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Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives
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Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives

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Cross-Cultural Studies on Gender, Emotion and Personality. A Presentation summary based on the book from Matsumoto, D. & Juang, L. (2007). Culture and Psychology (4th Ed.). Wadsworth.

Cross-Cultural Studies on Gender, Emotion and Personality. A Presentation summary based on the book from Matsumoto, D. & Juang, L. (2007). Culture and Psychology (4th Ed.). Wadsworth.

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  • 1. Hangzhou, February 2011 Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra & Daisy Zheng, Zhejiang University Gender,  Emotion   and  Personality:   A Culture and Psychology PerspectiveMatsumoto, D. & Juang, L. (2007). Culture and Psychology (4th Ed.). Wadsworth.
  • 2. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 2 Definition of Sex and Gender Sex Biological  and  physiological   differences  between  males   and  females. Sex Roles Behaviors  expected  of  males   and  females  in  rela:on  to   their  biological  differences   and  reproduc:on. Sexual Identity Degree  of  awareness  and   recogni:on  of  sex  and  sex   roles  an  individual  may  have.      
  • 3. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 2 Definition of Sex and Gender Sex Biological  and  physiological   differences  between  males   and  females. Sex Roles Behaviors  expected  of  males   and  females  in  rela:on  to   their  biological  differences   and  reproduc:on. Sexual Identity Degree  of  awareness  and   recogni:on  of  sex  and  sex   roles  an  individual  may  have.       CULTURE
  • 4. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 2 Definition of Sex and Gender Sex Biological  and  physiological   differences  between  males   and  females. Sex Roles Behaviors  expected  of  males   and  females  in  rela:on  to   their  biological  differences   and  reproduc:on. Sexual Identity Degree  of  awareness  and   recogni:on  of  sex  and  sex   roles  an  individual  may  have.       Gender    Behaviors  or  pa,erns  of  ac0vi0es  that  a  society  or  culture   deems  appropriate  for  men  and  women. Gender Role    Degree  to  which  a  person  adopts  the  gender-­‐specific   behaviors  ascribed  by  his  or  her  culture. Gender Identity Degree  to  which  a  person  has  awareness  or   recogni0on  that  he  or  she  adopts  a  par0cular  gender  role. Gender Role Ideology    Judgments  about  what  gender  roles  in  a   par0cular  culture  ought  to  be. Gender Stereotype    Psychological  or  behavioral  characteris0cs   typically  associated  with  men  and  women. CULTURE
  • 5. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 2 As  different  socie0es  live  in  different  environments,  survival  requires  that  they   balance  a  number  of  factors.  Thus,  as  different  cultures  must  deal  with  different   external  factors,  it  is  only  natural  that  gender  differences  vary  by  culture. Definition of Sex and Gender Sex Biological  and  physiological   differences  between  males   and  females. Sex Roles Behaviors  expected  of  males   and  females  in  rela:on  to   their  biological  differences   and  reproduc:on. Sexual Identity Degree  of  awareness  and   recogni:on  of  sex  and  sex   roles  an  individual  may  have.       Gender    Behaviors  or  pa,erns  of  ac0vi0es  that  a  society  or  culture   deems  appropriate  for  men  and  women. Gender Role    Degree  to  which  a  person  adopts  the  gender-­‐specific   behaviors  ascribed  by  his  or  her  culture. Gender Identity Degree  to  which  a  person  has  awareness  or   recogni0on  that  he  or  she  adopts  a  par0cular  gender  role. Gender Role Ideology    Judgments  about  what  gender  roles  in  a   par0cular  culture  ought  to  be. Gender Stereotype    Psychological  or  behavioral  characteris0cs   typically  associated  with  men  and  women. CULTURE
  • 6. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 3 14  years  in  Germany 7  years  in  China Born  and  grew  up   in  Indonesia Prof.Dr.Hora Tjitra - Excellence in Culture,Talent and Change
  • 7. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 3 14  years  in  Germany 7  years  in  China Born  and  grew  up   in  Indonesia Prof.Dr.Hora Tjitra - Excellence in Culture,Talent and Change Professional activities: • Academic Teaching and Research,as well as Consulting, Coaching,Training and Assessment in the area of: - Cross-Cultural Awareness and Communication - Cross-Cultural Issues in HR Management - Corporate Learning and Development - Executive Coaching and Assessment - Global Leadership Development Program - Facilitation of Strategic Conference - Large Strategic Change Projects International and National project references: • BASF,Siemens,Dupont,Commerzbank,Hugo Boss,SAP, Barco,GTZ,Telkom Indonesia,etc.
