Cross-Cultural Awareness Training: Best Practices, Guidelines and Trends

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A summary from a review article about "Cross-Cultural Training:
Best Practices, Guidelines, and Research Needs" by Littrell & Sallas.

Expatriate Management, International Assignment, Culture Shock, Working and Living abroad

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Cross-Cultural Awareness Training: Best Practices, Guidelines and Trends

  1. 1. Hangzhou, March 2011 Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra & Liu Jun, Zhejiang University Cross-­Cultural   Awareness  Training Best Practices, Guidelines, and Research Needs
  2. 2. Data from multinational corporations (MNCs):  10% to 50% of expatriates returning early from their assignments.(Eschbach et al., 2001)  Expatriates’ difficulties are costly for MNCs, rangi-ng from $250,000 to $1 million. (Eschbach et al., 2001; Mervosh & McCleniahan, 1997)  The percentage of companies offering CCT incre- ased from 30% to 60% within 10 years. (Black & Mendenhall, 1990; R. Bennett et al.,2000)
  3. 3. Data from multinational corporations (MNCs):  10% to 50% of expatriates returning early from their assignments.(Eschbach et al., 2001)  Expatriates’ difficulties are costly for MNCs, rangi-ng from $250,000 to $1 million. (Eschbach et al., 2001; Mervosh & McCleniahan, 1997)  The percentage of companies offering CCT incre- ased from 30% to 60% within 10 years. (Black & Mendenhall, 1990; R. Bennett et al.,2000) Have your company faced the same situations as above? Or have you met any difficulties as an expatriate?
  4. 4. Cross-­‐Cultural  Awareness  Training 3 14  years  in  Germany 7  years  in  China Born  and  grew  up   in  Indonesia Prof.Dr.Hora Tjitra - Cross-cultural and Business Psychology
  5. 5. Cross-­‐Cultural  Awareness  Training 3 14  years  in  Germany 7  years  in  China Born  and  grew  up   in  Indonesia Prof.Dr.Hora Tjitra - Cross-cultural and Business Psychology Dipl.-Psych.,Technical University of Braunschweig Organizational Psychology and Human Resource Management Dr.Phil.,University of Regensburg Intercultural Psychology and Strategic Management Executive Education,INSEAD HR Management in Asia
  6. 6. The increasing demand for CCT in organizations CCT
  7. 7. The increasing demand for CCT in organizations Expatriates’ failure adjustment and organizational financial loss CCT
  8. 8. The increasing demand for CCT in organizations Increasing diversity of workplace Expatriates’ failure adjustment and organizational financial loss CCT
  9. 9. The increasing demand for CCT in organizations Lost opportunities and damaged relations Delayed productivity Increasing diversity of workplace Many expatriates leave their organization within one year after returning. Expatriates’ failure adjustment and organizational financial loss CCT Expatriate’s early return from the assignment
  10. 10. The increasing demand for CCT in organizations Lost opportunities and damaged relations Use of multicultural teams Delayed productivity Increased organizational diversity Increasing diversity of workplace Internationalization of the economy Many expatriates leave their organization within one year after returning. Culture’s role from corner shop to world conflict Expatriates’ failure adjustment and organizational financial loss CCT Expatriate’s early return from the assignment
  11. 11. Definition and Purpose of CCT Cross-Cultural Training
  12. 12. Definition and Purpose of CCT Cross-Cultural Training An educative process focused on promoting intercultural learning through the acquisition of behavioral, cognitive, and affective competencies required for effective interactions across diverse cultures. (Landis & Brislin, 1996; Morris & Robie, 2001).
  13. 13. Definition and Purpose of CCT Cross-Cultural Training An educative process focused on promoting intercultural learning through the acquisition of behavioral, cognitive, and affective competencies required for effective interactions across diverse cultures. (Landis & Brislin, 1996; Morris & Robie, 2001). D evelop m eta- cognitive strategies
  14. 14. Definition and Purpose of CCT Cross-Cultural Training An educative process focused on promoting intercultural learning through the acquisition of behavioral, cognitive, and affective competencies required for effective interactions across diverse cultures. (Landis & Brislin, 1996; Morris & Robie, 2001). D evelop m eta- cognitive strategies Develop self- maintenance skills
  15. 15. Definition and Purpose of CCT Cross-Cultural Training An educative process focused on promoting intercultural learning through the acquisition of behavioral, cognitive, and affective competencies required for effective interactions across diverse cultures. (Landis & Brislin, 1996; Morris & Robie, 2001). D evelop m eta- cognitive strategies Develop self- maintenance skills Developinterpersonalskills
  16. 16. Definition and Purpose of CCT Improve an expatriate’s probability of success on the foreign assignment Cross-Cultural Training An educative process focused on promoting intercultural learning through the acquisition of behavioral, cognitive, and affective competencies required for effective interactions across diverse cultures. (Landis & Brislin, 1996; Morris & Robie, 2001). D evelop m eta- cognitive strategies Develop self- maintenance skills Developinterpersonalskills
