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Evaluation Studies of Cultural Awareness Training

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Evaluation Studies of Cross-Cultural Training Program: A Review of the Literature From 1988 to 2000. An Executive Summary.

Evaluation Studies of Cross-Cultural Training Program: A Review of the Literature From 1988 to 2000. An Executive Summary.

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    Evaluation Studies of Cultural Awareness Training Evaluation Studies of Cultural Awareness Training Presentation Transcript

    • Evaluation  Studies  of  Cross-­cultural  TrainingA Review of the Literature From 1988 to 2000 Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra & Mu Tong, Zhejiang University Hangzhou, March 2011
    • Evaluation Studies on Cultural Awareness Training Black and Mendenhall (1990) Deshpande and Viswesvaran (1992) Bhawuk and Brislin (2000) Bhagat and Prien Kealey and Protheroe (1996) (1996) Evaluation  Studies    of  Cross-­‐Cultural  Training
    • Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra - Cross-cultural and Business Psychology 14  years  in  Germany 7  years  in  China Dipl.-Psych., Technical University of Braunschweig Organizational Psychology and Human Resource Management Born  and  grew  up   in  Indonesia Dr. Phil., University of Regensburg Intercultural Psychology and Strategic Management Executive Education, INSEAD HR Management in Asia Evaluation  Studies    of  Cross-­‐Cultural  Training 3
    • Learning Value Chain and the Benefits of its Measurements Key Benefits of Evaluation Satisfy client needs Justifying budgets Improve program designs Level Key Questions and processes Input and What is the number of participants, hours, 0 Indicators and programs and what are the costs? Enhance the transfer of learning Was the learning relevant, important, Reaction and useful, and helpful to participants in the job 1 Enhance the respect and credibility of LTD Planned Action environment? Did the participants plan to use the content in the program? staff Did participants increase or enhance Learning and 2 Confidence knowledge, skills, or perceptions and have confidence to use them? Increase support from line managers What did the participants do differently in Application & the job context? Was the program 3 Implementation implemented effectively? What changes Strengthen relationship with key executive were made on the job? and administrators Impact and What are the consequences of the 4 Consequences application in terms of output, quality, cost, time, and satisfaction? Set priorities for learning and development Did the monetary benefits of the learning 5 ROI program exceed the investment in the program? Sources: Elkele & Philips (2007). The Chief Learning Officer. Evaluation  Studies    of  Cross-­‐Cultural  Training 4
    • Key Benefits of Measurement and Evaluation• Sa#sfy  client  needs • Enhance  the  respect  and  credibility  • Jus#fying  budgets of  LTD  staff• Improve  program  designs  and   • Increase  support  from  managers processes • Strengthen  rela#onship  with  key  • Enhance  the  transfer  of  learning execu#ve  and  administrators• Eliminate  of  expand • Set  priori#es  for  learning  and   208 The Chief Learning Officer development The ROI Process Tabulate Costs Data Collection Of Solution Evaluation LEVEL 1: Data Analysis Reporting REACTION, LEVEL 3: Planning SATISFACTION, AND APPLICATION/ PLANNED ACTIONS IMPLEMENTATION Develop Develop Generate Collect Data Collect Data Convert Data Calculate Objectives Evaluation Isolate the Impact During Solution After Solution to Monetary the Return On of Plans and Effects Study Implementation Implementation Value Investment Solution(s) Baseline Data LEVEL 4: LEVEL 5: ROI LEVEL 2: LEARNING BUSINESS IMPACT Identify Intangible Measures INTANGIBLE BENEFITS Figure 8-4. ROI methodology. (Source: Phillips, 2003. Used with permission.) Evaluation  Studies    of  Cross-­‐Cultural  Training 5
    • Tools and methods in learning evaluationCollecting Data Isolating the Effects of Learning Converting Data to Monetary Values • Surveys • Control group • Output data is converted to profit contribution or cost savings • Questionnaires • Pre-post measurements • Tests • The cot quality is calculated • Trend lines and forecasting • On-the-job observation • Wages and benefits for the used of • Participants or managers time value • Interviews • Focus groups • Other experts • Historical cost and current used • Action plan and program assignments • Opportunity cost • Performance contracts • External database • Business performance monitoring • Participant estimation from different groups Evaluation  Studies    of  Cross-­‐Cultural  Training 6
    • When to Use the Training: International Assignment 10%  -­‐  50%  of  expatriates  returning  early  from  their  assignment.   Expatriates’  difficulAes  are  costly  for  MNCs,  ranging  from  $250,000  to  $1  million.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Eschbach  et  al.,  2001) • Internal marketing to motivate employee for international assignment Marketing Reintegration Selection • Return planing and International   • Developing expatriate-profiles reintegration seminar Assignment and conducting selection Supporting Preparation • Conceptualization of an escorting • Preparation of the expatriates and system during the assignment their families (e.g. cultural (e.g. coaching, mentoring, etc.) awareness training, etc.) Different  types  of  cultural  awareness  training  is  helpful  for  each  stage  of  the  circle Evaluation  Studies    of  Cross-­‐Cultural  Training 7
