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Cross-Cultural Management in International Environment

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Executive summary presentation from the book "Managing Across Cultures" from Susan Schneider and Jean-Louis Barsoux. How to manage international corporation, communicate across cultures etc.

Executive summary presentation from the book "Managing Across Cultures" from Susan Schneider and Jean-Louis Barsoux. How to manage international corporation, communicate across cultures etc.

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  • 1. Managing  across  Cultures Professionalism in International ManagementLewis, R. (2002). Managing across Cultures (2nd Ed.). Prentice Hall. Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra, Xu Meiling & Zhao Dan, Zhejiang University Hangzhou, February 2011
  • 2. About Authors Susan C. Schneider (Swiss  ) Susan  C.  Schneider,  is  professor  of  human  resources  at  HEC  Geneva,  (Hautes   Etudes  Commerciales  Geneve),  part  of  the  Faculty  of  Economics  and  Social   Sciences  at  the  University  of  Geneva.  Professor  Schneiders  main  research   topics  are  intercultural  management,  cogniBve  sciences  and  their  impact  on   firms  strategies. Jean-Louis Barsoux (French) Jean-­‐Louis  Barsoux  is  a  Senior  Research  Fellow  at   INSEAD  and  a  co-­‐authour  of  The  Set-­‐Up-­‐To-­‐Fail   Syndrome:  How  good  managers  cause  great  people  to   fail,  Harvard  Business  School  Press,  Boston,  2002. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 2
  • 3. Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra - Excellence in Culture, Talent and Change 14  years  in  Germany 7  years  in  China Born  and  grew  up   in  Indonesia Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 3
  • 4. Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra - Excellence in Culture, Talent and Change 14  years  in  Germany Professional activities: • Academic Teaching and Research, as well as Consulting, Coaching, Training and Assessment in the area of: 7  years  in  China - Cross-Cultural Awareness and Communication - Cross-Cultural Issues in HR Management - Corporate Learning and Development - Executive Coaching and Assessment - Global Leadership Development Program - Facilitation of Strategic Conference Born  and  grew  up   Large Strategic Change Projects in  Indonesia - International and National project references: • BASF, Siemens, Dupont, Commerzbank, Hugo Boss, SAP, Barco, GTZ, Telkom Indonesia, etc. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 3
  • 5. Map and Brief Introduction Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 4
  • 6. Part I Contents The  undertow  of  culture Converging  cultures Culture  as  a  source  of  compe33ve  advantage/disadvantage Recognizing  culture Discovering  cultural  advantage Exploring  culture The  search  for  meaning Ar3facts  and  behavior Beliefs  and  value Basic  assump3ons Interpre3ng  pa?erns  of  cultureInteracBng  spheres  of  culture Cultural  spheres  of  influence Crea3ng  compe33ve  advantage:  interac3ng  spheres Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 5
  • 7. Converging Cultures?The world is • Global  Villagegetting smaller? • Informa(on  sharing,  ea(ng   Surface habits,    dress • MelBng  Pot • People  from  many  different   origins  living  in  big  ci(es,  e.g.,   Landon.• Switzerland’s  refusal  to   join  in  European• AdvocaBng  learning   ancient  language • DisBnct  Cultural  fragments Inside Deep • Chinatown,  Italy  Town • CompeBBve  language  and   culture • Restaurant  menu Cultural Identity and Integrity! Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 6
  • 8. Converging Cultures - Management is Management? Cultural influence • Different road systems • Different medical needs and prescriptions Universal of Management practice • A set of principles and techniques • Scientifically engineered Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 7
  • 9. Forces For and Against convergence The  presence   and  power  of   Culture Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 8
  • 10. Culture as a source of competitive advantage/disadvantage France EducaBon  System  places  high  value  on   Country-­‐level  Factors engineering  and  administraBon  and  the   Availability  of  resources close  relaBonship  between  state  and   The  size  and  sophis3ca3on  of  the  market industry The  nature  of  government  interven3on The  type  of  strategic  networksInsBtuBonal   Cultural  Arrangements ConfiguraBons Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 9
  • 11. Recognizing culture Culture  to  one  as  water  to  fish: A  fish  doesnt  think  about  what  water  it  is   in  Bll  it’s  stranded! What  I  see                          What  I  do  not  see What  they   see In si g Open for discussion My blind spot ht sRecognizing  cultural  differences What  they   do  not  see Their blind spot Shared blind spot Johari  window Source:  adapted  from  S.Jourard 1964  The  Transparent  Self,  Van  Nostrand   Reinhold,  Princeton,  NJ. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 10
  • 12. Stereotypes The  point  is  not  the  existence  but  the  way  they  are  used! EffecBve  way  of  using  Stereotypes Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 11
