Building Social Movements With Brands

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¿Cómo construir un "movimiento social" con marcas en la nueva era de la comunicación digital? ¿Cómo hacer que una plataforma de participación sea más que redes sociales? …

¿Cómo construir un "movimiento social" con marcas en la nueva era de la comunicación digital? ¿Cómo hacer que una plataforma de participación sea más que redes sociales?

Estudio de Social@Ogilvy del 2014 - "Building Social Movements With Brands"

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  • 1. John Bell, Tom Boland and Erin Carter March 2013 Building Social Movements for Brands An Analysis of Global Movements
  • 2. 2BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013 Table of Contents Executive Summary 3 Our Approach 6 Our Findings 7 Movement qualities that drive social actions 11 Profiles of Movements Obama ‘08 – Yes, We Can 15 Political Movement Obama ‘12 – It Begins With Us 16 Political Movement Romney ‘12– Believe in America 17 Social Movement Earth Hour 18 Social Movement It Gets Better 19 Social Movement Occupy Wall Street 20 Social Movement Tsunami Relief Fund 21 Brand Movement Amex Small Business Saturday 22 Brand Movement Nike Foundation, The Girl Effect 23 Brand Movement Pepsi Refresh 24 Appendix A: Top Ten Pages on Facebook, Twitter and YouTube 25
  • 3. 3BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013 Executive Summary D igital and social media have changed how causes and movements grow and accelerate. Building movements is hard work, and doing it well is an art and science practiced by NGOs, political candidates, and supporters of social causes. The collaboration and communication advantages of digital and social platforms have reduced the overall cost of organizing supporters, but not the complexity. Sharing via social networks, using content effectively, and managing relationships with individuals can affect elections, environmental movements, brand movements and more.   As more brands aspire to build movements around causes that intersect with the online community and their business, understanding the benchmarks of scale and success becomes key. Brands want big movements that drive people to action. But how big is big? The size of a movement matters. Most brands will be as concerned about overall reach of a program as the various types of engagement they can inspire in people. The actual size of membership, such as the number of subscribed fans of a Facebook page, for instance, determines the pool of people we can drive to save energy, support gay rights, adopt a more sustainable lifestyle, or some other action or behavior change. How does the number of people driven to action by the 2012 campaign to re-elect President Obama compare to a brand program like Pepsi Refresh Everything? How does the engagement level of a global social program like Earth Hour, that promotes energy-saving behaviors, compare with a brand program like Nike’s The Girl Effect? And how do the engagement levels of various movements compare to the most popular phenomena in social media, like Psy’s Gangnam Style, that drive more than a billion actions? As movements aspire to drive people to some type of action or behavior change, what does success look like? What do brands need to do differently? What lessons can we learn?
  • 4. 4BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013 What are social actions? Whether a political movement, a social movement or a brand movement, all are trying to do more than simply reach people. They need to drive action, whether as simple as sharing a Facebook post or retweeting a message, or as complex as changing energy- saving behavior. To compare movements, we looked at a variety of typical engagement metrics, from liking a Facebook page (“fanning” a page) to watching a video to following a Twitter handle. We consider each a “social action.” Most are triggers for additional advocacy. Facebook shares, for example, broadcast our action to our own friends and followers via our own personal page, and expand the reach of a program. The value of social actions are not all equal. Some stimulate more sharing or drive more time spent with content. Each is a discrete action, and we have grouped them into a single number to make comparing movements easier. Detail of social action types can be found in the Profiles of Movements section. How do different movements compare to each other? Entertainment Phenomena, Political, Social and Brand Movements, fall into a descending order of magnitude. Entertainment phenomena, like Justin Bieber and Gangnam Style, earn more than a billion social actions. Political campaigns, like the U.S. Presidential, race garner hundreds of millions of social actions. Social and Brand Movements fall below these levels, often earning between five to ten million social actions. Political campaigns rely on paid media to spark owned and earned media to a massive scale in a short period of time. Presidential elections have a singular purpose — to get a candidate elected by a fixed date. As such, they need to capture people’s attention and drive action in a concentrated period of time. Even the established movements with millions of members, like the 2012 campaign to re-elect President Obama, need to grow and update their existing member base, and increase the actions they are likely to take. Invariably, these campaigns rely on paid media to grow the member base fast and drive them to social actions in a short period of time.
