Reactivity and the reactions of metals
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Reactivity and the reactions of metals

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  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals Photo credit: Stephanie Berghaeuser Teacher notes The magnesium reacts with oxygen to produce magnesium oxide.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals Photo credit: Csongor Varga
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals Photo credit: Dr John Mileham
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals Video credit: Alkali metal reaction videos © 2008 RGB Research http://periodictable.com/
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals Photo credit: Tey Teyoo
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals Worksheet 1 accompanies this slide.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals Worksheet 2 accompanies this slide.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals Photo credit (left): © 2008 Jupiterimages Corporation
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals t
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals Worksheet 3 accompanies this slide.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals Photo credit (left): Paul Mata Image shows iron ore.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals Worksheet 4 accompanies this slide.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals Glossary displacement – A reaction in which a more reactive metal replaces a less reactive metal in a compound. oxidation – The reaction of a substance with oxygen to make an oxide. reactive – A substance that reacts quickly or easily. reactivity – How quickly or easily a substance will react. reactivity series – The list of metals placed in order of their reactivity, starting with the most reactive. rusting – The reaction between iron and oxygen in the presence of water. salt – a substance formed in the reaction of a metal with an acid. unreactive – A substance that reacts very slowly or does not react at all.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Reactivity and the Reactions of Metals

Reactivity and the reactions of metals Reactivity and the reactions of metals Presentation Transcript

