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Different Roles of Chinese Trainer

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In the corporate training settings in China, there are different roles, a Chinese Trainer are expected to take to be effective. Based on the 58 expert interviews in China and Germany.

In the corporate training settings in China, there are different roles, a Chinese Trainer are expected to take to be effective. Based on the 58 expert interviews in China and Germany.

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  • 1. The Multiple Roles of Chinese Trainers in Corporate Training & Development by Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra, Jiewei Zheng, & Quan He Vers. 2.0 Hangzhou, March 2010 • School of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences • Zhejiang University, Xixi Campus • 310028 Hangzhou • CHINA • • Phone: ++86 571 8827 3337 • Fax: +86 571 8827 3326 • E-Mail: htjitra@zju.edu.cn • Homepage: http://www.horatjitra.com •
  • 2. Research Background – Why Considering Cross- Cultural Differences in Corporate T&D?  Asia, particularly China: Fast expanding market with large growth potential for a lot of multinational companies  More and more activities (e.g., shared services, global delivery, research & development) are transferred to China  These companies need to deliver trainings to Chinese market (customers, partners, employees)  Cross-cultural differences in learning behavior need to be considered for successful knowledge transfer and training delivery Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 1
  • 3. Three Main Research Questions ? What are the most important factors in learning and instructional strategies for successful learning projects? ? What is the distinctiveness of the Chinese learners? ? How to make effective learning situation and course instruction in Chinese cultural context? Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 2
  • 4. Research Method (I) – Data Analysis Framework Research Objectives and Questions Interview 1 In-Depth Interview Interview 2 Agreement Disgareement Exception Explanation Grounded Theory Analysis Better Understanding Close Understanding of Research Phenomena Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 3
  • 5. Research Method (II) – Qualitative In-depth Interview Preparations Interviewees Experts, who have intensive experiences in teaching technology  Pilot interview and management as well as consulting and training  Interviewing and Native Chinese German experts Issues in Interviewing experts International experts Having international Major working and  Respondents and Having intensive working experiences learning experiences training/teaching in Germany preparation experiences At least five years of relevant working  Education in  Interview workshop At least five years of experiences Germany relevant working  Interview instruments experiences Interview data will later be analyzed using the grounded theory approach, facilitated by qualitative data analysis software Atlas.ti. Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 4
  • 6. Effective Learning and Course Instruction Model Multiple Roles Devoted Learner German German Common Chinese Common Chinese • Group Trainer Learner • Universal • Clear • Learners’ Diversity • Learning • Knowledge facilitator Sharing Orientator Transfer Objective • Devoted Diligent • Learning • Building • Role Model • Enthusiastic Absorbing Utilizer Trust Applicable Objective • Respect to Authority Course • Problem Solver • Particular Sharing • Service Provider Common Chinese German • “Zhong Yong” ( ) • Feedback • Guidance to Apply • Detailed Mechanism • Evaluation & Standard Design • Matching the Certification Chinese Needs • Demonstrative Chinese Support •Objective • Striving Self-study Engagement • Hot & Trendy Training Learning • Problem & “What” •Detailed Guideline Centered •Collectivistic Common German Common • Optimized Imitation Learning • Knowing • Practical • Need & Follow Background German • Theory & “Why” Exercises Guidance •Guided Focused Consolidation • Flexible • Process • Insightful Adjustment • Learning from each Simulation Orientated other Guided Involvement Pragmatic Learning Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 5
  • 7. Multiple Trainer Roles (I) – Common Part Knowledge Transfer  Knowledgeable Peter (2002),  Senior Expert Beishuizen, Hof, Putten,  Presentation Skill Bouwmeester, & Asscher (2001), Burba et al (2001) - – Actually what I did for them is the knowledge transfer.( the instructor’s role is to … ) present material in a – During the process, most time was the trainer did the explanations.( straightforward manner. .) Learning Utilizer Hariss (1998), Burba et al (2001) –  Practical Experiences effective teachers … are  Application Suggestion thoughtful and reflective about their practice. – So I was looking for ways that can enable to young people to narrow they on the learning curve to able to really utility what they have learned quickly. – The trainer has working field experience; he could give some constructive suggestions. ( …… ) Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 6