  • 5. 5BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013 Social and Brand Movements can achieve a similar level of scale to each other, and do so more slowly, often over a few years. Nike’s The Girl Effect drove more than 8 million social actions in 2012, its sixth year of activity. Earth Hour after four years has expanded across global markets, and grown to more than 6 million actions — many focused at a signature moment in the year. Brand Movements that do not align and support current business goals are often discontinued before earning the full benefits of multi-year growth. Pepsi Refresh achieved 8 million-plus social actions in just two short years, fueled by an integrated, paid, owned and earned1 program to acquire supporters and drive action. Still, this program was either coincident or correlative to a period of a drop in product sales. While the program may have improved brand measures, few programs can maintain internal support when actual product sales or growth are hurting. 1 Owned media includes all of the content and platforms controlled by a brand or organization, such as websites and content, like videos. Earned media describes all of the community advocacy (e.g., sharing inside Facebook) as well as the non-paid stories run in professional and semi-professional media outlets. Paid media includes all forms of paid advertising. Large movements have at least four common characteristics. Enduring “truths” have emerged about what it takes to sustain large movements. These include singular, focused purpose; a genuine or authentic motivation; low barriers to entry; and a commitment to the people and resources to cultivate growth and action.
  • 6. 6BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013 Our Approach W e examined social actions across three types of movements, and compared these to a fourth category of the most popular entertainment phenomena. ƒƒ Political movements included US Presidential elections, as well as emergent phenomena, like the Arab Spring. ƒƒ Social Movements included advocacy and behavior change efforts around social causes. ƒƒ Brand Movements included focused efforts from major brands to drive action around a social cause aligned with the brand. ƒƒ Entertainment phenomena captured the artists and media with the absolute highest level of social actions. For the sake of this analysis, we have assumed that all social actions are weighted equally. Understandably, how one social action is weighted may depend on the category, timing, and other factors. For example, liking a Facebook page may carry less weight than sharing and commenting on a post; viewing a video may be a more passive social action than retweeting a brand’s tweet. We primarily looked at activity across the threemajor social networksmost often used by these movements- Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. We reviewed 10 different movements from across the globe, looking for those that were developed for political campaigns, social causes, or brands. These 10 were culled from a list of 30 movements overall. We analyzed each category, looking at total social actions, as noted above, as well as the duration of the program: was it in its infancy, or had it been in existence for a few years? The objective was to reveal strengths and weaknesses of different movements, especially those designed to contribute to driving sustained behavior change. For a deeper understanding of individual movements’ strengths and weaknesses, a ranking and analysis of each political, brand and social movement we explored can be found in the final section.
  • 7. 7BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013 Our Findings Entertainment rules…by a lot! Across all platforms, players in the entertainment category quickly emerge as the most popular. Psy (Gangnam Style), who took over the top spot on YouTube in less than a year, had been viewed more than one billion times by year’s end. Those who reign on Twitter and Facebook are not the same as the leaders on YouTube, but nearly all those who lead in these social networks are in the entertainment industry. Few brands, and even fewer non-entertainment individuals rise to the very top on these networks. Notably, no causes or movements seeking behavior change were at the top. For a full list of the top pages on Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube, see Appendix A. Political movements in the US are becoming more effective in the use of “integrated” social media. Measured by social actions, President Obama’s recent re-election campaign achieved almost three times the impact ofhis 2008 campaign. Compared to his opponent, Governor Mitt Romney, who had an impressive social media footprint, President Obama clearly led in social actions. In October 2012, the New York Times reported social actions of nearly 50mm for President Obama, and only 9mm for Governor Romney. Political election movements can get bigquickly, fueled by a mix of integrated marketing and very sophisticated message targeting driven by data insights. These campaigns were not merely social. They represent integrated programs that combine owned, earned and paid media, for maximum impact. At their heart is a sophisticated approach to email-driven CRM, combined both with paid advertising and action-oriented programs in social media. The 2012 campaign to re-elect the President of the United States put more emphasis on mobile fundraising to match changes in user behaviors. The campaign also achieved greater results with lower ad spend. This was due to at least four factors. The Obama campaign had an established base of followers on social Political Movement Comparison Total Social Actions in One Year Obama ‘12 Obama ‘08 Romney ‘12 400,000,000 300,000,000 200,000,000 100,000,000 50,000,000 0
