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Feeding relationships
 

Feeding relationships

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  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships Photo credit: Jupiterimages Corporation
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships Feeding Relationship Worksheet1 accompanies this section.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships Teacher notes Why is it a good idea for an organism to have different sources of food? Reliance on only one source of food would make an organism vulnerable to variations in the availability of this food. Also, many food sources are not available all year round, so alternative sources of nutrition are needed.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships Teacher notes 1. Daisy (flower/plant) 2. Vole and aphid (moth is also an acceptable answer – adult moths usually don’t eat, but their larvae do) 3. Stoat and barn owl 4. Four (ladybird, spider, stoat, blue tit) 5. Daisy, moth, blue tit, barn owl. Daisy, moth, spider, goldfinch, barn owl.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships Photo credit: Jupiterimages Corporation Teacher notes See ‘ Ecosystems ’ presentation for more about how changes in the environment can have an impact on animals.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships Teacher notes This activity is designed to show students that a decline in one species can have a significant impact on others. These values and outcomes are completely speculative.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships Teacher notes This illustration contains several discussion points relating to food chains and pyramids, including: Oak tree containing caterpillars, shrews and an owl: This represents a food chain with an oak tree as the primary producer, caterpillars as primary consumers, shrews as secondary consumers and an owl as the tertiary consumer. The balancing act illustrates the dependence of organisms on a food supply. Although the amount of biomass decreases at each stage of the food chain, representing this chain as a pyramid of numbers would result in a pyramid with a base narrower than its middle, because this system is supported by one oak tree. Ring master balancing on cows: This represents a food chain with cereal crops as the primary producer, cows as the primary consumer and humans as the secondary consumer. Students could be asked to consider if it would be more energy efficient for the human to eat the cereal crops directly. Setting sun: The Sun provides energy for photosynthesis, the process used by plants to make food. Antelope and lions: The antelope are grazing on grass. They are being closely watched by a hungry-looking pride of lions. This represents a food chain with grass as the primary producer, antelope as the primary consumer and lions as the secondary consumer.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships Teacher notes This activity provides illustrated examples of pyramids of biomass and pyramids of numbers. It could be used to allow students to draw comparisons between these two methods of representing food chains.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships Feeding Relationships Worksheet 2 accompanies this slide.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships Photo credit: Jupiterimages Corporation
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships Teacher notes This completing sentences activity provides the opportunity for some informal assessment of students’ understanding of food chains and pyramids.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships biomass – The living material that makes up all organisms. carnivore – An organism that only eats other animals. consumer – An organism that feeds on plants or animals. food chain – A sequence that shows feeding relationships and the transfer of energy between organisms. food web – Food chains that are linked to show the complex feeding relationships in a habitat. herbivore – An organism that only eats plants. omnivore – An organism that eats both plants and animals. producer – An organism that makes its own food. population – The number of organisms of a species living in an area. pyramid of biomass – A diagram, in which the length of each bar represents the biomass at each level of the food chain. pyramid of numbers – A diagram, in which the length of each bar represents the number of organisms present at each level of the food chain.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Feeding Relationships