    • Generic Design of Cross Cultural Awareness Training Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Culture & Management: Communication … on the Way Working in International Across Cultures to Cross-Cultural Synergy Environments Break My understanding of others: Role Play: Personal Charter Self and other perception “First Meeting” & Learning Plan Lunch Cultural Encounter Case Study: Situations Cross-cultural Leadership Break Case and Role Play: Critical Situations Conflict Management and Short Lecture & Discussion in Working Places Team Building Dinner Learning in Action Joint Dinner Evaluation  Studies    of  Cross-­‐Cultural  Training 8
    • How Effective is a Cross-Cultural Awareness Trainingin Developing Intercultural Competence? Evaluation  Studies    of  Cross-­‐Cultural  Training 9
    • Summary of the Evaluation Studies on Awareness Training • Some evaluation confirms the effect of CCT on trainees’ cross-cultural skill, adjustment, and performance. • Others have doubts regarding the quality of these studies whether CCT effectiveness has been demonstrated. • Don’t establish a “link” between training and the measured effect on a dependent variable. • The effectiveness of CCT in these studies was regarded as too positive in previous reviews. • In general, it remains unclear which method of CCT is overall most effective and which methods are most effective in specific contingencies. • The result for the same studies does not always correspond in different reviews due to the different perspectives taken by the reviewers. Littrell & Salas, 2005 Evaluation  Studies    of  Cross-­‐Cultural  Training
    • Domain of the Evaluation Study  English language vs. Multiple languages: Eglish,French,German, Italian,and Spanish.  Specific domains vs. Wide variety of disciplines: Management, military studies, human resource management, cross-cultural psychology, intercultural relation, immigrant studies, education, anthropology, political science and diplomacy. Evaluation  Studies    of  Cross-­‐Cultural  Training
    • Findings Participants ✓ U.S. trainees were evaluated most. ✓ Over half of the treatment groups were students. ✓ Lack of manager subjects. Methods ✓ Lectures, culture assimilators and class discussions were the most often used. ✓ Training was composed of three or more methods . Evaluation  Studies    of  Cross-­‐Cultural  Training
    • Training Methods Used in the Evaluation Studies Evaluation  Studies    of  Cross-­‐Cultural  Training
    • Findings Timing ✓ The training took place either prior to, during, or independently of a sojourn in another country. ✓ The duration of the training varied from1/2 to 50 hours over a period of time ranging from 1 day to 8 months. Focus ✓ Most training focus on a specific culture. ✓ Others were culture general or a combination. ✓ Japanese, U.S. and Canadian cultures were the most common focus. Evaluation  Studies    of  Cross-­‐Cultural  Training
    • Expected Results of Awareness Training The ability to make isomorphic attributions Knowledge awareness of cultural differences Problem-solving ability, the ability to deal with cross-culture Behavior misunderstandings, display of cultural sensitivity Cultural interest, positive attitude toward members of other Attitude cultures, trainee ethnocentrism. Perceived well-being, health and safety concerns, adjusted to a Adjustment foreign culture, perceived control of the environment. Academic achievement, Performance contribution to company goal. Satisfaction Trainee satisfaction Evaluation  Studies    of  Cross-­‐Cultural  Training
    • Cross-Cultural Training Effectiveness Evaluation  Studies    of  Cross-­‐Cultural  Training
    • Some Critical Issues of the Current Evaluation Studies • Control Groups • Pre- and Post-Training Test • Randomly Assign • Long-term vs. Short Term Effects • Different Measurement Methods • Placebo and Hawthorne Effects Evaluation  Studies    of  Cross-­‐Cultural  Training
    • International Project References in the Research Areas ofCulture Diversity, Talent Development, and Strategic Change • Building Global Competence for Asian Leaders • Applying Social Medias (Web 2.0) in Learning & Development. • International Employability: Development of Intercultural 14  years  in  Germany Competence of German and Chinese Young Professionals. • Cross-Cultural Learning Behavior: Effectiveness of the Western Technology Transfer and Learning Approaches in China. • Comparative Studies of Chinese-Indonesian Intercultural 8  years  in  China Competence and Sensitivity. • Dynamic Decision Making in Chinese and Multinational Teams. • Intercultural Perspectives of International Post-Merger Integration in Europe. Born  and  grew  up   • Intercultural Synergy in Professional Team. in  Indonesia • Complex Problem Solving in Small Groups. • ... Evaluation  Studies    of  Cross-­‐Cultural  Training 18
    • Conclusions and Implications ✦ Quantitative and Qualitative ✦ Time Span ✦ Wintry Doctrine ✦ Low Motivation ✦ Moderators ✦ The Paucity of theory ✦ Cooperation and Resistance Evaluation  Studies    of  Cross-­‐Cultural  Training
    • Thank  You Contact us via … Mail: hora_t@mac.com Follow: twitter@htjitra Website: http://horatjitra.comBased on: LISA N. LITTRELL, EDUARDO SALAS: A Review of Cross-Cultural Training: Best Practices, Guidelines, and Research Needs. Zhejiang  University,  Hangzhou  (China) Human Resource Development Review, 4(3), 2005. p305-334