  • 8. 8BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013 networks from the previous election cycle. These users had four years of growth in their own reliance on social networks. Meanwhile, the campaign developed increasingly more sophisticated CRM practices,as well as data- driven targeting. Political movements generate an amazing amount of social actions over a short period of time. They are designed to educate and influence an audience to accomplish three specific short-term goals: drive advocacy, encourage fundraising, and generate votes. They rely on advertising dollars online and offline to “jumpstart” election programs. By June 2012, the Obama re-election campaign spent $31mm in online advertising alone. This was four times what Mitt Romney’s campaign had spent, though both candidates spent between $400-492mm on total ad spend in the course of a year. After the election, though, the activity and engagement with those who participate in the movement nearly stops completely. International, non-election, political movements work differently. They are smaller, and the dollars available are often insignificant in comparison to what is spent on election- based political movements. Many also lack the organization of election-based movements. For example, the Egyptian movement We Are All Khaled Said, which expressed outrage over Khaled Said’s death at the hands of Egyptian police, lacks the scale for a true comparison, with only 293,000 Facebook fans. The Anti- Japan Sentiment in China, although growing in news coverage, is not a cohesive, mobilized movement that supporters could join, never mind be driven to common actions. Comparison of Social vs Brand Movements Total Social Actions Social Brand Years 8,000,000 7,000,000 6,000,000 5,000,000 4,000,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 It Gets Better Tsunami Occupy Wall Street Pepsi Refresh Earth Hour Nike The Girl Effect Amex Small Business
  • 9. 9BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013 Social and Brand movements achieve similar levels of scale. Social and brand movements designed to sustain action over several years are often smaller than the compressed efforts of an election campaign. Election movements have a simple, singular call-to-action, whose relevance is broadly clear to a community. They also have large advertising budgets and sophisticated social CRM techniques. Even while some brand movements, like Pepsi Refresh or American Express Small Business Saturday, may support their efforts through some paid media budget, these are dwarfed by the money spent during an election cycle. Social and Brand movements often rely on sophisticated use of owned and earned media, with some “strategic” paid media. Social movements perform well when they have low barriers to entry and simple calls to action. The Girl Effect, which advocates rights for young women, and Earth Hour, which promotes energy conservation, have both been active for over four years. They enjoy large social footprints as the ideas have spread to different regions of the world. It Gets Better, a program which seeks to eliminate bullying of gay and lesbian youth, has also grown a significant social footprint, as it has expanded from North America to over 25 global markets. Earth Hour has grown across the world, driving a synchronized and simple activity among its followers. While it is relatively straightforward to tally up the social actions taken in a program like Earth Hour, or even to understand how many people turned their lights off during the actual “Earth Hour,” it is much harder to evaluate whether the program causes, or correlates to sustained behavior change. Are people participating in the social and symbolic actions of Earth Hour actually changing the way they live every day to save energy? “Social actions” is a simple measure of how much engagement, and even digital advocacy, we may be driving. All movements have a more tangible behavior goal that must be tracked, as well. Conversely, Occupy Wall Street — a movement that received significant media attention and led to popular social memes — has receded. The call to action is not clear. The actual goals of the movement are confusing. People may be interested in the movement, but don’t know how to best participate. Indeed, Occupy Wall Street bills itself as a “leaderless resistance movement,” which could be part of the reason that interested parties are not entirely clear on how to effect change on any reasonable scale.
