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Intercultural Competence - The 10th Biennial Conference of AASP | Tjitra 2013.08.23

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Materials presented during The 10th Biennial Conference of Asian Association of Social Psychology - Yogyakarta - Indonesia, August 21 - August 24, 2013 - Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra, Director of Tjitra & …

Materials presented during The 10th Biennial Conference of Asian Association of Social Psychology - Yogyakarta - Indonesia, August 21 - August 24, 2013 - Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra, Director of Tjitra & associates (www.tjitra.com) & Associate Professor for Applied Psychology at Zhejiang University

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  • 1. Friday,  August  23rd,  2013   From Intra - cultural to Inter - cultural Competence Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra Zhejiang University, China THE  INDONESIAN  WAY  OF  UNITY  IN  DIVERSITY:
  • 2. Abstract 2 Indonesia is the world’s largest archipelago with over 17,000 islands. With a fascinating, colorful and sometimes tumultuous past, Indonesia is a place of rich and diverse culture. Few countries in the world could match Indonesia’s diversity of population with some 490 different ethnics living together. Indonesia is "Ultimate in Diversity". The paper will start by reviewing some recent studies have been done in the area of intra-, inter-and cross-cultural issues of Indonesian professionals working in national and international environment. It is argued that the Indonesian has a unique approach on managing cultural diversity. An indigenous concept of Indonesian intercultural sensitivity and synergy will than be introduced and discussed. Finally, a developmental model to build the global competence of Indonesian (future) leaders will be presented.
  • 3. 3 • Tjitra & associates is an international management consulting firm founded by Dr. Tjitra with offices in Hong Kong, Shanghai, Hangzhou and Jakarta. Our work focuses on the CULTURE, TALENT and CHANGE. • Over the last fifteen years, Dr. Tjitra and his team have collected International project experiences at the global, regional and national level in the US, Europe and Asia with senior leaders from over forty countries. • A team of multilingual psychologists are dedicated to strive for excellence and provide tailor-made service solutions. We devote ourselves in ensuring sustainable business results by understanding the exact needs and situation of our clients. Companies and Organizations we have been working with ...* * only selected list and not complete http://www.tjitra.com
  • 4. Agenda 4 ... Unity in Diversity (Bhinneka Tunggal Ika) 6 Intercultural Competence and Sensitivity across Cultures 13 Business Case - Indonesian Business Leaders abroad 20 From Intra-cultural into Inter-cultural Competence and Sensitivity 25
  • 5. ! ... UNITY IN DIVERSITY (BHINNEKA TUNGGAL IKA)
  • 6. Indonesia: Ultimate in Diversity 6 ✴ Indonesia has around 300 ethnic groups, each with cultural identities developed over centuries,and influenced by Indian,Arabic,Chinese and European sources significantly. ✴ The main ethnic group is the Javanese, who comprise 42% of the population, and are politically and culturally dominant. ✴ A sense of Indonesian nationhood exists alongside strong regional identities. Society is largely harmonious, although social, religious and ethnic tensions have triggered horrendous violence. ✴ The country has extensive natural resources, including crude oil, natural gas, tin, copper and gold,which attracts more and more foreign investment in recent years. Republic of Indonesia Republik Indonesia Flag National emblem Motto: "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" (Old Javanese) "Unity in Diversity" National ideology: Pancasila[1][2] Anthem: Indonesia Raya Capital and largest city Jakarta 6°10.5!S 106°49.7!E Official languages Indonesian Demonym Indonesian Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic - President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono - Vice President Boediono Legislature People's Consultative Assembly - Upper house Regional Representative Council - Lower house People's Representative Council iːziə/ ia e in ago passes the ublic and ntry mor, and pore, of the g 6th de nd then lers tical uddhist uenced lim ean o ng the es of e after ulent, , rapid c and ant – ersity, on, and nesia's versity" at ensely Independence from the Netherlands - Declared 17 August 1945 - Acknowledged 27 December 1949 Area - Land 1,904,569 km2 (15th) 735,358 sq mi - Water (%) 4.85 Population - 2011 census 237,424,363[3] (4th) - Density 124.66/km2 (84th) 322.87/sq mi GDP (PPP) 2013 estimate - Total $1.314 trillion[3] (15th) - Per capita $5,302[3] (117th) GDP (nominal) 2013 estimate - Total $946.391 billion[3] (16th) - Per capita $3,816[3] (105th) Gini (2010) 35.6[4] medium HDI (2012) 0.629[5] medium · 121st Currency Rupiah (Rp) (IDR) Time zone various (UTC+7 to +9) Drives on the left Calling code +62 ISO 3166 code ID Internet TLD .id populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the world's second highest level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources, yet poverty remains widespread.