  • 8. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 4 Culture and Gender Stereotypes
  • 9. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 4 Culture and Gender Stereotypes  Research Method Results Pancultural Universality  in  Psychological  A?ribu:on  to  Gender  (Williams  &  Best,  1982)  Adjective Check List (ACL) ACL  is  a  list  of  300  adjec0ves. Respondents  are  asked  to  decide  whether   each  adjec0ve  is  considered  more   descrip0ve  of  a  male  or  of  a  female  in  their   culture. Whether  the  subjects  agreed  with  the   assignment  of  an  adjec0ve  to  males  or   females  is  irrelevant. •Men  are  generally  viewed  as  active, strong, critical, and adultlike,  with  psychological  needs   such  as  dominance, autonomy, aggression, exhibition, achievement, and endurance.   While  women  are  generally  viewed  as  passive, weal, nurturing, and adaptive,  with   psychological  needs  such  as  abasement, deference, succorance, affiliation, and heterosexuality. •Men  are  associated  more  with  the  personality  traits  of  conscientiousness, extroversion, and openness.  While  women  are  associated  with  higher  scores  on  the  personality  traits  of   agreeableness and neuroticism.
  • 10. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 4 Culture and Gender Stereotypes  Research Method Results Pancultural Universality  in  Psychological  A?ribu:on  to  Gender  (Williams  &  Best,  1982)  Adjective Check List (ACL) ACL  is  a  list  of  300  adjec0ves. Respondents  are  asked  to  decide  whether   each  adjec0ve  is  considered  more   descrip0ve  of  a  male  or  of  a  female  in  their   culture. Whether  the  subjects  agreed  with  the   assignment  of  an  adjec0ve  to  males  or   females  is  irrelevant. •Men  are  generally  viewed  as  active, strong, critical, and adultlike,  with  psychological  needs   such  as  dominance, autonomy, aggression, exhibition, achievement, and endurance.   While  women  are  generally  viewed  as  passive, weal, nurturing, and adaptive,  with   psychological  needs  such  as  abasement, deference, succorance, affiliation, and heterosexuality. •Men  are  associated  more  with  the  personality  traits  of  conscientiousness, extroversion, and openness.  While  women  are  associated  with  higher  scores  on  the  personality  traits  of   agreeableness and neuroticism. Research Results Cross-Cultural Differences  in  Gender  Stereotypes The  Japanese  have  more  tradi:onal  gender  role  orienta:ons  than  did  the  Germans.  Japanese  mothers  are  seen  as  more  controlling  than   fathers,  but  German  mothers  are  less. Perceiving  gender  differences  in  a  stereotype  fashion  is  rather  persistent  because  we  tend  to  be  more  a?uned  to  informa:on  that   reinforce  and  supports  our  gender  stereotypes. Gender  role  stereotypes  increase  with  age  (children  are  more  like  to  sex-­‐type  same-­‐sex  figures),  cogni:ve  development  (children’s   understanding  of  gender  and  sex  role  preferences  appear  to  be  related),  and  the  contribu:on  of  socializing  agents,  such  as  media  (the   way  the  media  have  historically  portrayed  women  parallels  the  way  media  have  historically  portrayed  people  of  color).