  • 10. 10BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013 Brand movements need to align with business success to be sustained. The best brand movements generate impressive social participation figures when they have low barriers to entry and a clear call to action. But if a movement does not support the business goals of a brand, few brands will stay committed, as is the case with the Pepsi Refresh Project. While it may have boosted brand reputation with 6.6mm social actions in support of the movement, it did not translate into a sales lift, and correlates to a period of overall sales decline. Pepsi reported that they “measured our results by the level of engagement between the brand and our consumers, social ROI [impact made] and brand-equity results. And, by these measures, we [were] more than satisfied.” However, it’s been argued that the cost of the program compared to the weakening sales and market share made it unsustainable in the long-term.2 American Express Small Business Saturday, on the other hand, has been in the market for two years. Consumers and merchants are supporting the program, which has translated to a 23% increase in small business revenue.3 Part of its success may be explained by the 2 http://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/186127/why-pepsi-canned- the-refresh-project.html 3 http://mashable.com/2012/03/22/american-express-small-business- saturday/ cause itself, which already had meaning for people before American Express embraced it. Rather than fabricating an issue or cause, American Express chose to champion one that people were already invested in and talking about. There are common characteristics to the best-performing movements. Between the high-performing, election-based political movements and the more modest social and brand movements, some qualities stand out as more critical keys to success: Social and Brand Political ƒƒ Low barrier to entry. ƒƒ Clear call to action. ƒƒ Measureable actions ƒƒ Addresses a personally or locally relevant cause. ƒƒ A strong CRM program connected to social. ƒƒ Owned, earned and paid media working together. ƒƒ Leverage big data to find and activate key opinion leaders (KOLs).
  • 11. 11BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013 Relevant Cause: Supporters generally need a strong cause to rally around and support. While it can be about a global or national issue, it must have some personal and/or local relevance. The beauty of Small Business Saturday in the United States is that everyone has a local business that they care about. Most causes have emotional as well as rational drivers —something participants are passionate about, and can “put their heart into.” Often, it is not connected to a brand or buying a product. When causes blatantly connect to selling a product, they can come across as being too “sales-y” or focused on making money, rather than promoting the cause. The Girl Effect, Earth Hour, Small Business Saturday and It Gets Better are all good examples of strong, relevant causes. Application of Behavioral Economics: For the sake of this paper, we will consider the broad discipline of driving people to action via behavioral insights as “behavioral economics.” From social proof to confirmation bias to letting people be creative and display their involvement, great movements know how to trigger action. Pepsi Refresh Everything invited people to vote to determine which non-profits would receive $20mm of funding. Participants became invested in the outcome, part of something bigger, and could show their involvement via Facebook. Most movements are keenly aware that emotional cues, rather than rational reasons, drive action and invest in strong storytelling to inspire action and belief. All of these are simple examples of the art and science of behavioral economics that explain why any of us would actively support a cause. Clear Call-to-Action and Low Barrier: Successful movements have a clear call to action and make it easy for people to participate. Removing barriers to participation and encouraging simple, everyday actions that are easy for people to do on a regular basis can help allow a movement to catch hold. Earth Hour is an example of a movement that had a low barrier to entry, asking participants to give up electricity for just one hour during the entire year. As noted previously, however, getting people to do something once a year may not result in a sustained habit. Movement qualities that drive social actions
  • 12. 12BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013 Measureable Actions: Not only do supporters need to know what goals they are working toward with the movement they have joined, but it is important for the organizers to be able to measure whether the movement has “moved the needle” in any significant way. The key performance indicators will vary, depending on the mission statement of the movement, and could be connected to product sales, social change, or political gain. Being able to track year-over-year results allows the movement’s organizers, supporters (and detractors) determine success. Four enduring lessons for movements: 1 Understand and be able to articulate the cause behind the movement and the actions required of participants. Without a clear vision, a movement cannot succeed (e.g., Occupy Wall Street). Additionally, it is vital that brands be clear on financial and brand reputation goals, and set appropriate metrics against which to measure the positive impact on business in addition to the community impact. 2 Some of the most successful movements are those that are perceived as genuine and organic. Trying to develop and define a movement connected to a product, or where the purchase of the product is key to the movement, may be perceived as inorganic and forced. Connecting directly to a product may not lead to sales growth, as was the case with Pepsi Refresh Project. (One of the things that helped make The Girl Effect successful is that the Nike brand is not readily evident as a sponsor; because the movement is unbranded, it has a scope and vision much larger than athletic gear.) 3 Given the demands on consumers’ time and attention, the more a brand or movement can limit barriers to entry, the more likely it is that participants will join. Complicated requirements for support can be a hindrance to participation and/ or duration of a movement. Simple actions and simple messages work best. The artful management and targeting of simple messages and actions in the campaign to re-elect President Obama was part of its success. 4 Be prepared to invest time, effort, and dollars to assist the movement’s growth. Part of the success of the Obama 2008 and 2012 campaigns came from the sheer volume of dollars and work effort involved from paid staffers and volunteers. Similarly, American Express has invested significant amounts of money in paid media and other resources to support their strategy and efforts for Small Business Saturday. While some movements are successful and “go viral” with little financial investment, this is rare. The biggest brand movements require financial support, allowing them to grow on a scale that unsupported movements cannot.