[7][8] Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 3 Government and politics 4 Foreign relations and military 5 Administrative divisions 6 Geography 7 Biota and environment 8 Economy 9 Demographics 10 Culture 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links Etymology Further information: Names of Indonesia The name Indonesia derives from the Latin and Greek Indus, and the Greek nèsos, meaning "island".[9] The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia.[10] In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians — and, his preference, Malayunesians — for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago".[11] In the same publication, a student of Earl's, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago.[12][13] However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. Instead, they used the terms Malay Archipelago (Maleische Archipel); the Netherlands East Indies (Nederlandsch Oost Indië), popularly Indië; the East (de Oost); and Insulinde.[14] After 1900, the name Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, and Indonesian nationalist groups adopted it for political expression.[14] Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularized the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894. The first Indonesian scholar to use the name was Suwardi Suryaningrat (Ki Hajar Dewantara), when he established a [10] • Indonesia is a very diverse country, including more than 350 ethnic groups, and 650 languages. • There are 6 religions:Catholic; Christian; Islam; Buddhism; Hinduism and Konfuzianism. • Different Norms, Values and Behaviors. People in East Java are more dynamic than in Central Java. They speak faster, louder and more direct. East javanese dance is very fast with dynamic movement. • Different ethnic groups live side by side (Minang and Batak), however they are based on different Family Lineage:matriarchat vs.Patriarchat. • Indonesia is a collectivist culture with high Power Distance; very strong influenced by Islamic values. • The Indonesian self is interdependent (good relationship with other people); western children develop independent Self (personal achievement).
  • 7. 7 World economics reports predict positive future for Indonesia in the new global economy ... Indonesia’s economy has enormous promise. It has been and still growing rapidly, from the currently 16th largest economy of the world, it is predicted to reach the seventh biggest in 2030. 2012,McKinsey Global Institute: The archipelago economy Unleashing Indonesia’s potential. Indonesia: the New Darling for Business Investments Indonesia’s economy will likely break into the top 15 in the world in the next decade or so.The nation’s economic expansion is largely driven by domestic consumption rather than export-led growth, so it is less dependent on increasingly unpredictable global economic forces. 2013,Boston Consulting Group Report:Growing Pains,Lasting Advantage:Tackling Indonesia’s Talent Challenges. Between 2004-2012, there have been obvious indications of progress… Our high GDP growth has been a great achievement.The GDP figures show that all of Indonesia’economic sectors are growing. Indonesia FinanceToday:Indonesia’s economic review 2004-2012.
  • 8. 8 The talent crisis…
  • 9. 8 The talent crisis…
  • 10. 8 The talent crisis… ACUTE SHORTAGE OF TALENTS: Only 22 % of school-aged population are in schools Only a small minority of Indonesia’s graduates from more than 1000 higher educations 40% shortfall of engineers in 2013 (by 2025 will be 70%) Exhibit 2,2013 BCG Report
  • 11. ! INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE & SENSITIVITY ACROSS CULTURES
  • 12. “To  be  effective  in  another  culture,  people  must  be  interested  in  other  cultures,  be  sensitive  enough  to  notice  cultural   differences,  and  then  also  be  willing  to  modify  their  behavior  as  an  indication  of  respect  for  the  people  of  other  cultures  ”   (Bhawuk and Brislin, 1992) Intercultural Competence Technical knowledge & skill Motivation Stress tolerance Respect for differences Harmony preservation Self Control Awareness of communication symbols Language skill Verbal & non verbal expression Attribution process of information Cultural empathy Intercultural Sensitivity Intercultural Communication Competence Intercultural Competence and Sensitivity 10
