicbodies, it may exclude particular public organisations, or it may include the privatesector, as in the case of South Africa.Click the South African flag on screen to view the example.
Page 7:Effective ImplementationRules alone have little impact where there is a lack of political will, capacity andcapability of society to monitor their implementation. To be effective, constitutionalprovisions require a mature legal system.And of course, information is useless unless it is also delivered in a medium thatpeople can use. To enhance development processes, modes for disseminating andcommunicating information must not only be effective, but appropriate and relevantto the most vulnerable groups - women, poor people, young people and marginalisedminorities.A number of factors determine whether information is relevant including: • Literacy • Language barriers • Associated costs • The gender of users • LocationPage 8:Effective Implementation - ExampleClick the Ethiopian flag for an example of how legislation has not beenimplemented effectively in Ethiopia.Click the Serbian flag for an example of how legislation has not been implementedeffectively in Serbia.Page 9:Empowerment of Citizens, especially of Marginalised GroupsAccess to information and communication channels ultimately enable people toparticipate in decision-making processes, to shape opinions and to influencedecisions that affect them.Poor and vulnerable groups often: • Lack information that is vital to their lives - information on basic rights and entitlements, public services, health, education, work opportunities, public spending budgets and so on. • Lack visibility and a voice in the public sphere to enable them to define and influence policy priorities and access resources.Development interventions have a crucial role to play in expanding this benefit to
marginalised groups, especially women and poor people, by empowering them withthe capacity to find information and use communication channels effectively.Gender is a critical consideration in initiatives to improve access to information. Thedifferent information needs of men and women and the lack of data on womensspecific needs, in particular, presents important challenges for organisations trying toinitiate access to information programmes in order to meet the MDGs.Page 12:Topic SummaryYou have successfully completed this topic. You should now have a betterunderstanding of: • How access to information supports democratic governance, underpins initiatives to eradicate poverty and is crucial to achieving the Millennium Development Goals. • How access to information can strengthen development processes.Topic Name: UNDPs Understanding of Access to InformationPage 1:Topic ObjectivesWelcome to the topic on ‘UNDP’s Understanding of Access to Information ’.This topic will help you understand UNDPs approach to access to information andhow this relates to UNDP’s central objective: to reduce poverty and achieve theMillennium Development Goals (MDGs).By the end of this topic you should have a better understanding of: • UNDP’s conceptual framework on access to information • The centrality of the pro-poor focus on UNDP’s access to information work • UNDP’s key function of enhancing the supply of and demand for information • Specific areas of programming supportPage 2:Understanding Access to InformationAccess to information has two components: • Information and • Communication
For good access to information: • People must have the right and ability to obtain information of all types. • There must be good communication, or flow of information, of all types to and from people and organisations of all kinds.These dual components of information and communication represent UNDPsconceptual framework for access to information.Page 3:InformationInformation can be held by: • Governments • Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) • Communities • The Private Sector and • IndividualsStakeholders include: • Information creators • Information users and • Intermediaries of communication flowsOfficial information is extremely important and represents one of the manyinformation types that ordinary people need in order to make informed decisions... • On matters that affect their lives • To hold duty bearers to account • To claim their rightsIt can include information on issues as varied as: • Patients rights in public hospitals • Public procurement processes • The budget allocations to line ministries and local governments and • Services that authorities must provide with their allocated funds, etc.Click the Philippines flag on screen to view an example of how information wasused to impeach the President of the Philippines.