  • 8. Multiple Trainer Roles (II) – Chinese Part : Learning Orientator Learning Orientator Description The trainer should point out the learning direction for the learners, not only gives the recommendation about the books or other Watkins & Biggs references that learners could refer to, but also the guidance of how to (1996); Chow (1995) - master the knowledge as quickly as possible according to the learning in many Asian styles that the learners have. countries, people are used to teacher- Requirement centered instruction Point out direction style while the Teach how to learn (understand learners’ learning style) western people get Be patient used to learner- As our interviewees say … centered style. –… it is important to let them (learners) know how to learn and work in the new workplace..( ) –Help them to decide the (learning) orientation. ( ) Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 7
  • 9. Multiple Trainer Roles (II) – Chinese Part : Role Model Role Model Description It means that the trainer is regarded as the personal example by the learners not only in the specialty area but also in the other daily life areas. Kennedy (2002), Cortazzi & Jin (2001), Requirement Pratt, et al. (1998) Personal example - … the teacher is a Authoritative reputation model both of Reach trainer’s level knowledge and morality, … As our interviewees say … –I could teach by personal example, could be the model for them (learners). ( ) –The learners will show respect to the trainer, and regard the trainer as the working guide. Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 8
  • 10. Multiple Trainer Roles (II) – Chinese Part: Problem Solver Problem Solver Description Problem solver is a role that Chinese teachers play a lot because of Chinese learners’ special learning habits. Chow (1995), Burba et al (2001) – Requirement management Give personal support education tends to focus on the Put in great effort technical skills or As our interviewees say … ‘hard” side of technologies. –First we have to solve the problems. ( ) –The learners want the training to help them solve practical problems. Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 9
  • 11. Multiple Trainer Roles (II) – Chinese Part: Service Provider Service Provider Description The trainer has to treat the learners as customers, and also pays attention to training needs analysis before the training to facilitate the different interests. Chow (1995), Huang (1996) – Requirement Before training, Customer orientation should conduct a Facilitating different interests thorough training- needs and As our interviewees say … audiences –They are customers, we need follow their demands. ( analysis. ) –We will do that, sometime what we do is like the consultant. ( ) Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 10
  • 12. Internal Relationship between Multiple Roles Service Provider Learning Orientator Problem Solver Role Model Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 11
  • 13. Multiple Trainer Roles Understanding (III) – German Part Group Facilitator Description Group facilitator, who puts in lots of effort in creating “free” atmosphere in the training to encourage learners to express their Gao & Watkins (2002) – … learning own ideas and discuss openly with tight inconspicuous “control” in hand. facilitating … Requirement Huang (1996), Hariss Group interaction (1998), Burba et al Create “free” environment (2001) - … apply a lot of group activities in As our interviewees say … training. –In the group discussion, I will control the process and topic, although they are very active. –After sharing my own experience, they (the learners) will feel free and safe to talk. Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 12
  • 14. Brief Summary & Possible Application Suggestions Chinese learners – Strongly results driven, Eager to learn, Willing to work hard for it, Emphasized relationship Training process – Add Your Text Strongly learner centered, Enable learner independence, Ideally have direct impacts on practice International interviewees – Complexity of relationship; Add Your Text Importance of goals; Handicap in learning transfer Trainer Role One of the core job a trainer will have to deal with – Keep the motivation of the learners high & Helping them Add Your Text achieving their goals Chinese interviewees – Qualified trainer, Ideal learners, Different roles a trainer have, Complexities of the relationship with the learner & between the Add Your Text are Chinese learnermeanwhile, the learners Paradox – They eager to learn, trainer should motivate them to learn Jiewei ZHENG, 2007 13
  • 15. presented at: Contact me at daisy0929@gmail.com