  • 11. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 5 Culture,Gender Role Ideology and Self-Concept
  • 12. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 5 Culture,Gender Role Ideology and Self-Concept Result of Gender Role Ideologies Research from Williams & Best (1990) EgalitarianTraditional
  • 13. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 5 Culture,Gender Role Ideology and Self-Concept Result of Gender Role Ideologies Research from Williams & Best (1990) EgalitarianTraditional Women Men
  • 14. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 5 Culture,Gender Role Ideology and Self-Concept Result of Gender Role Ideologies Research from Williams & Best (1990) EgalitarianTraditional Women Men Nigeria, Pakistan, India Netherlands, Germany, Finland
  • 15. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 5 Culture,Gender Role Ideology and Self-Concept Result of Gender Role Ideologies Research from Williams & Best (1990) EgalitarianTraditional Women Men Nigeria, Pakistan, India Netherlands, Germany, Finland Tradi:onal  scores   tend  to  describe   gender  roles  that   were  consistent  with   the  tradi:onal  or   universal  norms   found  in  the  earlier   research. Egalitarian  scores   reflect  a  tendency   toward  less   differen:a:on   between  males  and   females  on  the   various  psychological   characteris:cs.
  • 16. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 5 Culture,Gender Role Ideology and Self-Concept Result of Gender Role Ideologies Research from Williams & Best (1990) EgalitarianTraditional Women Men Nigeria, Pakistan, India Netherlands, Germany, Finland Hofstede’s Study (1980) about Culture and Self-Concept “Masculinity” (MA) The  degree  to  which   a  culture  will  foster,   encourage,  or   maintain  differences   between  males  and   females. Tradi:onal  scores   tend  to  describe   gender  roles  that   were  consistent  with   the  tradi:onal  or   universal  norms   found  in  the  earlier   research. Egalitarian  scores   reflect  a  tendency   toward  less   differen:a:on   between  males  and   females  on  the   various  psychological   characteris:cs.
  • 17. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 5 Culture,Gender Role Ideology and Self-Concept Result of Gender Role Ideologies Research from Williams & Best (1990) EgalitarianTraditional Women Men Nigeria, Pakistan, India Netherlands, Germany, Finland Hofstede’s Study (1980) about Culture and Self-Concept “Masculinity” (MA) The  degree  to  which   a  culture  will  foster,   encourage,  or   maintain  differences   between  males  and   females. Tradi:onal  scores   tend  to  describe   gender  roles  that   were  consistent  with   the  tradi:onal  or   universal  norms   found  in  the  earlier   research. Egalitarian  scores   reflect  a  tendency   toward  less   differen:a:on   between  males  and   females  on  the   various  psychological   characteris:cs. Japan, Austria, Venezuela, Italy Tend  to  endorse  items  and   values  thought  to  be   associated  with  masculinity   and  male  gender  roles  in   the  workplace. Denmark, Norway, Netherland, Sweden Minimize  differences  between   sexes  and  genders.
  • 18. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 5 Culture,Gender Role Ideology and Self-Concept Result of Gender Role Ideologies Research from Williams & Best (1990) EgalitarianTraditional Women Men Nigeria, Pakistan, India Netherlands, Germany, Finland Society Changes Genera:on  diversity Globaliza:on Exposure  to  western  culture Hofstede’s Study (1980) about Culture and Self-Concept “Masculinity” (MA) The  degree  to  which   a  culture  will  foster,   encourage,  or   maintain  differences   between  males  and   females. Tradi:onal  scores   tend  to  describe   gender  roles  that   were  consistent  with   the  tradi:onal  or   universal  norms   found  in  the  earlier   research. Egalitarian  scores   reflect  a  tendency   toward  less   differen:a:on   between  males  and   females  on  the   various  psychological   characteris:cs. Japan, Austria, Venezuela, Italy Tend  to  endorse  items  and   values  thought  to  be   associated  with  masculinity   and  male  gender  roles  in   the  workplace. Denmark, Norway, Netherland, Sweden Minimize  differences  between   sexes  and  genders.