  • 13. 13BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013 Movements Rankings Social Movements Total Social Actions Facebook Fans Twitter Followers YouTube Views YouTube Subscribers Google+ Followers 1 Obama ‘12 It Begins With Us 350.6mm 33mm 28mm 287mm 284k 2.4mm 2 Obama ‘08 Yes, We Can 123.5mm 3.2mm 109k 120mm 150k 0 3 Romney ‘12 Believe in America 44mm 7.9mm 1.23mm 34mm 32mm 882k 4 Pepsi Refresh 6.7mm 4.0mm 65k 2.6mm 2k 0 5 Earth Hour 6.3mm 768k 81k 5.4mm 72k 8k 6 AMEX Small Biz Saturday 5.0mm 3.2mm 16k 1.8mm 0k 0 7 Nike Girl Effect 4.4mm 306k 36k 4mm 4k 0 8 It Gets Better 4.1mm 287k 77k 3.8mm 46k 642 9 Tsunami Relief Project 773k 38k 50.5k 682k 302 3,364 10 Occupy Wall Street 585k 411k 172k 0 0 2,732
  • 14. 14BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013 Sub-Category Rankings Political Movements Total Social Actions Facebook Fans Twitter Followers YouTube Views YouTube Subscribers Google+ Followers 1 Obama ‘12 It Begins With Us 350.6mm 33mm 28mm 287mm 284k 2.4mm 2 Obama ‘08 Yes, We Can * 123.5mm 3.2mm 109k 120mm 150k 0 3 Romney ‘12 Believe in America 44mm 7.9mm 1.23mm 34mm 32mm 882k * no official Google+ channel Social Movements Total Social Actions Facebook Fans Twitter Followers YouTube Views YouTube Subscribers Google+ Followers 1 Earth Hour 6.3mm 768k 81k 5.4mm 72k 8k 2 It Gets Better 4.1mm 287k 77k 3.8mm 46k 642 3 Tsunami Relief Project 773k 38k 50.5k 682k 302 3,364 4 Occupy Wall Street* 585k 411k 172k 0 0 2,732 * no official YouTube channel Brand Movements Total Social Actions Facebook Fans Twitter Followers YouTube Views YouTube Subscribers Google+ Followers 1 Pepsi Refresh 6.7mm 4.0mm 65k 2.6mm 2k 0 2 AMEX Small Biz Saturday 5.0mm 3.2mm 16k 1.8mm 0k 0 3 Nike Girl Effect 4.4mm 306k 36k 4mm 4k 0 *Facebook page and Twitter page are no longer live Data reflects a snapshot in time, as of Tuesday, 11/27/12
  • 15. 15BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013 Profiles of Movements Obama ‘08 – Yes We Can Description The “Yes We Can” movement became nationally recognized in the United States during Barack Obama’s 2008 campaign for president. The message was powered by a massive media buy, including digital and social media, which helped harness the grassroots base and generated the largest voter turnout in US history. Call to Action The desired behavior of this movement was to identify and activate a new group of voters who would help fundraise, campaign, and vote for a leader who promised to bring real change. Obama’s campaign team introduced new forms of technology to fundraising that combined the traditional reach of old media with the targeting capabilities of digital/social media. Cause Elect Barack Obama to the Presidency in 2008. Target US Sustained Action Duration of 2008 election cycle Size 123.5mm social actions Key Engagement Platforms YouTube, Social Networks, Twitter, Email, Paid Media Spend and in- game advertising Strengths ƒƒ Barack Obama became the 44th president of the United States in an election that saw 130mm people vote, the most ever in a presidential election. (130mm?) ƒƒ The Pew Research Center determined the 2008 election was the most racially and ethnically diverse in US history, which reinforces how successful the Obama campaign was at attracting new voters. Weaknesses ƒƒ Detractors point to Obama’s $740mm media spend as a major driver of his election campaign. ƒƒ Bloomberg published Obama’s spending, which eclipsed the combined $646.7mm that Bush/Kerry spent four years earlier. SOURCES: http://mashable.com/2010/12/30/ad- agency-obama-campaign-purchase/ http://www.barackobama.com/ http://www.k-state.edu/ actr/2010/12/20/three-simple- words-a-rhetorical-analysis-of-the- slogan-_25e2_2580_259cyes-we- can_25e2_2580_259d-molly-mcguire/ default.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barack_ Obama_presidential_campaign,_2008 http://www.slideshare.net/mjmetekohy/ srmguruobama2008012 9sho rt212338595089952692-1950834 http://www.politico.com/news/ stories/1108/15306.html http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/ news?pid=newsarchive&sid=a erix76GvmRM
