Be Global - 5th APIO | Mercu Buana University 20131005


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Material presented by Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra, Executive Director of Tjitra & associates ( and also Associate Professor for Applied Psychology at Zhejiang University, China, during the 5th APIO Conference in Jakarta (October 5th, 2013)

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Be Global - 5th APIO | Mercu Buana University 20131005

  1. 1. Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra Be Global Cakrawala Indonesia Baru di Era Globalisasi Jakarta,  October  5th  2013
  2. 2. Agenda 2 The New Frontiers of Global Indonesians Intercultural Competence and Sensitivity across Cultures Business Case - Indonesian Business Leaders abroad Be Global - Lessons Learned from Global Indonesian
  4. 4. 4 The Investment Coordinating Board of the Republic of Indonesia 4 The Investment Coordinating Board of the Republic of Indonesia the World embrace Indonesia economic performance From 21th (2007) to 9th (2012) in the A.T.Kearney FDI Confidence
  5. 5. World economics reports predict positive future for Indonesia in the new global economy ... Indonesia’s economy has enormous promise. It has been and still growing rapidly, from the currently 16th largest economy of the world, it is predicted to reach the seventh biggest in 2030. 2012,McKinsey Global Institute: The archipelago economy Unleashing Indonesia’s potential. Indonesia: Darling for Business Investments Indonesia’s economy will likely break into the top 15 in the world in the next decade or so.The nation’s economic expansion is largely driven by domestic consumption rather than export-led growth, so it is less dependent on increasingly unpredictable global economic forces. 2013,Boston Consulting Group Report:Growing Pains,Lasting Advantage:Tackling Indonesia’s Talent Challenges. Between 2004-2012, there have been obvious indications of progress… Our high GDP growth has been a great achievement.The GDP figures show that all of Indonesia’economic sectors are growing. Indonesia FinanceToday:Indonesia’s economic review 2004-2012. 5
  6. 6. 6 The talent crisis… ACUTE SHORTAGE OF TALENTS: Only 22 % of school-aged population are in schools Only a small minority of Indonesia’s graduates from more than 1000 higher educations 40% shortfall of engineers in 2013 (by 2025 will be 70%) Exhibit 2,2013 BCG Report
  7. 7. ... higher need of International Exposure for the Indonesian Leaders & Professionals FTA FDI Go-Out 7
  9. 9. 9 “To  be  effective  in  another  culture,  people  must  be  interested  in  other  cultures,  be  sensitive  enough  to  notice  cultural   differences,  and  then  also  be  willing  to  modify  their  behavior  as  an  indication  of  respect  for  the  people  of  other  cultures  ”   (Bhawuk and Brislin, 1992) Intercultural Competence Technical knowledge & skill Motivation Stress tolerance Respect for differences Harmony preservation Self Control Awareness of communication symbols Language skill Verbal & non verbal expression Attribution process of information Cultural empathy Intercultural Sensitivity Intercultural Communication Competence Intercultural Competence and Sensitivity
  10. 10. Study and Join Activities Abroad The influence of intercultural exposure to IS is somehow ambiguous. Exposing to different is not necessarily improve IS level. Researches show that study abroad does not benefit all students equally (Fuller,2007) Without the structure of a service program to support their processes of construing meaning from their experiences of difference,they actually became more entrenched in the Denial/Defense stage (Westrick,2004). The program may have different affect on different IS aspects (Altshuler et al,2003). Mentoring system is perceived crucial for improving IS (Koskinen & Tossavainen, 2004). Events such as celebration can extended students’ethnorelative views on Avoidance and Acceptance (Klak,2003). Short-term,non-language-based study abroad programs can also have a positive impact on intercultural sensitivity (Anderson et al.,2006). Influences of Intercultural Exposures to IS 10
  11. 11. Is Cross-Culture Adaptation a Universal Value? Andere Länder, andere Sitten. Allá donde fueres, haz lo que vieres. À Rome, fais comme les Romains. 郷に入っては郷に従う. Lain ladang lain belalang, lain lubuk lain ikannya. 入乡随俗 TOLERANCE? DIFFERENCES HARMONIZATION? HEIGHTENED SENSITIVITY? 11 入乡随俗