  • 13. Intercultural Competence and Sensitivity A Review on Intercultural Sensitivity in Asian Leadership Context.... ✦ Intercultural Sensitivity (IS) is the ability to discriminate and experience relevant cultural differences (Hammer,Bennett,2003),and is related strongly to the cognitive,affective,and behavioral aspects of interactional situations (Chen,1998). ✦ IS is proved to be a valid predictive factor for intercultural effectiveness (Cui & Van den Berg, 1991) and as an important criteria for expatriate selection and placement (Vulpe,Kealey, Protheroe,& MacDonald,2001). ✦ Different approaches have been drawn on the concept of IS,incl.Intercultural Development Inventory (Bennett,1993),Intercultural Sensitivity Scala (Chen and Starosta,2000),Indonesian Intercultural Sensitivity in Workgroup (Panggabean,2004),and Chinese Intercultural Sensitivity in Tourism Industry (Tjitra & Deng,2006). 11
  • 14. Study and Join Activities Abroad The influence of intercultural exposure to IS is somehow ambiguous. Exposing to different is not necessarily improve IS level. Researches show that study abroad does not benefit all students equally (Fuller,2007) Without the structure of a service program to support their processes of construing meaning from their experiences of difference,they actually became more entrenched in the Denial/Defense stage (Westrick,2004). The program may have different affect on different IS aspects (Altshuler et al,2003). Mentoring system is perceived crucial for improving IS (Koskinen & Tossavainen, 2004). Events such as celebration can extended students’ethnorelative views on Avoidance and Acceptance (Klak,2003). Short-term,non-language-based study abroad programs can also have a positive impact on intercultural sensitivity (Anderson et al.,2006). Influences of Intercultural Exposures to IS 12
  • 15. Andere Länder, andere Sitten. Allá donde fueres, haz lo que vieres. À Rome, fais comme les Romains. 郷に入っては郷に従う. Lain ladang lain belalang, lain lubuk lain ikannya. 入乡随俗 13
  • 16. Is Cross-Culture Adaptation a Universal Value? Andere Länder, andere Sitten. Allá donde fueres, haz lo que vieres. À Rome, fais comme les Romains. 郷に入っては郷に従う. Lain ladang lain belalang, lain lubuk lain ikannya. 入乡随俗 13
  • 17. Is Cross-Culture Adaptation a Universal Value? Andere Länder, andere Sitten. Allá donde fueres, haz lo que vieres. À Rome, fais comme les Romains. 郷に入っては郷に従う. Lain ladang lain belalang, lain lubuk lain ikannya. 入乡随俗 13 TOLERANCE?
  • 18. Is Cross-Culture Adaptation a Universal Value? Andere Länder, andere Sitten. Allá donde fueres, haz lo que vieres. À Rome, fais comme les Romains. 郷に入っては郷に従う. Lain ladang lain belalang, lain lubuk lain ikannya. 入乡随俗 13 TOLERANCE? DIFFERENCES HARMONIZATION?
  • 19. Is Cross-Culture Adaptation a Universal Value? Andere Länder, andere Sitten. Allá donde fueres, haz lo que vieres. À Rome, fais comme les Romains. 郷に入っては郷に従う. Lain ladang lain belalang, lain lubuk lain ikannya. 入乡随俗 13 TOLERANCE? DIFFERENCES HARMONIZATION? HEIGHTENED SENSITIVITY?
  • 20. Indonesian and Chinese Intercultural Sensitivity INDONESIAN IS (PANGGABEAN, 2005) Multiculturality Active  Sensitivity Group  Harmony Initial  Cautiousness Conflict  Avoidance Differences Harmonization & Ethno Identification Cultural Comprehension Relationship Optimization (host friendliness,relationship nourishment) Rel.Optimization (rel.assess.) & Diff.Harm (conflict avo.& imitate) Differences Harmonization (conflict avoidance) IS Dimensions Implicit  communication Musyawarah  Mufakat No  comparable  dimension No comparable dimension No comparable dimension Change accomodation Comparable Uncomparable CHINESE IS (TJITRA & DENG, 2006) 14
  • 21. ! BUSINESS CASE - INDONESIAN BUSINESS LEADERS ABROAD
  • 22. 16 Source: Tjitra & Zeutschel, 1998 “Knowing,   what  makes  the  world  go  ‘round” “Zu  wissen,  was  die  Welt  im   Innersten  Zusammenhält”
  • 23. (world-wide famous) Hardworking Chinese ETHNOCENTRISM “Everybody  is  hardworking.” Indonesians Singaporeans When  Chinese  come  to  work  in  Indonesia: “Indonesians  are  not  hardworking.   They  are  so  relaxed!” When  Indonesians  go  to  work  in  China: “Chinese  are  really  hardworking! (and  Indonesians  are  at  normal  level)” When  Singaporeans  go  to  work  in  China: “Chinese  are  really  hardworking! (and  Singaporeans  are  at  normal  level)” When  Singaporeans  come  to  work  in  Indonesia: -­‐  “Are  Indonesians  hardworking  or  relaxed?” 17 Ethnocentrism and Culture Relativism