  • 16. 16BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013 Political Movement Obama ‘12 – It Begins With Us Description The “It Begins With Us” movement became nationally recognized in the United States during Barack Obama’s 2012 re- election campaign. Again, President Obama leveraged new media and big data to help target and connect with new voters. Through his message and innovative marketing strategy, Obama won his re-election by a margin of 50.35% to 48.13%. Call to Action The desired behavior of this movement was to identify and activate new groups of voters, to help fundraise, campaign, and vote for a leader who promised to keep moving the country forward. To do this, Obama’s campaign team introduced leveraged big data and cloud computing to improve his targeting capabilities. Cause Re-elect Barack Obama to the Presidency in 2012. Target US Sustained Action Duration of 2012 election cycle Size 350.6mm social actions Key Engagement Platforms Social Networks, Reddit, Tumblr, YouTube, Twitter, Email, Paid Media Strengths ƒƒ Barack Obama won a second term as President of the United States by leveraging big data and cloud computing to generate 2.2mm volunteers, the largest grassroots campaign in political history. ƒƒ To illustrate, the Economist reported on how President Obama spent the lion’s share of his funds on online advertising to develop “a huge network of volunteers, to proselytize on his behalf.” Weaknesses ƒƒ Some point to the fact that Obama had fouryears as president to gather support through social networks and other media outlets, whereas the Republican candidates were not afforded the same opportunity. SOURCES: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barack_ Obama_presidential_campaign,_2012 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f- VZLvVF1FQ http://www.barackobama.com/ http://adage.com/article/campaign- trail/romney-outspent-obama- advertise/238241/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barack_ Obama_on_social_media http://www.bluestatedigital.com/work/ case-studies/barack-obama http://www.economist.com/ node/21552590 www.linkedin.com/today/post/ article/20121009061552-33767-obama- vs-romney-in-social-media-who-s- using-it-best?
  • 17. 17BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013 Political Movement Romney ‘12– Believe in America Description The “Believe in America” movement became nationally recognized in the United States during Mitt Romney’s 2012 campaign for president. It was based on the theory that Romney’s experience in the financial sector could help address the economic situation the United States was facing, and put America back “on a course to greatness.” Call to Action The desired behavior of this movement was to encourage people to vote for Romney, who, if elected, promised to grow the economy, create jobs, and increase financial checks and balances in the federal government Cause Elect Mitt Romney to the Presidency in 2012. Target US Sustained Action Duration of 2012 election cycle Size 44 mm social actions Key Engagement Platforms Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, Television, Google+, email Strengths ƒƒ Utilized multiple social networks, from Facebook to Pinterest to Spotify, to capitalize on a range of audience segments and communication formats. ƒƒ Although he had lower follower numbers on Facebook, Romney made strategic Facebook ad buys so that his ads would appear next to terms such as “Obama” and “Democrat.” The result, according to one report, is that Romney gained Facebook followers at double the rate of Obama. Weaknesses ƒƒ As Forbes notes, although the campaign had access to a significant amount of data through social networking, it failed to utilize it in such a way that drove actions that would lead to a Romney win on election day. ƒƒ Romney was forced to spend much of his campaign prior to the nomination dealing with Republican opponents, and defending himself against detractors in his own party, which led to a split focus. SOURCES: http://www.nytimes.com/ interactive/2012/10/08/technology/ campaign-social-media.html http://campaignstops.blogs.nytimes. com/2012/11/15/social-and-anti-social- media/ http://www.forbes.com/sites/ markfidelman/2012/11/11/5-ways- romney-could-have-won-the-election- with-data-social-and-mobile/ http://adage.com/article/campaign-trail/ infographic-obama-romney-social- media/236798/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitt_ Romney_presidential_campaign,_2012 http://www.businessinsider.com/winner- of-the-obamaromney-social-media- campaign-2012-9?op=1 http://www.linkedin.com/today/post/ article/20121009061552-33767-obama- vs-romney-in-social-media-who-s- using-it-best
