Ecosystems
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  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems Photo credit: Jupiterimages Corporation
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems Photo credit: Jupiterimages Corporation
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems Photo credit: Jupiterimages Corporation
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems Photo credit: Jupiterimages Corporation
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems Photo credit: Jupiterimages Corporation
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems Photo credit: Jupiterimages Corporation Ecosystems worksheet 1 accompanies this slide.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems Photo credit: Jupiterimages Corporation
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems NC4-6
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems Photo credit: Jupiterimages Corporation
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems Photo credit: Jupiterimages Corporation
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems Photo credit: Jupiterimages Corporation Teachers notes The snow leopard (pictured) is an endangered big cat that lives in Central Asia and the Himalayas. It is currently threatened by hunting, habitat loss, and a diminishing food supply.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems Photo credit: Jupiterimages Corporation Teachers notes Digitalis is a drug used to treat heart disease, it is made with an extract from the foxglove plant (shown in photo).
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems Photo credit: Jupiterimages Corporation
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems Ecosystems worksheet 2 accompanies this slide.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems Teacher notes See ‘ Chemistry Around Us’ presentation for more about the causes of global climate change. Some scientists believe that global warming is not being caused by the greenhouse effect. They believe that the current change is due to natural processes, as the climate has changed naturally in the past.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems Teacher notes Other unique habitats may be lost due to the sea level rising. For example 32% of beaches used as nesting sites for turtles could be lost with a 50 cm rise. Wetland sites may also be under threat. See the ‘ Feeding Relationships ’ presentation for more information about how a change in a population of one species can have an impact on the rest of the food chain.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems Teachers notes In stage one of the animation the students could be asked to give reasons why each of the polar bears adaptations are useful.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems Photo credit: Jupiterimages Corporation Teacher notes Statistics from the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (www.ipcc.ch) Some scientists think that king penguin (pictured) populations are at risk from global warming. Higher sea temperatures could cause a decline in the penguins’ food supply.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems adaptation – A feature that helps an organism live in a particular place. biodiversity – The number and variety of organisms found in an area. community – All the different types of organisms within an ecosystem. deforestation – The destruction of forests to use the land for other purposes. ecosystem – A specific type of environment and all the organisms living within it. endangered – A species at risk of becoming extinct. extinction – The complete disappearance of a species. greenhouse effect – The rise in the Earth’s temperature caused by an increase in gases from human activity. habitat – The place where an organism lives. interdependence – Organisms depending on each other for survival. population – The number of organisms of a species living in a habitat.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Ecosystems

Ecosystems Ecosystems Presentation Transcript

  • Ecosystems1 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Habitats2 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • What is an ecosystem?The environment is made of many different types ofecosystems, such as seashores, forests, lakes and deserts.Each ecosystem can be divided into a:  habitat – the non-living part, i.e. the physical area in which organisms live  community – the living part, i.e. all the different organisms living in that particular habitat.Each community is made up of many different populations.A population is all the members of a particular speciesliving in one habitat – for example, the population of redsquirrels in an oak wood. 3 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • What is a habitat?What makes a habitat?A habitat has all of thethings that an organismneeds to survive, such asthe right amounts ofoxygen, water, light andshelter.How would you describeyour habitat? 4 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Different types of habitatsHow are these habitats similar and how are they different? 5 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Which land habitat? 6 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Which water habitat? 7 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Sampling in a habitatEcosystems are constantly changing. In order to tell how thepopulations within a community change over time, you firstneed to establish how many organisms there actually are.It would be impossible to count all the individual organismsin a habitat by hand. Instead we can count just a samplefrom a small area and multiply this by the total area of thehabitat. This gives an estimate of the total number of thepopulation.Common sampling methods include: quadrat line transect belt transect trapping. 8 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Sampling a population 9 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Adaptations10 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • What are adaptations?Each type of organism has special features that help itto survive in its particular habitat. These special featuresare called adaptations.For example, you have plenty ofadaptations to survive in yourhabitat. Your fingers are anexcellent adaptation – without theability to grip, you would not beable to do all that schoolwork!Some adaptations are obviouswhile others are not so obvious.Can you think of any otheradaptations that you have? 11 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Adaptations in different habitatsThese organisms are all adapted to their environments invery different ways.How are they specially adapted to survive? 12 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Adaptations in similar habitats 13 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • What are adaptations for? 14 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • A new species…Scientists have discovered this strange new species on asmall island off the coast of Argentina.The scientists want you to help them describe: where this animal lives (land, water or air) what it eats and how it eats how it breathes how it moves what they should call it.As the organism is adapted to its environment, you shouldbe able to use the way it looks to answer all of thesequestions. Don’t forget to give your organism a name! 15 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Daily adaptationsMany features of the environment change on a daily basis,such as the temperature and the amount of light.For example, many flowers opentheir petals during the day tocatch the sun and close them atnight to protect against the earlymorning frost.Organisms are adapted tothe type of habitat they live inand also to the daily changesthat occur in that habitat. 16 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Yearly adaptationsThe environment also changes on a yearly basis with theseasons. This may bring about changes in light andtemperature, but also in the availability of food and water. Organisms have to adapt to these yearly changes; they have come up with many different ways to achieve this. For example, some animals hibernate over winter to deal with food shortages. 17 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Daily or yearly? 18 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • 19 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Effects of environmental changeAnimals are adapted to suit their environment, helping themsurvive and reproduce. However if the environment changesthey may no longer have this advantage.A change in environment can cause extinction. Extinctionis when the last individual of a species dies. When a species is at risk of extinction, it is endangered. Over 1,100 animal species and over 700 plant species are classed as endangered or threatened. 20 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Why is important to conserve species?Extinction can cause a decrease in biodiversity. Biodiversityis the number and variety of organisms found in an area.Conserving biodiversity is important as every living thing playsa vital role in an ecosystem. If one species becomes extinctthis can have a huge impact on the rest of the community. Extinction can also decrease the resources available to humans. For example, some medicines are made from plants – if a plant species becomes extinct its unique chemicals are no longer available to us. 21 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Biodiversity 22 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Humans impact on environmentExtinction can occur naturally, however human impact onthe environment can also cause species to die out.Human activity can causedamage to the environment inseveral different ways: destruction of natural habitats over-hunting climate change pollution. 23 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • DeforestationHumans often destroy forest habitats to make roomfor housing or industry. This is called deforestation.If a woodland habitat is destroyed some animals may nolonger have resources they need, e.g. food and shelter.Species that aren’t able to survive outside of their naturalenvironment may become endangered.In Borneo, southeast Asia, forests are slowly beingremoved to make way for other crops. 1950 1985 2000 2005 24 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Environmental effects of climate changeHuman activity may be causing a change in the world’s climate.The production of carbon dioxide, and other heat-trappinggases from the burning of fossil fuels may be causing theearth’s climate to change. This is called the greenhouseeffect.This change in the earth’sclimate could result in: higher global temperatures sea level rising a different geographical distribution of rain fall. 25 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • How could change affect ecosystems? 26 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • The effect of change on polar bears 27 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Extinction due to climate changeIf climate change causes an impact on habitats andecosystems this could result in more species becomingextinct.It is thought that20–30% of speciesare likely to be atrisk of extinction ifthe global averagetemperature risesby 1.5–2.5 °Cbeyond 1990 levels.What evidence is there that global temperatures are rising? 28 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Evidence for global temperature change 29 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • 30 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Glossary 31 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Anagrams 32 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Multiple-choice 33 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2008