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St Hilda's APA Bibliography and Referencing Guidelines
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St Hilda's APA Bibliography and Referencing Guidelines

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For formal writing such as essays and assignments, you are required to include a bibliography and reference your sources. …

For formal writing such as essays and assignments, you are required to include a bibliography and reference your sources.

There are a number of different systems for creating bibliographies and references. St Hilda’s School uses APA.

To help create a bibliography, you can use this guide in WriteCite on the St Hilda’s Library home page and EasyBib downloaded onto your iPad or phone.

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  • 1. APA Referencing Guide for St Hilda’s School
  • 2.  For formal writing such as essays and assignments, you are required to include a bibliography and reference your sources.  There are a number of different systems for creating bibliographies and references. St Hilda’s School uses APA.  To create a bibliography, you can use CiteMaker on the St Hilda’s Library home page and EasyBib downloaded onto your iPad or phone.
  • 3. A sample bibliography Note that all the sources – books, internet, newspapers, etc - are integrated in the one list and organized in alphabetical order. Remember that “A” and “The” at the beginning of an entry are not taken into account. Bailey, P. (2004) “Beachwatch fails to warn swimmers”, Courier Mail, 15 March, p.2. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English language (1995) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cleary, P. & Lewis, S. (2004) 'It's the end of a long boom', The Australian Financial Review, 8 March, Retrieved 23 August 2013 http://afr.com/australia/2001/03/08/FFXIM9PU0KC.html. Cowie, H.R. et al. (1994) Legacies 3: Imperialism, Racism and Re-assessments, Melbourne: Nelson. Fitzgerald, G.E. (1999) “A scholarly review process for interactive learning and information system products”, Journal of Interactive Learning Research, vol. 10, no.1, pp. 59-65. [Jstor] Fox News, Retrieved 23 August 2013 http://www.foxnews.com/video/index.html “Health concerns for tiny tots” (2004) Courier Mail, 23 Feb, p.13. King, P. (1984a) Power in Australia, St. Lucia: UQP. King, P. (1984b) Solar power, Melbourne: Macmillan. The search for meaning (1998) radio program, ABC Radio, Sydney, 24 March. Taylor, T. (2000) The Future of the Past, The Faculty of Education, Monash University, Churchill, Victoria. Retrieved 23 August 2013 http://www.detya.gov.au/schools/Publications/2000/future/report.htm
  • 4. A bibliography gives the reader of your essay or assignment an idea of your wide reading on the topic studied. The alphabetical listing of the books, articles and other sources used is an easy guide for the reader to follow. It appears at the end of your written material. Bibliography or Reference List?  A bibliography is a list of all the resources you have accessed on the topic.  A reference list includes only those resources you have referenced in your essay or assignment
  • 5. The listing of a bibliography should be in alphabetical order of the entries.  Generally this will be by the authors’ surnames  If the book has no author or editor, you use the title of the book.  “A” and “The” at the beginning of an entry are not taken into account. There should be a double space between each entry so it is easy to read. Each source is not numbered. While you may number your sources in your working bibliography and note taking, the numbers should not appear in the final bibliography for submission.
  • 6. The details required in order are  Name/s of author/s, or editor/s, or compiler/s (surname and initials)  Year of publication (in brackets)  Title of publication (in italics)  Series title and individual volume if any  Edition, if other than first  Place of publication – city or town, not country:  Publisher
  • 7. Example: Smith, I.J. (2003) The History of Imperialism, London: Oxford University Press.
  • 8. All reputable internet sites have a title and a URL. The URL or Uniform Resource Locator is what we call the address. Sometimes, however, it is difficult to find more information than this. You need to try to find as much information as possible from the page.
  • 9. Example: Fitzgerald, G.E. (1999) “A scholarly review process for interactive learning and information system products”, Journal of Interactive Learning Research, vol. 10, no.1, pp. 59-65.
  • 10. Example: Bailey, P. (2004) “Beachwatch fails to warn swimmers”, Courier Mail, 15 March, p.2.
  • 11. Example: Berkowitz, P. (1995) 'Sussy's gravestone', April 3. from TWAIN-L@yorkvm1.bitnet.
  • 12. The following details should be provided in a bibliography, if available –  Director/Producer – Last name, Initial  Year of recording,  Title –in italics  Format,  Place of recording:  Publisher/Distributor/Copyright owner.
  • 13. If you use someone else's words, conclusions or opinions you must give the author her/his due credit by using referencing. Even if you do not use the person's exact words, you must acknowledge her/him. The University of Queensland defines plagiarism as 'taking and using the thoughts or writings of another, without acknowledgement’. A Reference is required when you: 1. quote another person word for word (direct quotation). It doesn't matter whether it is a phrase, sentence or paragraph, you will need to provide a reference from which it was taken. 2. paraphrase or summarise. Ideas or data obtained from another writer must be referenced even if you have changed the wording and/or content 3. use statistics. (eg population) 4. use tables, figures, diagrams and appendices. The source of these must be acknowledged unless they are entirely from your own research work. 5. use controversial facts, opinions, or a date which might be challenged. However, information of a general nature such as facts which are common knowledge eg the years of World War II do not need to be referenced.
  • 14. Any of the following examples are acceptable for referencing from a book in your essay: • Dwyer (1999, p.195) suggests that “...” [quoting word for word from the source] • In 1999, Dwyer (p.195) suggested that... [referring to an idea from the source] • According to Dwyer, “The Roman Empire relied on brutality to conquer its enemies” (Dwyer, 1999, p.182). [make sure the reference is in the sentence ie. full stop after the reference] If you are referencing the central idea or theory of an author, you don’t need to give the page number:- Dwyer (1999) believes Augustus created the Roman Empire through sheer brutality.