Solids liquids and gases
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Solids liquids and gases

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  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases Photo credit: © 2008 Jupiterimages Corporation
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases Solids, Liquids and Gases Worksheet 1 accompanies this slide.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases Photo credit (left and right): © 2008 Jupiterimages Corporation
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases Teacher notes: Cornflour paste is a 'stir-thickening' liquid. When the paste is stirred the increase in kinetic (movement) energy causes it to become thicker and harder, making it difficult to pour or stir. However the paste becomes runny again once you stop stirring. The same phenomena occurs when the paste is squeezed or rolled. The increase in kinetic energy causes the paste to harden and form a firm lump. Only when you stop stirring does the paste act like a liquid and become runny again.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases Photo credit: © 2008 Jupiterimages Corporation
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases Photo credit: Sophie Collin
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases Teacher notes The ammonia particles diffuse more quickly than the HCl particles because they have a lower molecular mass.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases Glossary diffusion – The process in which particles randomly move and spread out in gases and liquids. gas – The state of matter in which particles can freely move, and in which substances have no fixed volume or shape. liquid – The state of matter in which particles are close together but free to move, and in which substances have a fixed volume and assume the shape of their container. matter – The stuff that everything is made of. particle – The smallest unit of matter. pressure – Caused by the particles of a gas hitting the walls of its container. solid – The state of matter in which particles are close together and cannot move, and in which substances have a fixed shape and volume. state – The physical condition of a substance. Can be solid, liquid or gas.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Solids, Liquids and Gases

Solids liquids and gases Solids liquids and gases Presentation Transcript

  • 1 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • 2 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • What are the three states of matter?At any given temperature, all substances exist in one of thethree states of matter. solid liquid gas 3 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • What state is it? 4 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Changes of stateEach change of state has a special name: melting evaporation ice water steam freezing condensation 5 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • SublimationSome substances sublime. This means that they go straightfrom solid to gas without passing through the liquid state. sublimation solid gasSubstances that sublime include: iodine carbon dioxide (dry ice) plug-in air fresheners ink in printers and photocopiers comets as they approach the Sun. 6 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Melting point and boiling pointThe temperature at which a substancechanges from a solid to a liquid is calledits melting point (or freezing point).What is the melting point of pure water?The temperature at which asubstance changes from a liquidto a gas is called its boiling point.What is the boiling point of pure water?What state is water at 25 °C, 300 °C and 100 °C? 7 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Temperature scales 8 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • What effect does salt have on ice? 9 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Reducing the freezing point of waterSalt reduces the freezing point of water. This means that thetemperature has to be much colder than 0 °C for it to freeze.Can you explain why peopleput salt on roads and pathsduring icy weather?In what other situations would itbe useful to reduce the freezingpoint of water? How about inmaking ice-cream? 10 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • 11 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • ParticlesThe differences between solids, liquids and gases can beexplained by looking at the particles. All substances are made up of particles. The particles are attracted to each other. Some particles are attracted strongly to each other, and others weakly. The particles move around. They are described as having kinetic energy. The kinetic energy of the particles increases with temperature. 12 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Particles and properties 13 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Properties of solids, liquids and gases 14 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • How do particles move? 15 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • What are the properties of solids?Solids: have a high density, as the particles are packed very closely together cannot be compressed because there is very little empty space between particles have a fixed shape because the particles are held tightly together cannot diffuse because the particles are not able to move. 16 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Cornflour paste: solid or liquid? 17 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • What are the properties of liquids?Liquids: have a fairly high density because the particles are close together cannot be compressed because there is very little empty space between particles take up the shape of its container because the particles can move can diffuse because the particles are able to change places. 18 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • What are the properties of gases?Gases: have a low density because the particles are spaced far apart can be compressed because there is space between particles have no fixed shape because the particles move about rapidly in all directions can diffuse because the particles are able to move in all directions. 19 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Gas pressure 20 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Solids, liquids and gases: which one? 21 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • 22 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • How do smells spread out? 23 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • What is diffusion?Diffusion is the random movement of particles. When particlesdiffuse, they spread out and mix with other particles.For example, thesmell of aftershaveor perfume can bedetected by peopleon the other side ofa room because theperfume particlesdiffuse in the air.Can you think of some more everyday examples of diffusion? 24 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Diffusion in action 25 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Diffusion and temperature 26 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Diffusion in solidsThe particles in liquids and gases diffuse easily because theyare free to move around. However, it is possible for solids todiffuse as well.Scientists have found that if they put two metalsnext to each other and leave them for a longtime, eventually a few particles of one metalwill diffuse into the other.This is because the particles in a solid vibrate,and some of them have enough energy tomove around a little bit as well. Eventually, afew particles move around enough to diffuseinto the other metal. 27 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Diffusion in liquids and gasesWhich will diffuse faster, a gas or a liquid?The particles of a gas will diffuse faster. Why?The gas particles are moving around faster than the particlesin a liquid because they have more energy. This means thatthe gas particles will spread out more quickly. 28 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Rate of diffusion 29 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Diffusion in action: two gases 30 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Summary: diffusion 31 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • 32 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Glossary 33 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Anagrams 34 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Multiple-choice quiz 35 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008