Urban IPM Webinar Presentation

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Urban IPM Webinar Presentation

  1. 1. Ant Management WEBINARFudd Graham, Janet Hurley, Dan Suiter, Karen Vail, Mike Merchant eXtension USDA/NIFA Auburn University, Texas A&M University, University of Georgia, University of Tennessee, Texas AgriLife Extension
  2. 2. Ant ManagementManaging Problems with Pharaoh AntsDr. Michael Merchant,Texas AgriLife Extension ServiceProfessor and Extension Urban Entomologistm-merchant@tamu.edu
  3. 3. IDENTIFYING ANTS Sometimes confused with other insects Pinched waist One or two pedicels (nodes) between thorax and abdomen Elbow joint in the antennae (except in some males)
  4. 4. MICROSCOPE OR HAND LENS?  Hand lens OK for most pest ants
  5. 5. BASIC ANT ANATOMY Thorax Petiole (nodes) { Gaster {
  6. 6. BASIC ANT ANATOMY Petiole (nodes)
  7. 7. PETIOLE SHAPE AND NUMBER Number of nodes used in identification 60X magnification
  8. 8. PETIOLE (SINGLE, POINTED) Single node with peak 60X magnification
  9. 9. POLYMORPHISM When ant workers of the same species vary in size and shape  Majors and minors minor workers major workers female reproductive
  10. 10. OTHER CHARACTERS USED TOIDENTIFY ANTS Nesting sites Mound construction/ appearance Foraging behavior Defensive behavior
  11. 11. RECOGNIZING REPRODUCTIVE ANTS Elbowed antennae Un-equal length wings Pinched waist
  12. 12. PHARAOH ANTS Queen Worker Pharaoh ants
  13. 13. CHALLENGES OF PHARAOH ANT CONTROL• Tramp species • Polygyne, synanthropic, easily transported• Rapid development time • 22-48 days (egg-adult)• Reproductive strategy • Nest division, rapid spread to new sites, not fussy about nesting sites (indoors and outdoors)• Difficult to control • Baits, sprays
  14. 14. NESTING SITES Indoors  Walls  Cardboard boxes  Drawers  Storage areas  Follow electrical lines Indoor colonies frequently forage outside in warm season
  15. 15. BAITS Use baits tested against Pharaoh ants such as  Advion Ant Bait Arenas  Maxforce Ant Bait Stations  (Sugar-based baits) Place where ants active but unreachable by children Avoid use of cleaning chemicals or insecticides around stations Store baits away from chemicals Handle with clean hands
  16. 16. look along structural guidelines
  17. 17. TIPS FOR BAITING Warmer times of year – bait outdoors Outdoors : monitor window sills, entrances and exits, water spigots, ac/heat units, attic vents, etc.
  18. 18. RESIDUAL INSECTICIDES Avoid fast-acting sprays Photo by Alex Wild  Permethrin  Cyfluthrin  Deltamethrin  Bifenthrin Slow-acting, non-repellent sprays OK  Chlorfenapyr (Phantom) indoors  Fipronil (Termidor) outdoors
  19. 19. Ant ManagementCarpenter Ants: Biology and BaitingDr. Dan Suiter,University of GeorgiaDepartment of EntomologyUniversity of Georgia Griffin Campus1109 Experiment StreetGriffin, GA 30223-1797
  20. 20. CARPENTER ANTS Nest in Knots in Hardwood Trees
  21. 21. CARPENTER ANTS CONSTRUCTPERMANENT TRAILS
  22. 22. CARPENTER ANTS CONSTRUCTPERMANENT TRAILS
  23. 23. CARPENTER ANTS FOLLOWSTRUCTURAL GUIDELINES
  24. 24. CARPENTER ANTSARE ACTIVE AT NIGHT
  25. 25. Number of Ants 100 200 300 400 500 0 3:00 6:00 9:00 AntsMidnight 3:00 6:00 9:00 Light Noon 3:00Time of Day 6:00 9:00Midnight 3:00 6:00 CARPENTER ANTS FORAGE MAINLY AT NIGHT 9:00 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 Light (lumens/sqft)
  26. 26. CARPENTER ANTS ARE SOMETIMES ACTIVEDURING DAYLIGHT HOURS 500 500 July 5thAnts counted per hour 400 July 2nd 300 200 100 0 3:00 6:00 9:00 Noon 3:00 6:00 a.m. a.m. a.m. p.m. p.m. Time
  27. 27. CARPENTER ANTS ARE BEST CONTROLLED WITHBAITS