  • 19. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 5 Culture,Gender Role Ideology and Self-Concept Result of Gender Role Ideologies Research from Williams & Best (1990) EgalitarianTraditional Women Men Nigeria, Pakistan, India Netherlands, Germany, Finland Society Changes Genera:on  diversity Globaliza:on Exposure  to  western  culture Hofstede’s Study (1980) about Culture and Self-Concept “Masculinity” (MA) The  degree  to  which   a  culture  will  foster,   encourage,  or   maintain  differences   between  males  and   females. Tradi:onal  scores   tend  to  describe   gender  roles  that   were  consistent  with   the  tradi:onal  or   universal  norms   found  in  the  earlier   research. Egalitarian  scores   reflect  a  tendency   toward  less   differen:a:on   between  males  and   females  on  the   various  psychological   characteris:cs. Japan, Austria, Venezuela, Italy Tend  to  endorse  items  and   values  thought  to  be   associated  with  masculinity   and  male  gender  roles  in   the  workplace. Denmark, Norway, Netherland, Sweden Minimize  differences  between   sexes  and  genders.
  • 20. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 6 Psychological Gender Differences across Cultures Perceptual/Spatial/Cognitive Differences Males  are  be,er  at  mathema0cal  and  spa0al  reasoning  tasks,  whereas  females  are  be,er  at  verbal   comprehension  tasks. Conformity and Obedience Females  are  more  conforming  and  obedient  than  males. Aggressiveness Males  are  more  aggressive  than  females. Other differences Career  plans,  self-­‐presenta0ons,  dress,  suicidal  behavior,  dream  content,  personal  rela0onships,  self-­‐ esteem,  conflict  resolu0on,  response  styles,  nonverbal  behaviors,  aRtudes  toward  marriage  and  sexual   behaviors,  religious  involvement,  personal  en0tlements,  etc. What  factor  influence  which  type  of  differences,  and  why. Links  between  cultural  variables  such  as  0ghtness  and  psychological  constructs  such  as  conformity,   and  the  degree  to  which  gender  differences  on  such  constructs  are  fostered. Exact  mechanisms  accoun0ng  for  these  differences,  taking  into  account  the  complex  interplay   among  biology,  culture,  and  psychology.
  • 21. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 7 Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression?
  • 22. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 7 Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression? Anger
  • 23. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 7 Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression? Anger Fear
  • 24. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 7 Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression? Anger Fear Sadness
  • 25. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 7 Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression? Anger Fear Sadness Contempt
  • 26. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 7 Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression? Anger Fear Sadness Contempt Disgust
  • 27. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 7 Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression? Anger Fear Sadness Contempt Disgust Happiness
  • 28. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 7 Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression? Anger Fear Sadness Contempt Disgust Happiness Surprise
  • 29. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 7 Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression? Anger Fear Sadness Contempt Disgust Happiness Surprise Universality of Facial Expressions of Emotion
  • 30. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 7 Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression? Anger Fear Sadness Contempt Disgust Happiness Surprise Universality of Facial Expressions of Emotion BUT
  • 31. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 8 Cross-Cultural Differences in Display Rules
  • 32. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 8 Cross-Cultural Differences in Display Rules e.g.  Expression  of  Personal  Emo0ons  in  Self-­‐Ingroup  and  Self-­‐ Outgroup  Rela0onships  in  Individualis0c  and  Collec0vis0c   Cultures
  • 33. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 8 Cross-Cultural Differences in Display Rules e.g.  Expression  of  Personal  Emo0ons  in  Self-­‐Ingroup  and  Self-­‐ Outgroup  Rela0onships  in  Individualis0c  and  Collec0vis0c   Cultures Seven response alternatives: •Express the feeling with no modification •Deamplify or reduce the expression •Amplify or exaggerate the expression •Mask or control your feelings bu showing something else •Qualify your expression with a smile •Neutralize your expression •Something else