  • 24. 18
  • 25. 18
  • 26. ❖ Achievement Driven ❖ Professionalism ❖ Facilitative Leadership Singaporean Expatriates in Indonesia Chinese Expatriates in Indonesia ❖ Strong Drive ❖ Personal Advancement ❖ Systematic Improvement ❖ Country Brand ❖ Internationalism ❖ Master of Planning Singaporean Expatriates in China ❖ Exposure to Diversity ❖ Warm and Personable ❖ Integrator Indonesian Expatriates in China 18
  • 27. ❖ Achievement Driven ❖ Professionalism ❖ Facilitative Leadership Singaporean Expatriates in Indonesia Chinese Expatriates in Indonesia ❖ Strong Drive ❖ Personal Advancement ❖ Systematic Improvement ❖ Country Brand ❖ Internationalism ❖ Master of Planning Singaporean Expatriates in China ❖ Exposure to Diversity ❖ Warm and Personable ❖ Integrator Indonesian Expatriates in China Whoyou are depends on WhereYou Are! 18
  • 28. Javanese Approach in Creating Intercultural Synergy 19
  • 29. Javanese Approach in Creating Intercultural Synergy 19
  • 30. Javanese Approach in Creating Intercultural Synergy EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES 19
  • 31. Javanese Approach in Creating Intercultural Synergy EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES Neither-nor-frame 19
  • 32. Javanese Approach in Creating Intercultural Synergy EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES Neither-nor-frame Intercultural competence 19
  • 33. Javanese Approach in Creating Intercultural Synergy EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES Neither-nor-frame Intercultural competence Complexity oftasks 19
  • 34. Javanese Approach in Creating Intercultural Synergy EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES Neither-nor-frame Intercultural competence Complexity oftasks Diversity of cultures 19
  • 35. Javanese Approach in Creating Intercultural Synergy EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES Neither-nor-frame Intercultural competence Complexity oftasks Diversity of cultures 19
  • 36. Javanese Approach in Creating Intercultural Synergy Intercultural Synergy EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES Neither-nor-frame Intercultural competence Complexity oftasks Diversity of cultures 19
  • 37. ! FROM INTRA-CULTURAL INTO INTER-CULTURAL SENSITIVITY & COMPETENCE
  • 38. 21 PERCEIVED BARRIERS PERCEIVED STRENGTHS Work  Ethics Interpersonal  Relationship Communication  &  Language Exposure  to  Diversity Technical  Competence Facilitating  Leadership Global Indonesian: challenges VS potentials
  • 39. Lessons Learned - Implication for Global Indonesian 22
  • 40. Lessons Learned - Implication for Global Indonesian 22 International  Assignment  in   Early  Career Exposure  to   Diverse  Experiences   Early  Intensive  Experiences   on  Intercultural  Learning Critical Experiences
  • 41. Lessons Learned - Implication for Global Indonesian 22 International  Assignment  in   Early  Career Exposure  to   Diverse  Experiences   Early  Intensive  Experiences   on  Intercultural  Learning Critical Experiences Technical Competence Passion to Learn Self - confidence Important Traits
  • 42. COMING SOON !! Our LATEST books on Global Talent .... based on 18 years intensive research of Global Indonesian
  • 43. Global Indonesian Network Global Indonesian-Network (GI-Net) is a series of events aiming to promote an open and interactive dialogue between the academic world and business practices. Involved are people who take an active role in an Indonesian-international working environment. • We make sure that research addresses the needs of businesses and organizations and provide a platform of learning and sharing,where theory meets reality • Themes to be raised in our forum will focus on the three domains cross-cultural competence, talent & leadership development as well as strategic change & transformation • Business implications based on our findings will further be discussed in each of our sessions Global Indonesian Network Global Indonesian NetworkGlobal Indonesian Network www.globalindonesian.net @htjitra
  • 44. Global Indonesian Network Can Add To Your Success • You will be able to apply current research to the challenges faced in daily business life • Get in touch with people in similar work environment to share knowledge and experience • Develop yourself in the area of intercultural diversity, talent and change management • Add value to your organization with concrete knowledge on current international business matters and industry characteristics
  • 45. THANK YOU ! Contact us via … gi-net@tjitra.com @htjitra hora tjitra www.globalindonesian.net Global Indonesian Network Global Indonesian Network