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Doing Qualitative Interview (updated jan 2011)

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Introduction lecture to qualitative data collection. Doing interviewing, what are important, what to pay attention to, what different types of interviewing, critical discussion on doing qualitative …

Introduction lecture to qualitative data collection. Doing interviewing, what are important, what to pay attention to, what different types of interviewing, critical discussion on doing qualitative interviewing.

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  • 1. Doing Qualitative Interviewing - Data Collection - by Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra ( ) Vers. 2.0 Hangzhou, March 2010 • School of Psychology and Behavioural Sciences • Zhejiang University, Xixi Campus • 310028 Hangzhou • CHINA • • Phone: ++86 571 8827 3337 • Fax: +86 571 8827 3326 • E-Mail: htjitra@zju.edu.cn • Homepage: http://www.horatjitra.com •
  • 2. Qualitative Research Method Outline 1 Qualitative data collection - interview 3 2 Qualitative Interview 5 3 Different types of (qualitative) interview? 12 4 Doing qualitative interviewing? 16 5 Quality criteria for a good interview 21 @ Tjitra, 2010 2
  • 3. Qualitative Research Method Qualitative Research Process: From Ideas (Questions) to Results (Theory) The Foundations and Pillars of Qualitative Thinking Research Topics, Problems and Questions (Hypotheses) Qualitative Research Design Single Case Document Qualitative Qualitative Action Research Field Research Analyses Analyses Experiments Evaluation Process of Qualitative Research Data Preparation Analyzing Collection Process Process Writing Qualitative Research Report @ Tjitra, 2010 3
  • 4. Qualitative Research Method Qualitative Data Collection Focus Group Qualitative Data Observation , Interview Ethnography , Visual Data @ Tjitra, 2010 4
  • 5. Qualitative Research Method Whom of you have any experiences in doing interview? as interviewer or interviewee? ? @ Tjitra, 2010 5
  • 6. Qualitative Research Method Aspects of Qualitative Research Interviews Life world Meaning Qualitative Descriptive Specificity Deliberate The Purpose of Qualitative Research Interview treated is to obtain descriptions of the lived world of the interviewees with respect to interpretations of the meaning of the described phenomena. Focused Ambiguity Change Sensitivity Interpersonal Positive Situation Experience @ Tjitra, 2010 6
  • 7. Qualitative Research Method Four main reasons for conducting interviews 1 Interviewing is a concern with subjective meaning rather than with eliciting responses 2 Interviews can permit exploration of issues that maybe too complex to investigate through quantitative means. 3 Doing interview is a salutary lesson in research involvement and practice. 4 The questions of power relations in the research. @ Tjitra, 2010 7
  • 8. Qualitative Research Method Qualification Criteria for the Interviewer Sensitive Open Gentle Steering Clear Critical Structuring Remembering Knowledgeable Interpreting Qualification Criteria for the Interviewer @ Tjitra, 2010 8
  • 9. Qualitative Research Method Seven Stages of Interview Investigation 7 Reporting 6 A readable Verifying product 5 Ascertain generalizbility, Analyzing reliablity, validity 4 Decide methods of analysis Transcribing 3 Prepare the interview material for analysise, Interviewing including a transcription from oral speech to written text. 2 Base on interview guide, reflective approach to the knowledge Designing sought and the interpersonal relation of the interiview situation 1 Considerate all seven stages to obtain the intended Thematizing knowledge and taking into account the moral implication. Formulate the purpose of an investigation and describe the concept of the topic to be investigated before the interviews start. @ Tjitra, 2010 9
  • 10. Qualitative Research Method Research and interview questions: Learning motivation and performance Do you find the subjects you learn important? 1. Which form of learning motivation dominates in high school? Do you find learning interesting itself? What is your main purpose in going to high school? 2. Do the grades promote an external, instrumental motivation at the expense of an intrinsic interest motivation for learning? Have you experienced a conflict between what you wanted to read (study) and what you had to read to obtain a good grade? 3. Does learning for grades Have you been rewarded with money for good grades? socialize to working for wages? Do you see any connection between money and grades? @ Tjitra, 2010 10