  28. 28. BAIT CARPENTER ANT NEST SITES Deliver Granular & Gel Baits from Piles Ants foraging indoors Hardwood from a nest in a tree outside Tree Permanent Trail Nest in Tree
  29. 29. OPTIGARD CARPENTER ANT BAIT GEL(0.01% THIAMETHOXAM)
  30. 30. ADVION ANT BAIT GEL(0.05% INDOXACARB)
  31. 31. ADVANCE GRANULAR CARPENTER ANT BAIT(0.011% ABAMECTIN B1)
  32. 32. MAXFORCE CARPENTER ANT BAIT GEL (0.001%FIPRONIL)MAXFORCE CARPENTER ANT BAIT GEL(0.001% FIPRONIL)
  33. 33. MAXFORCE CARPENTER ANT BAIT GEL(0.001% FIPRONIL)
  34. 34. MAXFORCE CARPENTER ANT BAIT GEL(0.001% FIPRONIL)
  35. 35. MAXFORCE CARPENTER ANT BAIT GEL(0.001% FIPRONIL)
  36. 36. MAXFORCE CARPENTER ANT BAIT GEL (0.001%FIPRONIL)
  37. 37. THE KEY TO CARPENTER ANT CONTROLThe Key to Carpenter Ant Control isto Find and Remove the ColonyGiven The Quality of Today’sCarpenter Ant Baits… …Think Elimination!
  38. 38. Ant ManagementHow Can You Tell if You HaveOdorous House Ants?Karen M. Vail, Ph.DUniversity of TennesseeEntomology and Plant PathologyProfessorkvail@utk.edu
  39. 39. ANTS Ants are the number 1 urban pest in the United States generating an estimated $1.7 billion annually for pest management professionals (Curl 2005) in Field, Klotz, Rust and Kupfer (PCT [Ant Control] on Target 3/26/2007) Curl, G. 2005. A strategic analysis of the U.S. structural pest control industry – The 2005 season. A survey of Pest Management Professionals in the U.S., Gary Curl, Specialty Products Consultants.
  40. 40. WHY HAVE ANTS BECOME SUCH ADOMINANT PEST? Structures placed in ants’ habitat Society less tolerant Some tramp species more difficult to control Others? (Cooper 2004, PCT Ant Summit)
  41. 41. EXPLORING AMERICAS #1 NUISANCE PEST 2011 NATIONALNPMA SURVEY RESULTS BY DR. LAUREL HANSEN, JIM FREDERICKS, AND MISSYHENRIKSEN http://www.pestworld.org/news-and-views/pest-articles/articles/ant-survey-executive-summary/
  42. 42. EXPLORING AMERICAS #1 NUISANCE PEST 2011 NATIONALNPMA SURVEY RESULTS BY DR. LAUREL HANSEN, JIM FREDERICKS, AND MISSYHENRIKSEN Ants on the Rise  54% PMPs claim ant infestations on rise  57% have seen more infestations of odorous house ants  No other species mentioned nearly as often, suggests OHA main cause of the growing problem
  43. 43. OHA FOUND COAST TO COAST ANDSEA LEVEL TO MOUNTAINS OHA hot spots
  44. 44. ODOROUS HOUSE ANTTAPINOMA SESSILE Small, 1/8 inch, dark brown ant One-segmented waist, lacks bump Slit-like opening Smells of rotten coconut when crushed Monomorphic
  45. 45. 5 dorsal segments Technomyrmex difficilis, difficult ant, formerly known as the white-footed ant Tapinoma sessile, Odorous house ant 4 dorsal segments
  46. 46. Bump on waist Linepithema humile, Argentine ant Tapinoma sessile, Odorous house antTapinoma sessile,Odorous house ant
  47. 47. 2 seg-waist Tetramorium caespitum, Pavement ant Tapinoma sessile, Odorous house ant 4 dorsal segments
  48. 48. 2 seg-waist Crematogaster sp., Acrobat ant Tapinoma sessile, Odorous house ant 4 dorsal segments
  49. 49. 2 seg-waist Pheidole sp., Big-headed ant Tapinoma sessile, Odorous house ant 4 dorsal segments
  50. 50.  Nylanderia sp., Crazy ants Circular opening at end of abdomen Tapinoma sessile, Odorous house ant 4 dorsal segments
  51. 51. OHA WORKER AND QUEENS
  52. 52. NESTING SITES
  53. 53. NESTING SITES
  54. 54. NESTING SITES
  55. 55. NESTS UNDER OUTDOOR GARBAGE CAN
  56. 56. NESTING SITES
  57. 57. NESTING SITES
  58. 58. NESTING SITES
  59. 59. NEST MOVEMENT/SITE SELECTION Workers move brood to shaded nest sites after disturbance. Over time, workers will move and brood will be moved to areas of higher moisture. Workers will move and relocate brood closer to food over 1m and 6m distances.