Feeding relationships Feeding relationships Presentation Transcript

  • Feeding relationships1 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Food chains and webs2 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Feeding typesDifferent types of organism can be grouped in severalways. One grouping system is based on how organismsobtain their food.Some organisms produce their own food.They are called producers.Plants produce their own food using lightenergy from the Sun. Some types ofbacteria can also make their own food byusing light or chemical reactions.Other organisms cannot make their ownfood. They are called consumers. 3 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Producer or consumer? 4 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • ConsumersConsumers can be grouped into different types:HerbivoresThese consumers eat producers.CarnivoresThese consumers eatother consumers.OmnivoresThese consumers eat other consumersand producers. Omnivores eat animalsand plants. Most humans are omnivores. 5 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Feeding types 6 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Predator-prey relationshipsAnimals that are high up in food chains, such as the fox,tend to be hunters that are skilled at locating and killingtheir food. These hunters are called predators. The animals on which the predator feeds are called their prey. Prey animals tend to be well adapted to avoid the predator. Common prey adaptations include camouflage or the ability to produce poisonous toxins. 7 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Prey population changesThe relationship between predator and prey populationnumbers in a food web is very close and follows a cyclicalpattern. This means that it rises and falls in a fairly regularcycle. Why is this?The rabbit population changes due to both the vegetationgrowing season and changes in the fox population.Individual rabbits must compete for food and mates, andmust also avoid being killed by their predators, the foxes. 8 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Predator population changesThe fox population also follows a cyclical pattern very similarto the rabbit population. Why is this?The fox is very dependent on rabbits for food, so as therabbit population changes so does the fox population.This is why the fox population rises and falls slightlyafter the rise and fall of the rabbit population.How do cyclical rises and falls in population numbersaffect the organisms in a larger food web? 9 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • 10 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Food chains – who eats what?Can you see a food chain in this habitat? 11 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Food chainsA food chain is a sequence that shows how each individualfeeds on the organism below it in the chain. Each arrowmeans ‘eaten by’. leaf caterpillar bird foxWhat does this food chain show?A leaf is eaten by a caterpillar, which is then eaten by abird, which is then eaten by a fox.Energy is transferred from one organism to another in thedirection of the arrow. 12 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Food chains – draw your ownDraw your own food chains based on the followingguidelines: A food chain from a forest habitat. A food chain from an ocean habitat. A food chain with four organisms in it. A food chain that ends with you!Use arrows ( ) to showthe transfer of energy between theorganisms that you choose. 13 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • An Antarctic food chain 14 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Producer, herbivore or carnivore?Food chains always start with a producer.If the producer is a plant, only a small part of it might beinvolved in the food chain, such as its seeds, fruits,leaves or even dead leaves.From a food chain, we can tell if an organism is a producer,a herbivore or a carnivore. leaf snail bird owlWhat are the feeding types of the animals in this food chain? 15 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Name that feeding type 16 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Ranking consumersConsumers eat plants or animals, or both. A food chaincan be used to rank different types of consumers.seaweed limpet crab humanproducer primary secondary tertiary consumer consumer consumer Producers – make their own food. Primary consumers – eat producers. Secondary consumers – eat primary consumers. Tertiary consumers – eat secondary consumers. 17 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Primary, secondary or tertiary? 18 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • What is a food web?Why is it a good idea for an organism to have differentsources of food? Animals usually eat many different thingsand are involved in lots of different food chains: plants aphid ladybird blue tit owl plants moth blue tit owl plants vole stoat plants vole owlThese food chains can be put together in a food web,which shows how the food chains are connected.What would the food web for these food chains look like? 19 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Food webs chiffchaff owl stoat bluetit moth spider vole ladybird aphid plant 20 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Using a food web1. Name the producer in this food web.2. Name two herbivores in this food web.3. Name two species that are top carnivores.4. How many secondary consumers are there?5. Which food chains include the moth? 21 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Build a food web 22 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Changes in the food chainNearly every species of animal is dependent on a number ofother species for survival – this is called interdependence.Currently human activity isdamaging the naturalhabitats of many animals.This will not only affect theanimals in the area, but itcould have far-reachingeffects on the rest of thespecies in the food web.If the population of a species declines dramatically howmight this affect the other species that depend upon it? 23 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Changes in a food web 24 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Food chain populations 25 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Biomass26 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Food for energyWhy do organisms need to feed?Most animals get their energy from food. If the producersat the bottom of the food chain are small organisms, thenthe consumers at the top of chain need to eat many ofthem to gain enough energy.Much of the energythat prey generateis lost on a dailybasis through heat,growth and waste.Very little energy is actuallytransferred to the predator. 27 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Food chains and pyramidsWhat can a pyramid of numbers show about energy transfer? 28 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • What are pyramids of numbers?Pyramids of numbers are a numericalway of representing food chains.They record the numberof organisms at eachlevel in the food chain.What are the problems ofrepresenting food chains inpyramids of numbers?Pyramids of numbers only give an accurate impression ofthe flow of energy in a food chain if the organisms are ofsimilar size. Measuring the biomass (living material thatmakes up all organisms) at each level in the food chain cangive a more accurate picture. 29 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Numbers or biomass? 30 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Understanding pyramids of numbersIn a pyramid of numbers, the length of each bar representsthe number of organisms at each level in the food chain.As a single tree can support many organisms, this foodchain produces an unbalanced pyramid. 31 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Understanding pyramids of biomassIn a pyramid of biomass, the length of each bar representsthe biomass at each level of the food chain.At each level, the amount of biomass and energy availableis reduced, giving a pyramid shape. 32 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Death benefits?When animals and plants die, theyare decomposed by microbes.In this way, the nutrients that werestored in animals and plants areeventually returned to the soil.The nutrients fertilize the soil,helping producers, such asplants, to grow better.As the number of producers increases, how will this affectthe populations of organisms higher up in the food chain? 33 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Food chains and pyramids 34 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • 35 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Glossary 36 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Anagrams 37 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Multiple-choice quiz 38 of 38 © Boardworks Ltd 2008