  • 34. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 9 Universal,Pancultural and Culturally Specific Aspects of Perception of Emotion Cross-­‐Cultural  Similari.es • Facial  expressions  recogni:on • Rela:ve  intensity  ra:ngs • Associa:on  between  perceived   expression  intensity  and  influences   about  subjec:ve  experience • Second  mode  of  response  in  emo:on   recogni:on Cross-­‐Cultural  Differences • Emo:on  recogni:on  rates • Sociocultural  dimensions  account  for   differences  in  the  percep:on  of   emo:on • A?ribu:ons  of  expression  intensity • Influences  about  emo:onal   experiences  underlying  facial   experiences  of  emo:on • A?ribu:ons  of  personality  based  on   smiles
  • 35. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 10 Cultural Similarities and Differences in Emotion Experiences,Appraisal and Concept SimilarityDifference Emotion Experiences Emotion Appraisal Emotion Concept People  share  the  same   basic  emo0on  experiences. Cultural  influence  is  not  as   large  as  the  seemingly   innate  differences  among   the  emo0ons  themselves.   Happiness  Fear Anger Sadness Disgust  Shame and guilt Most  cultures  have  a   concept  for  emo0on. All  cultures  categorize  their   world  of  emo0on. Every  culture  has  the   loca0on  of  emo0on. Emo0on  has  a  role  or   meaning  in  people’s  life. “Culture  Construc0on  of   Emo0on”  Model:  Different   reali:es  and  ideals  of  different   cultures  produce  different   psychological  needs  and  goals,   which  produce  differences  in   habitual  emo:onal   tendencies. Culture  differ  in  appraisal   dimensions  that  require   judgments  rela0ve  to   cultural  of  social  norms   such  as  fairness,  morality   and  other  more  “complex”   appraisal  dimensions. Different  defini0on.   Different  categoriza0on  or   labeling. Different  loca0ons. Different  meaning  of   emo0ons  to  people  and  to   behavior.
  • 36. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 11 An Example of Culture Influences on Self-Perception Independent construal of self Interdependent construal of self Individuals  focus  on  personal, internal attributes  –  individual   ability,  intelligence,  personality   traits,  goals,  or  preferences  –   expressing  them  in  public  and   verifying  and  confirming  them  in   private  social  comparison. Individuals focus  on  their   interdependent status with other people  and  strive  to  meet  or   even  create  du0es,  obliga0ons,  and   social  responsibili0es.  The  most   salient  aspect  of  conscious   experience  is intersubjective,   rooted  in  finely  tuned   interpersonal relationships. Achievement  Mo:va:on Self-­‐Enhancement Social  Explana:on Happiness Indigenous  Emo:on Social  Connota:on  of   Emo:on
  • 37. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 12 Cross-Cultural Approaches and Results of Study of Personality
  • 38. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 12 Cross-Cultural Approaches and Results of Study of Personality Psychological Anthropology Cross-Cultural Psychology • Dominated  in  the  first  half  of  the  20th  century. • Interested  in  human  psychology  within  the  anthropological   discipline. • Most  important  contribu:on:  View  of  personality  as   culturally  specific,  formed  by  the  unique  forces  each  culture   deals  with  in  its  milieu. • Dominated  in  the  second  half  of  the  20th  century. • Two  or  more  cultures  are  treated  as  independent  variables,   and  are  compared  on  some  personality  traits  or  dimensions. • Most  important  contribu:on:  See  culture  and  personality  as   a  mutually  cons:tuted  system  in  which  each  creates  and   maintains  the  other.
  • 39. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 12 Cross-Cultural Approaches and Results of Study of Personality Psychological Anthropology Cross-Cultural Psychology • Dominated  in  the  first  half  of  the  20th  century. • Interested  in  human  psychology  within  the  anthropological   discipline. • Most  important  contribu:on:  View  of  personality  as   culturally  specific,  formed  by  the  unique  forces  each  culture   deals  with  in  its  milieu. • Dominated  in  the  second  half  of  the  20th  century. • Two  or  more  cultures  are  treated  as  independent  variables,   and  are  compared  on  some  personality  traits  or  dimensions. • Most  important  contribu:on:  See  culture  and  personality  as   a  mutually  cons:tuted  system  in  which  each  creates  and   maintains  the  other.