  60. 60. OHA ACTIVITY NEAR STRUCTURES OHA abundance is higher within 10 ft of structures OHA found near leaf litter along with presence of logs, boards, and/or landscape timbers
  61. 61. TACTILE CUES Guidelines  Ridges  Edges  Grooves
  62. 62. NESTING SITES Indoors  Kitchen and bathrooms  Walls  Cabinets  Drawers  Under sinks, toilets, etc.  Near garbage (bathrooms, classrooms, kitchens)  Storage areas  Follow pipes/electrical lines/other lines Mainly outdoor colonies, but may forage and nest indoors
  63. 63. INDOOR OHA FED RED OR BLUE SUGAR WATER.
  64. 64. OUTDOOR OHA DYE DETERMINATION AT HOURLYINTERVALS.
  65. 65. AFTER 2 HOURS, DYED ANTS WERE FOUNDOUTDOORS.
  66. 66. WHY DO PESTS ENTER?
  67. 67. MANAGEMENT1. Identify (and collection)2. Correct conducive conditions indoors and outdoors through Sanitation & Pest Proofing (remove access to food [including honeydew producers], water and shelter [nest sites])3. Monitor, inspect and locate nests4. Bait areas of activity5. Treat nests6. Treat perimeter, entry ways and areas of activity7. Combine above
  68. 68. SANITATION/CULTURAL CONTROL Clean spills promptly Store food properly Remove waste reg. Clean waste cans Place dumpsters/cans away from school Fix leaks quickly Wipe trails with cleaner Trim vegetation Move mulch away Replace landscape timbers Remove debris that retains moisture Seal entry points
  69. 69. CHEMICAL CONTROL Baits  Cracks and crevices where ants active  Sweet or protein baits (NOT oil for OHA)  Reduce food competition with bait  Do not apply fast-acting sprays near baits  Do not disturb ants foraging to baits
  70. 70. GEL BAITS IN CRACKS AND CREVICES
  71. 71. GEL BAITS IN CRACKS AND CREVICES Rebait after 4 wk reading using the Ant & Roach Buffet Station
  72. 72. TERMIDOR OUTSIDE AND PHANTOM INSIDE Bradshaw Interior Treatment NPD sprayer provided by Raymond Meyers RJMContracting.com Indoor applications made by Kyle Lundy
  73. 73. INTERIOR PYRETHROID TREATMENT ONLY OF SPRAYAND DUST C & C NOT VERY EFFECTIVE AGAINSTOHA
  74. 74. MANAGEMENT1. Identify (and collection)2. Correct conducive conditions indoors and outdoors through Sanitation & Pest Proofing (remove access to food [including honeydew producers], water and shelter [nest sites])3. Monitor, inspect and locate nests4. Bait areas of activity5. Treat nests6. Treat perimeter, entry ways and areas of activity7. Combine above
  75. 75. IDENTIFICATION RESOURCES Ant Web  http://www.antweb.org/ Ants (Formicidae) of the Southeastern US Website  http://mississippientomologi calmuseum.org.msstate.ed u//Researchtaxapages/For micidaehome.html eXtension.org and local Extension sources
  76. 76. ANT ID & MANAGEMENT RESOURCESEXTENSION AGENTS/SPECIALISTS Distance Diagnostics
  77. 77. ANT ID & MANAGEMENT RESOURCES PestIdentification Guide for Pests In and Around Structure $12.00  http://www.lsuagcenter.com/en /environment/insects/structural /Pesticide-Identification-Guide- for-Pests-In-and-Around- Buildings.htm PCT Field Guide $12.95  www.pctonline.com
  78. 78. ANT ID & MANAGEMENT RESOURCES
  79. 79. SCHOOL IPM ACTION PLAN FOR TRAMP ANTS http://www.extension.org/pa ges/20993/school-ipm- action-plan-for-tramp-ants
  80. 80. Ant ManagementWhere you can find Urban IPMPest Management in and Around Structureskimtag.com/urbanipm

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