  • 11. Qualitative Research Method Types of interview questions • Basic descriptive questions • Can you talk to me about your car accident? Tell me what happened on that evening? • Describe how you felt that evening? • Follow-up questions • You mentioned that “planning time” is important to you. Can you tell me how you use planning time? • Experience/example questions • You mentioned that you loved going to London. Can you give me an example or two of what made you love London? • Talk about your impressions of London. • Simple clarification questions • You have used the term “constructivist teacher” today. Can you clarify that for me? What exactly can you talk about regarding your constructivist teaching? • Structural/paradigmatic questions • You state that this class was a problematic one. What would you describe as the cause of these problems? • Of all the things you have told me about being a critical care nurse, what is the underlying premise of your work day? In other words, what keeps you going everyday? • Comparison/contrast questions • You said there was a big difference between a great principal and an ordinary principal. What are some of these differences? Can you describe a few for me? @ Tjitra, 2010 11
  • 12. Qualitative Research Method ? How many kind of interviews do you know or aware of? - what are the main differences between them ? @ Tjitra, 2010 12
  • 13. Qualitative Research Method Interviewing method as an effective qualitative verbal data Semi-structured Interview Narratives as data Focused Interview Narratives Interview Semi-standardized Interview Problem-centred Interview Expert Interview Episodic Interview Ethnographic Interview Adapted from Flick, 2002 @ Tjitra, 2010 13
  • 14. Qualitative Research Method The expert interview from Meuser and Nagel (1991) • It is regarded as a specific forms of applying semi-structured interviews. In contrast to biographical interviews, here the interviewee is of less interest as a (whole) person than in his or her capacity o being an expert for a certain field of activity. • The interview guide has a much more stronger directive function with regard to excluding unproductive topics. Some possible problems in conducting the interviews: • The expert blocks the interview in its course, because he or she proves to be not an expert for this topic as previously assumed. • The expert tries to involve the interviewer in ongoing conflicts in the field and talks about internal matters and intrigues in his or her work field instead of talking about the topic of the interview. • He or she often changes between the roles of expert and private persons, so that more information results about him or her as a person than about his or her expert knowledge. • As an intermediate form between success and failure, the “rhetoric interview” is mentioned. I this, the expert gives a lecture on his or her knowledge instead of joining the question-answer game of the interview. If the lecture hits the topic, this form of interaction makes it more difficult to return to the actual relevant topic. Meuser and Nagel (1991, pp. 449-450) @ Tjitra, 2010 14
  • 15. Qualitative Research Method The Ethnographic interview from Spradley (1980) • This interview method is generally used in combining with participative observation in the context of field research. • The method should help how to shape conversations arising in the field into interviews in which unfolding of the other’s specific experiences is aligned with issue of the research in a systematic way. • It is best to think of ethnographic interviews a series of “friendly conversations” into which the researcher slowly introduces new elements to assist informants to respond as informants. Some elements which distinguish ethnographic interviews from such “friendly conversations”: • A specific request to hold the interview (resulting from the research question) • Ethnographic explanations, in which the interviewer explains the project (why an interview): these are completed everyday language explanations and interview explanation and explanation of certain type of questions. • Ethnographic questions, I.e. descriptive questions, structural questions and contrast questions. Spradley (1979, pp 59-60) @ Tjitra, 2010 15
  • 16. Qualitative Research Method What are the most important factors in doing good qualitative interviewing? ? @ Tjitra, 2010 16
  • 17. Qualitative Research Method The interviewing relationship is a research partnership • The interviewer and the respondent will work together to produce information useful to the research project. • The interview will define the areas for exploration and will monitor the quality of the material. The respondent will provide the kind of report that is needed, accepting the interviewer’s guidance regarding topics. • The interviewer will not ask questions out of idle curiosity. • The interviewer will respect the respondent’s integrity. • Respondent will not be damaged or disadvantaged because of the participation in the interview. @ Tjitra, 2010 17