Page 4:CommunicationCommunication implies action and interaction.To communicate is to: • Share and exchange ideas and information and • Express ones opinions and preferencesInformation stakeholders use a range of communication channels and mechanisms toseek, receive, use and share information.Page 5:The Information-Communication CircleThe information and communication circle illustrates how access to information andcommunication relate to the key governance principles of: • Transparency • Active participation • Responsiveness and • AccountabilityThe circle demonstrates how access to information can increase the demand forbetter governance and by doing so perpetuate its own demand. Each circle requiresthe development of specific capacities for generating, accessing, analysinginformation and communicating views.Click the Resources icon on screen to read the Practice Note on Access toInformation.Page 6:The Guiding Principle: Pro-Poor OrientationUNDPs mandate is to reduce poverty.Its priorities reflect a specific commitment to the MDGs specifically and theMillennium Declaration in general.UNDPs position on access to information reflects this commitment. Its onecentral objective is to ensure that all people, including vulnerable and marginalisedpeople, have access to information to participate in decisions and policy-makingprocesses.Access to information is a core empowerment tool. It underpins and cross-cuts allinterventions and programmes for reducing poverty and improving democraticgovernance.
In short, all UNDPs activities to support access to information initiatives should havea pro-poor orientation.Page 7:UNDPs PositionTo meet these objectives, UNDP takes the following position on access toinformation: • Implementing the rights to freedom of expression and access to information are pre-requisites for ensuring everyone has the voice and ability to participate that is necessary for a democratic society. • Access to information and communication build on these internationally recognised rights and encompass the core principles of democratic governance: participation, transparency and accountability. • Promoting and protecting both access to information and flows of information are of equal importance. • Creating and strengthening means of communication is essential, especially those mechanisms that enable poor people to influence national and local government policy and practice.Page 8:How can UNDP make a Difference?Access to information is a sensitive subject, but UNDP is well placed to do the job ofpromoting it by virtue of its comparative advantages: • Its unique relationship with governments • Its ability to convene stakeholders • Its expertise and experience in democratic governanceBeyond these, crucial functions UNDP can carry out are: • Strengthening mechanisms that will improve the supply of information • Developing the capacities of organisations and individuals to demand more informationStop for a moment -- what is the information and communication culture like in yourcountry? How are the capacities for demanding and supplying information?Click the Demand and Supply button on screen to see what activities these include.Click the Resources icon on screen to read the Information and DocumentationDisclosure Policy.
Page 9:Access to Information Support AreasThere are three principal and closely interrelated areas where UNDP can providesupport: • Improving the right to information • Strengthening communication • Strengthening the mediaThe three areas are closely interrelated. By making a difference in one area, UNDPcan make a difference in the others, thereby having a greater impact on poverty.Click the buttons on screen to know moreon each of these areas.Page 10:Access to Information Projects – 2007UNDP’s support for access to information projects has increased by approximately400% over four years: from 69 projects in 2003, to 279 in 2007 in 60 countries. Thisincludes both specific access to information projects (for example support to thedevelopment of independent and pluralist media) and projects where access toinformation is an integral component of other democratic governance initiatives(such as legislation support or justice initiatives). Currently, most projects arecarried out in the Arab and Europe-CIS regions.Some very interesting trends have emerged: in 2003, media development and e-governance initiatives were the primary focus areas; in 2005, the focus shifted toright to official information; in 2007 we have seen a substantial increase in thenumber of projects related to communication mechanisms for vulnerable groups.These projects focus on developing and strengthening communication andinformation sharing mechanisms that support the development of national capacitiesand empower the poorest groups in society to influence decisions that affect theirlives.Click the Zambian flag on screen to view an example of how the UNDP runs aproject in Zambia which aims at to enhance good governance by addressing thepublic participation, transparency and accountability.Page 11:Improving the Right to InformationThere are three stages where UNDP can provide support for improving the right toinformation. • Pre-legislation • Legislation development
• Legislation implementationClick the buttons on screen to know about the activities in the stages.Page 12:Communication for EmpowermentUNDP defines Communication for Empowerment as a participatory approach thatputs the information and communication needs and interests of disempowered andmarginalised groups at the centre of initiatives to improve media.In this context, it is important to ensure the media has the capacity and capability togenerate and provide the information that marginalised groups want and need.UNDP can help by supporting and encouraging initiatives which: • Increase access to information for marginalised groups, including mechanisms that fill information gaps • Highlight and amplify marginalised voices - to ensure the concerns of those at the margins of political or social power structures are highlighted in the media and public debate • Create spaces for public debate, dialogues and actionDecisions about choosing appropriate intervention can begin by conductinginformation and communication audits.Radio in particular is important in communication for empowerment strategiesbecause of its reach, accessibility to the poor and interactive character.Click the Resources icon on screen to read more about how to carry out aninformation and communication audit.Page 13:Strengthening the MediaAn independent and pluralist media - at national and local levels - is crucial forpromoting accountability and transparency and an important plank of povertyreduction.UNDP supports: • The development of an enabling environment for inclusive media, such as community-based media. • The development of professional standards in the media by encouraging self- regulation (codes of conduct) and journalist training (investigative journalism). • Journalists in all regions to understand and report on issues affecting the poor. UNDPs National Human Development Reports and MDG Reports are important entry points for this process.