  12. 12. Indonesia: Ultimate in Diversity 12 ✴ Indonesia has around 300 ethnic groups, each with cultural identities developed over centuries,and influenced by Indian,Arabic,Chinese and European sources significantly. ✴ The main ethnic group is the Javanese, who comprise 42% of the population, and are politically and culturally dominant. ✴ A sense of Indonesian nationhood exists alongside strong regional identities. Society is largely harmonious, although social, religious and ethnic tensions have triggered horrendous violence. ✴ The country has extensive natural resources, including crude oil, natural gas, tin, copper and gold,which attracts more and more foreign investment in recent years. Republic of Indonesia Republik Indonesia Flag National emblem Motto: "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" (Old Javanese) "Unity in Diversity" National ideology: Pancasila[1][2] Anthem: Indonesia Raya Capital and largest city Jakarta 6°10.5!S 106°49.7!E Official languages Indonesian Demonym Indonesian Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic - President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono - Vice President Boediono Legislature People's Consultative Assembly - Upper house Regional Representative Council - Lower house People's Representative Council iːziə/ ia e in ago passes the ublic and ntry mor, and pore, of the g 6th de nd then lers tical uddhist uenced lim ean o ng the es of e after ulent, , rapid c and ant – ersity, on, and nesia's versity" at ensely Independence from the Netherlands - Declared 17 August 1945 - Acknowledged 27 December 1949 Area - Land 1,904,569 km2 (15th) 735,358 sq mi - Water (%) 4.85 Population - 2011 census 237,424,363[3] (4th) - Density 124.66/km2 (84th) 322.87/sq mi GDP (PPP) 2013 estimate - Total $1.314 trillion[3] (15th) - Per capita $5,302[3] (117th) GDP (nominal) 2013 estimate - Total $946.391 billion[3] (16th) - Per capita $3,816[3] (105th) Gini (2010) 35.6[4] medium HDI (2012) 0.629[5] medium · 121st Currency Rupiah (Rp) (IDR) Time zone various (UTC+7 to +9) Drives on the left Calling code +62 ISO 3166 code ID Internet TLD .id populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the world's second highest level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources, yet poverty remains widespread.[7][8] Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 3 Government and politics 4 Foreign relations and military 5 Administrative divisions 6 Geography 7 Biota and environment 8 Economy 9 Demographics 10 Culture 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links Etymology Further information: Names of Indonesia The name Indonesia derives from the Latin and Greek Indus, and the Greek nèsos, meaning "island".[9] The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia.[10] In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians — and, his preference, Malayunesians — for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago".[11] In the same publication, a student of Earl's, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago.[12][13] However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. Instead, they used the terms Malay Archipelago (Maleische Archipel); the Netherlands East Indies (Nederlandsch Oost Indië), popularly Indië; the East (de Oost); and Insulinde.[14] After 1900, the name Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, and Indonesian nationalist groups adopted it for political expression.[14] Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularized the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894. The first Indonesian scholar to use the name was Suwardi Suryaningrat (Ki Hajar Dewantara), when he established a [10] • Indonesia is a very diverse country, including more than 350 ethnic groups, and 650 languages. • There are 6 religions:Catholic; Christian; Islam; Buddhism; Hinduism and Konfuzianism. • Different Norms, Values and Behaviors. People in East Java are more dynamic than in Central Java. They speak faster, louder and more direct. East javanese dance is very fast with dynamic movement. • Different ethnic groups live side by side (Minang and Batak), however they are based on different Family Lineage:matriarchat vs.Patriarchat. • Indonesia is a collectivist culture with high Power Distance; very strong influenced by Islamic values. • The Indonesian self is interdependent (good relationship with other people); western children develop independent Self (personal achievement).