  • 1 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • 2 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Reacting metals with oxygenMost metals react with oxygen.Some metals react quicklyand some only react veryslowly. Magnesium, forexample, burns in oxygenwith a bright flame.When a metal reacts with oxygen, the product is a metal oxide. metal + oxygen ² metal oxideThis is called an oxidation reaction. 3 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Investigating reactivity with oxygen 4 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Order of reactivity with oxygen 5 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Equations: reactions of metals with oxygenWhat is the balanced symbol equation for each reaction? magnesium + oxygen ² magnesium oxide 2Mg + O2 ² 2MgO copper + oxygen ² copper oxide 2Cu + O2 ² 2CuO iron + oxygen ² iron oxide 4Fe + O2 ² 2Fe2O3 6 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • What happens to the mass? 7 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Metals and oxygen: true or false? 8 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • 9 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Metals and waterThe Romans used lead to make water pipes but didn’t knowthat lead reacts slowly with water and makes it poisonous!Some metals react vigorously with water, some metals reactslowly and some do not react at all.Which is the best type of metal to use for water pipes? 10 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Using unreactive metalsThe words ‘plumber’ and‘plumbing’ come from plumbum(the Latin word for lead)because the ancient Romansused lead for their water pipes.Why is lead no longerused in plumbing?Copper is a much bettermetal for water pipes becauseit does not react at all withwater – perhaps plumbersshould be renamed coppers! 11 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Reacting metals with waterWhen any metal reactswith water, the productsare a metal hydroxideand hydrogen gas.This is the generalequation for the reactionof a metal with water: metal + water ² metal hydroxide + hydrogenWhat tests could you do to show that hydrogen and ahydroxide have been produced? 12 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Investigating reactivity with water (I) 13 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Equations: reactions of metals with waterWhat is the balanced symbol equation for each reaction? potassium potassium + water ² hydroxide + hydrogen 2K + 2H2O ² 2KOH + H2 lithium lithium + water ² hydroxide + hydrogen 2Li + 2H2O ² 2LiOH + H2 sodium sodium + water ² hydroxide + hydrogen 2Na + 2H2O ² 2NaOH + H2 14 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Investigating reactivity with water (II)James investigated how reactive some metals were with water.He made these observations: metal reaction with water reacts slowly with cold water but reacts gold quickly with steam calcium no reaction silver no reaction zinc no reactionCopper is used in plumbing and silver and gold in jewellery.Why are these unreactive metals suitable for such uses? 15 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Order of reactivity with water 16 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Odd one out 17 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • 18 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Corrosion of metalsMetals corrode when they areleft in contact with air or water.Which metals corrode quicklyand which corrode slowly?When iron corrodes, it is called rusting.Rusting is the oxidation reaction of ironwith oxygen in the presence of water. iron + oxygen ² iron oxide 2Fe + 3O2 ² Fe2O3 19 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Does salt make iron rust faster?People who live by the seaside often claim that their cars gorusty faster.Does salt speed up the rate of the rusting reaction? 20 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • What is needed for iron to rust? 21 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Preventing rustRusting destroys a huge amount of iron and steel every day.People spend a lot of money making sure that their iron andsteel buildings, engines, lorries and ships do not rust.What methods could you use to prevent things rusting? painting plastic coating galvanising oiling 22 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Rusting: sacrificial protectionSacrificial protection is another way of preventing rust.This involves attaching big blocksof magnesium or zinc to the ironhull of a ship or water pipe.Because magnesium ismore reactive than iron,it corrodes first, leavingthe iron intact. reactiveEventually the magnesium metalblocks have to be replaced ironbecause they havecorroded completely away. 23 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Rusting: true or false? 24 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • 25 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Reacting metals with acid 26 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Order of reactivity with acid 27 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Reactivity of metalsMetals can be listed in orderof how reactive they are. sodium calciumThis list is called the increasing reactivityreactivity series. magnesium aluminium The more reactive the metal, the more zinc vigorous the reaction. iron A metal that is below lead hydrogen will not react with dilute acids. hydrogen copper 28 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Products of metal reacting with acidWhen metals react with acid, bubbles of gas are produced.The ‘squeaky pop’ test showsthat this gas is hydrogen.When a metal reacts with acid,the products are hydrogen gasand a metal salt. What is thegeneral equation for thereaction of a metal with acid? metal + acid ² metal salt + hydrogen 29 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Metals and hydrochloric acid – equationsWhat is the balanced symbol equation for each reaction? magnesium + hydrochloric ² magnesium + hydrogen acid chloride Mg + 2HCl ² MgCl2 + H2 aluminium + hydrochloric ² aluminium + hydrogen acid chloride 2Al + 6HCl ² 2AlCl3 + 3H2 zinc + hydrochloric ² zinc + hydrogen acid chloride Zn + 2HCl ² ZnCl2 + H2 30 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Reaction of metals with acidsWhen a metal reacts with an acid, the products are a salt andhydrogen gas. metal + acid ² salt + hydrogenThe salt produced depends on the metal and type of acidinvolved in the reaction: When a metal reacts with hydrochloric acid, the salt produced is a metal chloride. When a metal reacts with sulfuric acid, the salt produced is a metal sulfate. When a metal reacts with nitric acid, the salt produced is a metal nitrate. 31 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • What is the equation? 32 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Word equations for metals and acids 33 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Balancing equations for metals and acids 34 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • 35 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Comparing reactivityThe orders of reactivity of metals with water, oxygen and aircan be compared. with water with oxygen with acid potassium calcium calcium sodium magnesium magnesium lithium zinc aluminium magnesium iron zinc copper lead iron silver copper lead gold copperWhat patterns can you see in these lists? 36 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • The reactivity seriesCombining the information from all the reactions gives anoverall order of reactivity called the reactivity series.One way to remember this order is to learn this silly sentence: please send charlie’s monkeys and zebras in large cages securely guarded! 37 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • What is the order of reactivity? 38 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Using the reactivity seriesThe reactivity series can be used to make predictions aboutthe reactions of metals. potassiumPredictions can be made sodium increasing reactivityabout simple reactions of calciummetals with oxygen, water magnesiumand acids. aluminium zincPredictions can also be ironmade about more complex leadreactions where one metal copperis competing with another. silver gold 39 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Predicting simple reactionsUse the reactivity series to predict if a reaction will take placeand how intense the reaction will be: metal reacts with prediction gold acid no reaction calcium water fizzing sodium oxygen burns vigorously silver oxygen very slow reaction zinc oxygen burns moderately 40 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • AluminiumAccording to the reactivity series, aluminium should be a fairlyreactive metal, but in reality it often appears unreactive. Why?This is because a protective layer of aluminium oxide quicklyforms on its surface, which stops it reacting. This meansaluminium can be used to build aeroplanes and saucepans. oxygen in the atmosphere However, if the protective layer coating of is removed, the oxygen atoms aluminium reacts more quickly. aluminium atoms 41 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • The reactivity series: summary 42 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • What is a displacement reaction?The Thermit reaction is an exampleof a displacement reaction.In this reaction, aluminium reactswith iron oxide to make aluminiumoxide and iron. iron aluminium aluminium + oxide ² oxide + ironThe more reactive aluminium takes the oxygen from theless reactive iron.The reaction gets so hot that the iron melts! It is used to weldrailway tracks. 43 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Displacement in actionWhat happens when magnesiumreacts with copper sulfate?Why does the blue colour of thecopper sulfate solution graduallydisappear during this reaction? before after copper magnesium magnesium + sulfate ² sulfate + copperMagnesium is a more reactive metal than copper and so themagnesium displaces the copper from the copper sulfatesolution. This is why the blue colour disappears. 44 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Explaining displacement reactionsThe reactivity series can be used to predict if a metal will reactwith a metal compound. If the metal is more reactive than themetal in the compound, it pushes out, or displaces, the lessreactive metal from its compound. more less more less reactive + reactive metal ² reactive metal + reactive metal compound compound metalIf the metal is less reactive than the metal in the compound, itwill not compete and so there is no reaction. less reactive more reactive metal no metal + compound ² reaction 45 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Displacement reactions – examplesWill magnesium react with copper chloride? copper magnesium magnesium + chloride ² chloride + copperMagnesium is a more reactive metal than copper, somagnesium displaces the copper from its compound.Will silver react with magnesium chloride? magnesium silver + chloride ² no reactionSilver is a less reactive metal than magnesium, so silver doesnot displace the magnesium from its compound. 46 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Displacement in extracting metalsDisplacement reactions canbe used to extract metalsfrom their ores.For example, iron andcopper are extracted fromtheir oxides by reacting theores with carbon: iron oxide + carbon ² carbon dioxide + iron copper oxide + carbon ² carbon dioxide + copper 47 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Displacement reactions – activity 48 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Displacement reactionsUse the reactivity series to predict if each mixture will react andcomplete the word equation. aluminium magnesiummagnesium + oxide ² oxide + aluminium iron magnesiummagnesium + chloride ² chloride + iron silver + zinc oxide ² no reaction copper copper + gold nitrate ² nitrate + gold 49 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • 50 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Glossary 51 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Anagrams 52 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Multiple-choice quiz 53 of 53 © Boardworks Ltd 2008