  17. 17. Components of typical CCT programs
  18. 18. Components of typical CCT programs Attribution training
  19. 19. Components of typical CCT programs Culture awareness training
  20. 20. Components of typical CCT programs Cognitive-behavior modification training
  21. 21. Components of typical CCT programs Interaction training
  22. 22. Components of typical CCT programs Language training
  23. 23. Components of typical CCT programs Didactic training
  24. 24. Components of typical CCT programs Experimental training
  25. 25. Components of typical CCT programs
  26. 26. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates
  27. 27. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates CCL
  28. 28. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates CCL Work adjustment and general adjustment to the culture
  29. 29. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates CCL Cognitive skill development Work adjustment and general adjustment to the culture
  30. 30. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates CCL Cognitive skill development Work adjustment and general adjustment to the culture Self-confidence and overall feelings of wellbeing
  31. 31. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates Increased performance CCL Cognitive skill development Work adjustment and general adjustment to the culture Self-confidence and overall feelings of wellbeing
  32. 32. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates Increased performance CCL Cognitive skill development Work adjustment and general adjustment to the culture Self-confidence and overall feelings of wellbeing Decreased early return rates
  33. 33. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates Increased performance CCL Cognitive skill development Work adjustment and general adjustment to the culture Self-confidence and overall feelings of wellbeing Decreased early return rates Success foreign assignment!
  34. 34. The current CCT “Best Practices” Design Delivery Evaluation
  35. 35. The current CCT “Best Practices” Design Delivery Evaluation
  36. 36. The current CCT “Best Practices” Design Delivery Evaluation
  37. 37. The current CCT “Best Practices” Design Delivery Evaluation
  38. 38. What Are Organizations Not Doing that They Should Be Doing --- Guideline (A) : Design Guideline 1: CCT Should Be Customized to Match the Expatriate’s Needs Guideline 2: CCT Should Not Stand Alone Guideline 3: Training Rigor Should Be Tailored to the Cultural Toughness of the Destination Country Guideline 4: MNCs Should Develop a Global Mindset Guideline 5: Organizations Must Use a Skill-Based Approach When Designing CCT Guideline 6: MNCs Should Apply and Use Strategies Based on the Science Designing CCT Programs Guideline 7: Scenario-Based Training Should Be Implemented
  39. 39. Guideline (B) : Delivery Guideline 8: Training Delivery Should Correspond to the Dynamic Adjustment Process Guideline 9: The Difficulties Surrounding Repatriation Should Be Addressed Guideline 10: Multiple Media Strategies Should Be Used to Deliver CCT
  40. 40. Guideline (C) : Evaluation Guideline 11: Organizations Must Establish Success Criteria for CCT Programs Guideline 12: Organizations Must Evaluate Whether the Learning from CCT has Transferred to the Job Guideline 13: Organizations Must Assess Whether the Investment in CCT Yields Positive Organizational Outcomes
  41. 41. Current and Further Research of CCT Current Status ✓ There is a surge in the amount of research devoted to cross- cultural training within these years. ✓ However: ➡ Lack of synthesis in the area of CCT research. ➡ Recommendations are often limited because of addressing only one facet of CCT. ➡ Empirical researches are not ➡ abundant. Implications for Future Research ➡ Multicultural Team Training ➡ Adaptability ➡ Culture and Personality: individual differences
  42. 42. Cross-­‐Cultural  Awareness  Training 13 International Project References in the Research Areas of Culture Diversity,Talent Development,and Strategic Change 14  years  in  Germany Born  and  grew  up   in  Indonesia 8  years  in  China • Building Global Competence for Asian Leaders • Applying Social Medias (Web 2.0) in Learning & Development. • International Employability:Development of Intercultural Competence of German and Chinese Young Professionals. • Cross-Cultural Learning Behavior: Effectiveness of the Western Technology Transfer and Learning Approaches in China. • Comparative Studies of Chinese-Indonesian Intercultural Competence and Sensitivity. • Dynamic Decision Making in Chinese and Multinational Teams. • Intercultural Perspectives of International Post-Merger Integration in Europe. • Intercultural Synergy in Professional Team. • Complex Problem Solving in Small Groups. • ...
  43. 43. Thank  You Contact us via … Mail: hora_t@mac.com Follow: twitter@htjitra Website: http://horatjitra.com Zhejiang  University,  Hangzhou  (China) Based on: LISA N. LITTRELL, EDUARDO SALAS: A Review of Cross-Cultural Training: Best Practices, Guidelines, and Research Needs. Human Resource Development Review, 4(3), 2005. p305-334

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