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Compounds
 

Compounds

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  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds Photo credit (left, centre and right): © 2008 Jupiterimages Corporation
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds Photo credit (left): Andrzej Gdula Photo credit (right): Dave Di Biase
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds Compounds Worksheet 1 accompanies this slide.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds Compounds Worksheet 2 accompanies this slide.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds Compounds Worksheet 2 accompanies this slide.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds Compounds Worksheet 2 accompanies this slide.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds Teacher notes Students should be aware that the number of atoms of each element in each compound cannot vary See the ‘ Reactions of Acids ’ presentation for more information on how to work out the formula of a compound.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds Photo credit: Zach Robbins
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds Glossary atom – The smallest particle of an element that can exist on its own. compound – A substance made up of two or more different types of atoms that are chemically joined together. element – A substance made up of only one type of atom. equation – Shows the reactants and products in a chemical reaction formula – The symbols and numbers that represent the ratio of different atoms in a substance. mixture – Two or more substances that are mixed but not chemically joined together. molecule – Two or more atoms chemically joined together.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Compounds

Compounds Compounds Presentation Transcript

  • 1 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • 2 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Odd-one-out 3 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Combining elementsThere are many different materials in the world, but onlyaround 100 elements. These elements can be combined inmany different ways to make thousands of compounds. 4 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Atoms in elementsAn element is a substance made up of only one type of atom. Copper is made Carbon is made Helium is made up of copper up of carbon up of helium atoms only. atoms only. atoms only. 5 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Molecules of elementsThe atoms in some elements join together to make molecules.One of the elements that exists like this is hydrogen.Each hydrogen atom joins up with one other atom to make ahydrogen molecule. hydrogen = hydrogen atom = moleculeThe formula of a hydrogen molecule is H2.Other elements such as nitrogen, oxygen, and chlorine alsoexist as molecules. What are the formulae of these elements? 6 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Atoms joining to make compoundsWhen two or more elements react in a chemical reaction,the atoms do not just mix together, they become joined toone another to make compounds. hydrogen + oxygen ² water + ² In a chemical reaction, the atoms in the reactants become joined in different ways and this is how new compounds are formed. 7 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Molecules of compoundsSome compounds exist as molecules:Water is made of hydrogen Carbon dioxide is made of carbonand oxygen atoms. What is and oxygen atoms. What is thethe formula of water? formula of carbon dioxide? 8 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Element or compound? 9 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Recognising elements and compounds 10 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • A compound is not a mixtureThe molecules in a mixture But the molecules in waterof hydrogen gas and oxygen look like this…gas look like this:…because water is a compound, made when hydrogen andoxygen react and their atoms become chemically joined toeach other. 11 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • 12 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Properties of elements and compoundsWhy is it safe to put sodium chloride on fish and chips……but not safe to use sodium and chlorine? 13 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Properties of a compoundCompounds have very different properties to the elementsfrom which they are made. This is because the atoms arejoined together differently. carbon oxygen carbon dioxide (element) + (element) ² (compound) 14 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Making a compound – iron sulfideIron sulfide is produced from the reaction between iron andsulfur. iron + sulfur ² iron sulfide + ²One iron atom reacts with one sulfur atom to make onemolecule of iron sulfide.Why does iron sulfide have different properties to the elementsiron and sulfur? 15 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Making a compound – waterWater is produced from the reaction between hydrogen andoxygen. hydrogen + oxygen ² water + ²Two hydrogen atoms react with one oxygen atom to producetwo molecules of water.Why are the properties of water different from the propertiesof hydrogen and oxygen? 16 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Making a compound – magnesium oxideMagnesium oxide is produced from the reaction betweenmagnesium and oxygen. magnesium + oxygen ² magnesium oxide + ²Two atoms of magnesium react with one molecule of oxygento make two molecules of magnesium oxide.What are the differences in the properties of magnesium,oxygen and magnesium oxide? 17 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • 18 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Naming simple compoundsTo name simple compounds of metals and non-metals: 1. Write down the name of the metal. 2. Write down the name of the non-metal, changing the ending of the word to “-ide”.What is the name of the compound made when the followingelements combine?  magnesium and oxygen magnesium oxide  sodium and chlorine sodium chloride  oxygen and iron iron oxide 19 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Naming simple compoundsWhat is the name of each compound formed by these metaland non-metal elements?element 1 element 2 compoundiron (Fe) sulfur (S) iron sulfide (FeS)magnesium (Mg) nitrogen (N) magnesium nitride (Mg3N2)sodium (Na) chlorine (Cl) sodium chloride (NaCl)tin (Sn) oxygen (O) tin oxide (SnO)aluminium (Al) bromine (Br) aluminium bromide (AlBr3)nickel (Ni) iodine (I) nickel iodide (NiI2)zinc (Zn) sulfur (S) zinc sulfide (ZnS)lithium (Li) nitrogen (N) lithium nitride (Li3N) 20 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Naming compounds containing oxygenMany compounds contain more than two elements.For compounds containing two elements plus oxygen, theending of the other non-metal usually changes to “-ate”. element 1 element 2 element 3 compound nickel sulfur oxygen nickel sulfate magnesium nitrogen oxygen magnesium nitrate sodium nitrogen oxygen sodium nitrate copper sulfur oxygen copper sulfate aluminium bromine oxygen aluminium bromate 21 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • 22 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Writing a word equationA word equation can be used to describe any chemicalreaction.The steps for writing a word equation are:1. On the right-hand side, put the name(s) of the reactant(s). If there are two or more reactants, link them with a + sign.2. In the middle, draw an arrow (²).3. On the right-hand side, put the name(s) of the product(s). If there are two or more products, link them with a + sign. reactant 1 + reactant 2 ² product 1 + product 2 23 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Completing word equations 24 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • 25 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Composition of compoundsA compound always contains a particular amount of eachelement. It has a fixed composition.For example, water molecules always contain twice as muchhydrogen as oxygen. two hydrogen atomsThis is shown in its formula, H2O.What is the formula of carbondioxide?How many of each atomdoes each carbon dioxidemolecule contain? one oxygen atom 26 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Match the names and the formulae 27 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Writing a formulaA formula uses the symbols of the elements in a compound.When there is more than one atom of an element, the numberis always written after the symbol. carbon atoms = 1 formula = CO2 carbon dioxide oxygen atoms = 2 hydrogen atoms = 2 formula = H2O oxygen atoms =1 waterThe formula shows the ratio of atoms in a compound. 28 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • What is the formula?What is the formula of each of these compounds? (rememberwhen you write a formula, put the metal first)1. Titanium oxide For every titanium atom there are two oxygen atoms. Formula = TiO22. Lithium oxide For every two lithium atoms there is one oxygen atom. Formula = Li2O3. Aluminium chloride For every aluminium atom there are three chlorine atoms. Formula = AlCl3 29 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • What does a formula show? 30 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • What is the ratio of atoms? 31 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Why do scientists use formulae?Elements and compounds have different names in differentlanguages:For example, sodium chloride is called: Cloruro sódico in Spanish Chlorek sodu in Polish Хлорид натрия in Russian.This can lead to problems whenscientists from different countries tryto explain what they are investigating.However, because formulae are the same in every language,scientists can communicate their ideas easily using theseinstead of names. 32 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • 33 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Glossary 34 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Anagrams 35 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Multiple-choice quiz 36 of 36 © Boardworks Ltd 2008