  • 13. Discovering cultural advantage Step  1 The  Swiss… Step  2 Consider  themselves  to  be:   Are  perceived  by  foreigners  as  being:   Expect  foreigners  to  be: Step  3Step 4 Find the potentialultures  Collide Richard  Lewis:  When  C cultural aspects to achieve competitiveadvantages 12
  • 14. Part I Contents The  undertow  of  culture Converging  cultures Culture  as  a  source  of  compe33ve  advantage/disadvantage Recognizing  culture Discovering  cultural  advantage Exploring  culture The  search  for  meaning Ar3facts  and  behavior Beliefs  and  value Basic  assump3ons Interpre3ng  pa?erns  of  cultureInteracBng  spheres  of  culture Cultural  spheres  of  influence Crea3ng  compe33ve  advantage:  interac3ng  spheres Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 13
  • 15. Exploring culture Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 14
  • 16. Artifacts & Behaviors • Wri,en  vs.  verbal  contacts • Architecture  &  design • Gree=ng  rituals • Forms  of  address • Making  contact • Dress  codes Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 15
  • 17. Beliefs & values Criteria  for   What  is   The  right  person   success manage-­‐ for  the  job ment? •Shareholders •Customer •  people-­‐oriented Hire  what  kind  of •Employees •  task-­‐oriented                people Beliefs Values Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 16
  • 18. Basic assumptions External adaptation Internal integration • Relationship with nature • Human nature  Control  Basically  good/  evil  Uncertainty  avoidance • Nature of human relationships • Nature of human activity  Social/task  orientaBon  Doing/being  ParBcularism/universalism  Achievement/ascripBon  Hierarchical  Individualism/collecBvism • Nature  of  reality  and  truth Linking assumptions • Space  Personal/physical • Language  High/low  context • Time  Monochronic  and  polychronic  Past/present/future Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 17
  • 19. External adaptation      Rela1onship  with  nature Internal –Control External integra3on adapta3on –Uncertainty  avoidance Linking assump3ons      Nature  of  human  ac1vity –Doing/being Don’t  just  stand  there,  do  something. –Achievement/ascrip9on VS Don’t  just  do  something,  stand  there.      Nature  of  reality  and  truth Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 18
  • 20. Internal integration • Human nature Internal  Basically  good/  evil External adapta3on integra3on Linking assump3ons • Rela1onships  with  people ★ Social/task  orienta>on ★ Masculinity/femininity ★ Hierarchy ★ Individualism/collec>vism Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 19
  • 21. Linking assumptions Internal External integra3on adapta3on Linking assump3ons Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 20
  • 22. Part I Contents        The  undertow  of  culture Converging  cultures Culture  as  a  source  of  compe33ve  advantage/disadvantage Recognizing  culture Discovering  cultural  advantage        Exploring  culture The  search  for  meaning Ar3facts  and  behavior Beliefs  and  value Basic  assump3ons Interpre3ng  pa?erns  of  culture InteracBng  spheres  of  culture Cultural  spheres  of  influence Crea3ng  compe33ve  advantage:  interac3ng  spheres Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 21
  • 23. Interacting spheres of culture National/Regional Geography, history,   Professional poliBcal  and  economic  forces, climate, EducaBon, religion, training, language selecBon, socializaBonIndustry FunctionalResources,technology, External  environment,product  market, nature  of  task,regulaBon, Company Bme  horizoncompeBBve  advantage Founder,  leader, administraBve  heritage, nature  of  product/industry  stage  of  development Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 22
  • 24. National X IndustryIndustry Walkman Movie XCulture Japanese American = Japanese  invasion  into  the  soul  of  America Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 23
  • 25. Professional X National Doctors Engineers Accountant Germany USA UK Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 24
  • 26. Part II Culture & Managing Practice Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 25
  • 27. Culture & Organization Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 26
  • 28. Culture & Structure --- Five Value Dimensions Hofstede   Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 27
  • 29. Culture & Structure --- Cultural Profiles Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 28
  • 30. The Meaning of Organization Task VS Social systemsWhat’s  an  organiza>on Survey  done  by  A.  Laurent Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 29
  • 31. Culture & Process Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 30
  • 32. Culture & Strategy Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 31
  • 33. Interaction effects Strategic profile Strategic   Defender control  &  efficiency process  vs.   Controlling  vs.  Adap3ng Prospector (products  &market  opportuni3es) Strategic  content Conserva3ve  vs.  innova3ve Cost-­‐cuLng Efficiency Ra3onaliza3on Seeking  new  markets/products Market  expansion Inves3ng  in  R&D Diversifica3on Forming  alliances Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 32
  • 34. Strategic implications of culture Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 33
  • 35. Thank  YouContact us via …Mail: hora_t@mac.comFollow: twitter@htjitraWebsite: http://horatjitra.com Zhejiang  University,  Hangzhou  (China)