The media sector in pre-conflict, conflict and post-conflict situations plays anextremely important role.Several organisations are looking at how to engage the media as a key partner inconflict prevention, management and reduction.Page 18:Topic SummaryYou have successfully completed this topic. You should now have a betterunderstanding of: • UNDP’s conceptual framework on access to information • The centrality of the pro-poor focus on UNDP’s access to information work • Its key function of enhancing the supply of and demand for information • Specific areas of programming supportTopic Name: Practical Guidance: Access to Information ProgrammingPage 1:Topic ObjectivesWelcome to the topic on ‘Practical Guidance for Access to Information Programming’.The aim of the last topic was to show you how to put the principles set out previouslyinto practice.By the end of this topic you should have a better understanding of the followingaspects of access to information programming: • Situation analysis • Strategy • Identifying partnerships • Programme monitoring and evaluation • Where to find resources for further informationPage 2:The Overall ContextFor all UNDP supported programmes and projects in access to information,programme officers initially need to establish an understanding of the contextincluding the political, socio-economic and technical contexts in their countriesdrawing on the Common Country Assessment (CCA) and other relevant sources. It isalso important to map the key external players active within the sector.An analysis of these broad contextual factors will provide the initial ‘landscape’ in
which an access to information intervention can take place. Such baselines can oftendraw on studies already completed by others.Key considerations include: • What is the constitutional and legal position of the right to information – is there any relevant provision? • If there is no legislation in place, is any under consideration? • Are the media subject to interference, either directly through overt censorship, or indirectly through licensing requirements, economic methods of control or covert systems of influence?This will give you the basis for beginning to understand the overall situation.Click the Click to View icon on screen to view a table of basic questions necessaryfor understanding the access to information landscape. Visit pages 12 and 13 of thedocument.Page 3:Situational AnalysisThe situational analysis builds on this understanding of the ‘landscape’ and exploresin more detail important factors relevant to each of the support areas.Some of the information needed to provide a satisfactory understanding of thesituation may not be available in existing national planning documents.It will therefore be important to work closely with others, especially governmentcounterparts, civil society, and other organisations with relevant experience.Such collaboration could include: • Drawing on research and mappings undertaken by external actors • Convening or taking part in consultative meetings • Using existing surveys, polls and participatory rapid appraisals, etc.In some cases it will be necessary to contract consultants to pull together theinformation needed for a robust and accurate situational analysis.An information and communication audit should also be carried out: • Mapping the information needs of poor people (information audit) • Mapping the voice needs of poor people (communication audit)Click the Resources icon on screen to read more about carrying out an informationand communication audit.