  13. 13. The principals of differences The either-or principals The as-well-as principals The neither-nor principals
  14. 14. 14 Imitating (specific Chinese factor) • Imitate • Act similar Following • Follow others’ principles Adapting • Adapt to ways of communication • Adapt to foreign food • Adapt the working style Maximizing (specific Chinese factor) • Find common points • Minimize differences Harmonizing Differences - Chinese ICS -
  15. 15. Indonesian and Chinese Intercultural Sensitivity INDONESIAN IS (PANGGABEAN, 2005) Multiculturality Active  Sensitivity Group  Harmony Initial  Cautiousness Conflict  Avoidance Differences Harmonization & Ethno Identification Cultural Comprehension Relationship Optimization (host friendliness,relationship nourishment) Rel.Optimization (rel.assess.) & Diff.Harm (conflict avo.& imitate) Differences Harmonization (conflict avoidance) IS Dimensions Implicit  communication Musyawarah  Mufakat No  comparable  dimension No comparable dimension No comparable dimension Change accomodation Comparable Uncomparable CHINESE IS (TJITRA & DENG, 2006) 15
  17. 17. 17 Source: Tjitra & Zeutschel, 1998 “Knowing,   what  makes  the  world  go  ‘round” “Zu  wissen,  was  die  Welt  im   Innersten  Zusammenhält”
  18. 18. (world-wide famous) Hardworking Chinese ETHNOCENTRISM “Everybody  is  hardworking.” Indonesians Singaporeans When  Chinese  come  to  work  in  Indonesia: “Indonesians  are  not  hardworking.   They  are  so  relaxed!” When  Indonesians  go  to  work  in  China: “Chinese  are  really  hardworking! (and  Indonesians  are  at  normal  level)” When  Singaporeans  go  to  work  in  China: “Chinese  are  really  hardworking! (and  Singaporeans  are  at  normal  level)” When  Singaporeans  come  to  work  in  Indonesia: -­‐  “Are  Indonesians  hardworking  or  relaxed?” 18 Ethnocentrism and Culture Relativism
  19. 19. ❖ Achievement Driven ❖ Professionalism ❖ Facilitative Leadership Singaporean Expatriates in Indonesia Chinese Expatriates in Indonesia ❖ Strong Drive ❖ Personal Advancement ❖ Systematic Improvement ❖ Country Brand ❖ Internationalism ❖ Master of Planning Singaporean Expatriates in China ❖ Exposure to Diversity ❖ Warm and Personable ❖ Integrator Indonesian Expatriates in China Whoyou are depends on WhereYou Are! 19
  21. 21. 21 INTERNATIONAL EXPOSURE AS CAREER COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE Only limited number of Indonesians have the chance for overseas study (no definite numbers,yet estimated less than 1% of the population) - Kemendikbud’s Data (2011) : 84.051 with scholarship MNCs (multinational company) is mentioned to be one of important experience for Indonesian professionals. For the Global Indonesians, our hypothesis is that MNCs act as a good training center. Population : 45 biggest company based on LQ45 (stock market index for the Indonesia Stock Exchange) Sample : 41 companies, 217 professionals from the position of President Directors and Directors Background Population & Sample Gender : ‣ Man:92,2 % ‣ Women: 7,8 % Education : ‣ Education abroad: 52,1 % ‣ No education abroad: 41,9 % ‣ Unidentified: 6 % Working experiences : ‣ True loyalist (spend almost entire career in the same company / group):52,1 % ‣ Nationalist (spend entire career in various local group / companies):29 % ‣ International Professional (spend careers in MNCs and local companies):18,9 % Summary of Result
  22. 22. 22 PERCEIVED BARRIERS PERCEIVED STRENGTHS Work  Ethics Interpersonal  Relationship Communication  &  Language Exposure  to  Diversity Technical  Competence Facilitating  Leadership Global Indonesian: challenges VS potentials
  23. 23. Lessons Learned - Implication for Global Indonesian 23 International  Assignment  in   Early  Career Technical Competence Passion to Learn Self - confidence Exposure  to   Diverse  Experiences   Early  Intensive  Experiences   on  Intercultural  Learning Critical Experiences Important Traits
  24. 24. Possible Organizational Intervention 24 Transforming the intra-cultural sensitivity into intercultural sensitivity Foreign colleagues and boss in home country International Project / Virtual Teams Intensive Working and Living abroad Leading another cultures Getting Familiar with International Business Experiences Building   Self-­‐Confidence  & Developing   Asser8veness Crea8ng   (Inter-­‐)  Na8onal   Talent  Pool ✴ Selec8on ✴ Support ✴ Coaching ✴ Training ✴ Networking
  25. 25. COMING SOON !! Our LATEST books on Global Talent .... based on 18 years intensive research of Global Indonesian
  26. 26. THANK YOU ! Contact us via … @htjitra hora tjitra Global Indonesian Network Global Indonesian Network