Animal behaviour
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  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour Photo credit: © 2008 Jupiterimages Corporation
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour Photo credit: © 2008 Jupiterimages Corporation Teacher notes Some stimuli can be a mixture of both internal and external.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour Photo credit(all): Jupiterimages Corporation
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour Photo credit: © 2008 Jupiterimages Corporation Animal behaviour Worksheet 1 accompanies this section. The worksheet has 3 pages, which is divided into two parts. The last part is designed to be a research investigation into courtship behaviour of the three spined stickleback. This could be carried out individually or in groups.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour Photo credit: © 2008 Jupiterimages Corporation
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour Teacher notes These innate and learned behaviours do not necessarily need to be learnt. This activity could be used as a discussion point. Most behaviours are a mixture of innate and learned responses.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour Photo credit: © 2008 Jupiterimages Corporation
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour Teacher notes During this animation students could be asked to think about how the reflex can help each animal survive in the wild. These responses are often described as fixed pattern action responses.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour Photo credit: Science Photo Library Teacher notes Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989) . The Nobel Prize-winning Austrian zoologist Konrad Lorenz being followed by a group of ducklings. Lorenz studied medicine in Vienna before changing to zoology. His first discovery as a scientist occurred when he was given a one-day-old duckling that followed him around as if he were its mother - an instinct Lorenz called imprinting. In 1936 he met Dutch zoologist Niko Tinbergen, who later recalled that the two "clicked at once". Together they founded a branch of animal behaviour called ethology, based on observing the instinctive behaviour of animals in the wild. They shared the 1973 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine with Karl von Frisch.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour Photo credit: © 2008 Jupiterimages Corporation
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour Photo credit: © 2008 Jupiterimages Corporation Teacher notes In many species of frog the males attract the females in great gatherings, usually by croaking. In some tropical species, the male's inflated vocal sac may exceed the rest of his body in size.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour Video credit: Oxford Scientific (OSF) Teacher notes Courting pairs of great crested grebes have elaborate courtship displays. They make synchronised dives and emerge holding water weed. They follow this up with a short ‘weed-dance’ where they face each other and rise out of the water together.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour Photo credit: © 2008 Jupiterimages Corporation
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour Animal behaviour Worksheet 2 accompanies this slide.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour Teacher note It may be interesting to discuss with the pupils whether this behaviour could have been learned if a different stimulus was used, e.g. a different sound or a visual stimulus.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour Photo credit: Corne van Braak
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour Animal behaviour worksheet 3 accompanies this slide. The worksheet allows pupils to analyse and interpret a set of results from the woodlice experiment described. If appropriate, pupils could complete this activity in the classroom/laboratory and obtain their own results. Teacher notes Anhydrous calcium chloride is normally used as a water-absorbing material.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour behaviour – The way in which an organism acts in response to a stimulus. cooperative behaviour – When animals work together in a group. courtship – A ritual that allows two animals to confirm that they are of the same species but opposite sex. external stimulus – A change in an animal’s environment that can cause a response. hibernation – When animals sleep, or slow down their bodies, to save energy in winter. innate – Pre-programmed behaviour which animals carry out instinctively, without the need to learn new skills. internal stimulus – A change inside the body of an animal that can cause a response. imprinting – A special form of behaviour early in an animal’s development, in which an animal learns to recognize an individual as its mother. learned behaviour – Behaviour that animals develop through experience. migration – Moving long distances to find food, shelter or mates. reflex – A quick, automatic response to a stimulus. response – An action caused by a stimulus. social behaviour – Interaction between two or more animals. stimulus – An change in environment or an internal change within an animal which causes a response. territorial behaviour – Behaviour that helps an animal defend its territory against other animals.
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour
  • Boardworks KS3 Science 2008 Animal Behaviour

Animal behaviour Animal behaviour Presentation Transcript

  • Plants and photosynthesis1 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • 2 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • What is behaviour?Behaviour is the way in which an organism acts in responseto a stimulus. Behaviour helps an animal to survive.For example, a zebra willrun away if it sees a lion.The stimulus is the sightof the predator, and thebehaviour is running.This behaviour helps thezebra avoid being caughtand eaten. 3 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Which behaviour? 4 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Types of stimulusAnimals respond to both internal and external stimuli. An external stimulus is a change in the animal’s environment. For example the sound of a predator may be heard.An internal stimulus is achange inside the body of ananimal. For example, an animalmay feel thirst. 5 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Internal or external stimulus? 6 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Behavioural adaptations 7 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • 8 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • What is innate behaviour?Innate behaviour is pre-programmed behaviour in animals.Animals carry out this behaviour instinctively, without the needto learn new skills.For example, webbuilding is innatebehaviour for spiders.Spiders are able toproduce the same webpattern each time withlittle variation. Thisbehaviour is not taught. 9 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • What is learned behaviour?Learned behaviour is when an animal develops behaviourthrough experience.Learning helps animals acquire new skills for survival. For example, over time a monkey will learn the best way to open nut shells. Experience and repetition can also improve existing behaviour in animals. 10 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Innate or learned behaviour 11 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • What is a reflex response?A reflex response is an automatic response to a stimulus.These responses happen instantly, helping the animal react todanger quickly.For example if a snail isdisturbed it will retractall of its soft body intoits shell. This reflexresponse helps toprotect the snail frompredators.Reflexes are usually innate, however they can be learned. 12 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • What is a reflex response? 13 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • What is imprinting?Imprinting is a special form of behaviour in which an animallearns to recognize an individual as it’s mother. This occursearly in an animal’s development.Some newly hatchedbirds imprint on thefirst thing they see.They will then stayclose to the individualand accept food fromthem. 14 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • What is social behaviour?Social behaviour is any interactionbetween animals. Each type of socialbehaviour helps the species surviveand reproduce. Courtship behaviour, allows animals to recognise one another as members of the same species, and may lead to mating. Cooperative behaviour, involves two or more animals working together to help the group. Territorial behaviour, helps animals to defend their territory against other individuals. This can decrease competition for resources. 15 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • What is courtship behaviour?Courtship behaviour is a ritual that helps animals to confirmthat they are of the same species but opposite sex, allowingthem to mate. This is often a series of actions, like a sound, dance or a display, that shows the animal’s fitness as a potential mate.In many species the female will select the male that displaysthe most impressive courtship behaviour. 16 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Example of courtship behaviour 17 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Cooperative behaviour 18 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Which type of behaviour? 19 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • 20 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Investigating innate behaviourHerring gulls are large, noisybirds that live in the UK.These birds lay theireggs in a nest. When thechicks hatch they are fedwith food regurgitated bythe adults.The sight of the parent’s beak acts as a stimulus whichcauses chicks to respond by pecking at the beak. Thisbehaviour will cause the adult herring gull to regurgitate food.What is it about the beak that acts as a stimulus for the chicks? 21 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Herring gull chick investigation 22 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Investigating learned behaviour 23 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Investigating learned behaviour 24 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Investigating behaviourWoodlice have several behaviouraladaptations that help them tosurvive and reproduce.They are land-dwellinginvertebrates that have a shell-likeexoskeleton around their body.If they detect a threat they roll themselves up into a ball,so they are surrounded by exoskeleton. For this reasonthey are often called pill bugs.Do you know what sort of places woodlice like to live in? 25 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Woodlice experimentUsing a choice chamber you can investigate how thewoodlice respond to different conditions.A choice chamber is a box that helps to create differenttypes of environment. The woodlice can move freelybetween the chambers. water-absorbing water material 26 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • 27 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Glossary 28 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Anagrams 29 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008
  • Multiple-choice quiz 30 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2008