Page 4:Programme PlanningAccess to information cuts across all UNDP activities but specific programmes toimprove access to information fall into one of three types: • Upstream • Downstream • MainstreamingClick each tier of the pyramid to learn more about each type.Page 5:Reviewing Access to Information ProposalsOnce an understanding of the context and the situation has been achieved, the nextimportant step is to review potential proposals.There are typically three principal points of origin for access to informationproposals: • Receiving a proposal or a request for support from a government counterpart • Identifying a specific need • Receiving a request from a CSOIn each of the three situations, programme officers should review the objectives ofthe proposal against: • Existing UNDP governance programmes and the agenda of the government • The country programme and other national strategic documents • UNDPs commitment to a rights-based programming approach • The four principal support areas and the information and communication programming circleUNDP can help refine the proposal and work with counterparts to carry out a capacityassessment based on the UNDP approach, which can be found at the ResourceSection. This will enable the country office to formulate a project based on a soundmethodology, incorporating the most appropriate capacity development strategies inaccordance with the context in question.Click the Resources icon on screen to read more about reviewing access toinformation proposals.Page 6:Identifying PartnershipsUNDP can leverage its relatively limited resources to enhance the impact of its work
in access to information by working in partnership with other development actors.Strengthening and deepening existing partnerships is an organisational priorityrecognising that partnerships enable information to be shared and provide access tospecialist expertise and experience. They may also reduce the chance that the effortsare duplicated.While there is no set formula for partnerships, there are a number of criticalcomponents, which can contribute in varying degrees to a successful partnership.These include: • Clear criteria for identifying relevant civil society partners • Mutual trust and commitment • A well thought out project plan with clear objectives • Clearly identified responsibilities and roles for each partner • Expectations of the partnership that are transparent for each partner • Relationships within the partnership that are continually monitored.UNDP’s main partners in access to information programming can include: • Government (national and local) • Civil Society Organisations • Media Organisations • Media Support Organisations • Multilateral and Bilateral Development agenciesClick the Resources icon on screen to read more about guidance for identifyingpartners.Page 7:Monitoring and Evaluation of Access to Information ProgrammesEvaluating the programmes you support is vital to understanding the impact thework is having and whether you are making the most effective use of resources.UNDP has moved away from measuring inputs to measuring outcomes throughsetting annual targets. The current guidance recommends country offices to enterbaselines, indicators and estimated expenditure against outcomes for the duration ofthe country programme.The selection of outcome indicators should begin by developing an inclusive list ofpotential indicators, although you should recognise that indicators are specific to thesituation.It is particularly important to develop indicators that measure the impact ofprogrammes upon women and the poor. As formal equality may conceal considerabledifferences in actual equality, simply providing formal means to request informationas a citizen’s right may not be enough.Click the Resources icon on screen to read more about monitoring and evaluation.
Page 8:Sample IndicatorsThe following are all useful potential indicators: • Percentage of requests for official information that are granted each year in relation to requests received. • Budget allocated to government bodies/units in charge of ensuring that access to information legislation is implemented. • Evidence of women and poor utilising information requests. • Measurable increase in media coverage of development issues in mainstream and community media. • Increased participation and representation of the perspectives of vulnerable groups in media debates. • Evidence that media-generated debate is leading to discussion, action, and policy changes. • A measurable improvement in the quality of journalistic coverage, specifically in terms of independence and professionalism (enhanced capacities of media personnel). • Number of investigative reporting and/or public interest features in the media.Click the Quick Facts icon on screen to view the sources of information.Page 11:Topic SummaryYou have successfully completed this topic. You should now have a betterunderstanding of: • Situation analysis • Strategy • Identifying partnerships • Programme monitoring and evaluation • Where to find resources for further informationTopic Name: Lesson SummaryPage 1:ResourcesYou can refer to the links provided on screen to learn more about “Access toInformation”. Remember to visit the Resources section for a more comprehensivereading list.
Page 3:Lesson SummaryCongratulations! You have successfully completed this lesson. You should now have abetter understanding of: • Trends, concepts and issues relating to access to information • How access to information supports democratic governance, underpins initiatives to eradicate poverty, and is crucial to achieving the Millennium Development Goals • UNDP’s pro-poor approach supporting to access to information • Specific areas of programming support • Practical tips for programming and where to find further information