  • 40. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 12 Cross-Cultural Approaches and Results of Study of Personality Psychological Anthropology Cross-Cultural Psychology • Dominated  in  the  first  half  of  the  20th  century. • Interested  in  human  psychology  within  the  anthropological   discipline. • Most  important  contribu:on:  View  of  personality  as   culturally  specific,  formed  by  the  unique  forces  each  culture   deals  with  in  its  milieu. • Dominated  in  the  second  half  of  the  20th  century. • Two  or  more  cultures  are  treated  as  independent  variables,   and  are  compared  on  some  personality  traits  or  dimensions. • Most  important  contribu:on:  See  culture  and  personality  as   a  mutually  cons:tuted  system  in  which  each  creates  and   maintains  the  other.
  • 41. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 12 Cross-Cultural Approaches and Results of Study of Personality Psychological Anthropology Cross-Cultural Psychology • Dominated  in  the  first  half  of  the  20th  century. • Interested  in  human  psychology  within  the  anthropological   discipline. • Most  important  contribu:on:  View  of  personality  as   culturally  specific,  formed  by  the  unique  forces  each  culture   deals  with  in  its  milieu. • Dominated  in  the  second  half  of  the  20th  century. • Two  or  more  cultures  are  treated  as  independent  variables,   and  are  compared  on  some  personality  traits  or  dimensions. • Most  important  contribu:on:  See  culture  and  personality  as   a  mutually  cons:tuted  system  in  which  each  creates  and   maintains  the  other. Locus of Control How  much  control  people  believe  they  have  over  their  behavior  and  their  rela:onship  with  their  environment  and  with  others. Americans Higher  Internal  Locus  of  Control Non-Americans Higher  External  Locus  of  Control
  • 42. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 12 Cross-Cultural Approaches and Results of Study of Personality Psychological Anthropology Cross-Cultural Psychology • Dominated  in  the  first  half  of  the  20th  century. • Interested  in  human  psychology  within  the  anthropological   discipline. • Most  important  contribu:on:  View  of  personality  as   culturally  specific,  formed  by  the  unique  forces  each  culture   deals  with  in  its  milieu. • Dominated  in  the  second  half  of  the  20th  century. • Two  or  more  cultures  are  treated  as  independent  variables,   and  are  compared  on  some  personality  traits  or  dimensions. • Most  important  contribu:on:  See  culture  and  personality  as   a  mutually  cons:tuted  system  in  which  each  creates  and   maintains  the  other. Locus of Control How  much  control  people  believe  they  have  over  their  behavior  and  their  rela:onship  with  their  environment  and  with  others. Americans Higher  Internal  Locus  of  Control Non-Americans Higher  External  Locus  of  Control Self-Esteem Construct  of  self-­‐esteem  and  the  related  construct  of  self-­‐worth. European Americans Higher  Self-­‐Enhancing  Level Asians (Chinese & particularly Japanese) Lower  Self-­‐Enhancing  Level
  • 43. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 13 Culture and Five Factor Model of Personality ✦ Cultures  may  differ  in  mean  levels  of  personality,  however,  more   recent  research  suggest  that  the  Five  Factor  Model  –  a  constella:on  of   personality  traits  comprising  Neuro:cism,  Extroversion,  Openness,   Conscien:ousness,  and  Agreeableness  -­‐-­‐  may  be  universal  to  all   humans. ✦ Research  on  indigenous  approaches  to  personality,  however,  have   demonstrated  culturally  specific  aspects  of  personality  that  cannot  be   accounted  for  by  the  FFM.      We  have  suggested  that  these  two  seemingly  opposing  viewpoints  need   not  be  seen  as  mutually  exclusive;  rather,  it  may  be  more  beneficial  to   view  them  as  different, coexisting aspects of personality.        The  challenge  for  future research  is  to  capture  this  coexistence,   examining  the  rela:ve  degree  of  contribu:on  of  biological  and  cultural   factors  in  the  development  and  organiza:on  of  personality.
  • 44. Thank  You Contact us via … Mail: hora_t@mac.com Follow: twitter@htjitra Website: http://horatjitra.com Zhejiang  University,  Hangzhou  (China)

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