  • 18. Qualitative Research Method Guidelines to know the needed information and to help respondents provide it • Asking respondents to particularize (Last time you went to court) just what What is it you want to obtain? happened? • Discussion of the most recent occurrence concrete descriptions of something he or she has witnessed •Be wary of the generalized present or generalized past to get a density of detail ( what happens while you’re waiting to be called? or What happened while you were waiting to be called? The later one is better.) Scenes and events Respondent’s External own thoughts • Questions to ask to the and feelings (Helping respondents develop respondent information, markers, etc.) • Managing the interview (Intrusions, talking about yourself, etc.) @ Tjitra, 2010
  • 19. Qualitative Research Method The effects of interviewing on respondent and interviewer What is it like to be a respondent? What is it like to sit and listen?  Interviewing provides respondents with an opportunity to talk about matters of  Sometimes exhilarated, sometimes only emotional importance while remaining at an emotional middle distance: close enough to a task. Feel privileged to have been the emotions to experience them but distant admitted in to someone else’s private enough to maintain self-control. experience.  Interviewing may cause someone to reflect  Feel in tune with the other person’s on his or her life and make changes. rhythm of speaking and thought, to see the world through the other person’s  One risk is a consequence of the time-limited nature of the interviewing relationship. The eyes. experiencing a sense of loss.  Emotionally understand someone’s account without allowing my attention to  A respondent regretted having talking too freely in the interview is a very few occasions. be captured by my own feelings and They may concerned that they will be thoughts. identifiable in the publications.  “ I am totally in the interview, aware of it  If the study is needed, an interviewer do have and nothing more.” ( Csikszentmihalyi ) the right to ask respondents about potentially painful material.  Usually tiring. It take energy to maintain an unswerving attention. Some interviews leave me feeling washed out. @ Tjitra, 2010 19
  • 20. Qualitative Research Method Issues of Validity: Do respondents tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth?  I did not invent events that had not occurred.  Nor can we be sure we will be told the precise truth.  There are some kinds of events that we are unlikely to hear about unless we have established an interviewing relationship in which there is extraordinary trust. People will not endanger themselves to contribute to social truth.  Information is context dependent.  Our best guarantee of the validity of our material is careful, concrete level, interviewing within the context of the a good interviewing relationship. @ Tjitra, 2010 20
  • 21. Qualitative Research Method Quality criteria for an interview • The extent of spontaneous, rich, specific, and relevant answers from the interviewee. • The shorter the interviewer’s questions and the longer the subjects’ answer, the better. • The degree to which the interviewer follows up and clarifies the meaning of the relevant aspects of the answers. • The ideal interview is to a large extent interpreted throughout the interview. • The interviewer attempts to verify his or her interpretations of the subject’s answers in the course of the interview. • The interview is “self-communicating” - it is a story contained in itself and that hardly requires much extra descriptions. Kvale, 1996 @ Tjitra, 2010 21
  • 22. Qualitative Research Method Discussion: Standard reactions to qualitative interview The qualitative research interview is NOT: 1. Scientific, but only reflects common sense 2. objective, but subjective 3. trustworthy, but biased 4. reliable, it rests upon leading questions 5. intersubjective, different readers find different meaning 6. a scientific method, it is too person dependent 7. scientific hypothesis testing, only explorative 8. quantitative, only qualitative 9. generalizable, there are too few subjects 10. valid, it relies on subjective impressions @ Tjitra, 2010 22
  • 23. Qualitative Research Method Ten Internal Critiques of Interview Research Individualistic Intellectualistic Idealistic Insignificant Immobile Interview Research Arhetorical Cognitivist Atheoretical Verbalizing Alinguistic @ Tjitra, 2010 23
  • 24. Qualitative Research Method Final Summary  Get started with the easy questions, step by step, maybe to do the interview with Chinese respondents, we should spent more time to build the research relationship  Pay your attention on the two important Guidelines: questions to ask & managing the Interview  Matching interviewers to respondents, we should consider this point the Project. Esp. on the race, cultural background and ethnicity @ Tjitra, 2010 24
  • 25. Qualitative Research Method Thanks for your interest Any comments & questions are welcome Contact me at hora_t@mac.com @ Tjitra, 2010 25