  • 18. 18BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013 Social Movement Earth Hour Description Earth Hour is a worldwide movement organized by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and held towards the end of March encouraging households and businesses to turn off their non-essential lights to raise awareness about the need to take action on climate change. Call to Action The goal of this movement is to reduce energy consumption. Every March 27th , WWF encourages supporters to shut down all their power (lights, heating, air conditioning, etc.) for exactly one hour (known as Earth Hour). Participants are encouraged to spread the word to their friends and family through social channels. Cause A small act by a large group of people can make a big difference. Using this principle, Earth Hour aims to show the world that by making small sacrifices, there can be some hope in reversing the effects of global warming. Target Global Sustained Action Once-a-year activation, that has taken place for the past four years Size 6.3mm social actions Key Engagement Platforms Facebook, Twitter, Website, Google+, YouTube and TV Strengths ƒƒ Supporters highlight Earth Hour’s global adoption by 150 countries, measureable impact, and four years of activity as evidence of success. ƒƒ For example, Commonwealth Edison(a utility company that services Chicago) reported that about 840,000 pounds of carbon dioxide were kept out of the atmosphere during Earth Hour 2008. Weaknesses ƒƒ Detractors label Earth Hour as a failure because the once- a-year program generates insignificant short-term and long-term behavior changes, beyond a symbolic action. ƒƒ To illustrate, Roger Sowell published a report in 2009 that showed no apparent decrease in the power load throughout the state of California during Earth Hour. SOURCES: http://worldwildlife.org/pages/earth- hour http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth_Hour https://twitter.com/earthhour https://www.facebook.com/earthhour http://sowellslawblog.blogspot. com/2009/03/busted-earth-hour.html
  • 19. 19BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013 Target Global (NA heavy to date) Sustained Action Continuous Size 4.1mm social actions Key Engagement Platforms Facebook, Twitter, Website, Google+, YouTube and Tumblr Social Movement It Gets Better Description It Gets Better is an Internet- based movement founded in the United States in 2010 by Dan Savage and his husband Terry Miller, in response to the suicides of teenagers who were bullied because they were gay or suspected of being gay. Call to Action The goal of this movement is to prevent bullying and suicide among LGBT youth. To do this, It Gets Better encourages gay adults and straight allies to help convey the message that LGBT teens’ lives will improve. Cause Everyone deserves to be respected for who they are. Strengths ƒƒ Supporters classify It Gets Better as a success due to the movement adoption in 25 global markets and two years of sustained activity. ƒƒ For example, President Obama shared his support by making a promotional video that had over 461K views to date. Weaknesses ƒƒ Detractors point out It Gets Better should focus on parents, not teens, to help reduce LGBT suicide. ƒƒ To illustrate, The Family Acceptance Project’s research has demonstrated that “parental acceptance, and even neutrality, with regard to a child’s sexual orientation” can bring down the attempted suicide rate. SOURCES: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/It_Gets_ Better_Project http://www.youtube.com/user/ itgetsbetterproject http://www.whitehouse.gov/itgetsbetter http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=HzcAR6yQhF8
  • 20. 20BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013 Social Movement Occupy Wall Street Description Occupy Wall Street (OWS) is a protest movement that began on 9/17/11. The main issues are social and economic inequality, greed, corruption, and perceived undue influence of corporations on government. Call to Action The goal of this movement is to fight back against the richest 1% of people who are writing the rules of an unfair global economy. OWS encourages supporters to follow the revolutionary Arab Spring tactic to achieve their goals, and encourages the use of nonviolence to maximize the safety of all participants. Cause Occupy Wall Street is a leaderless resistance movement, with people of many colors, genders and political persuasions. The one thing all participants have in common is that We Are The 99% who will no longer tolerate the greed and corruption of the 1%.  Target Global Sustained Action Continuous Size 585k social actions Key Engagement Platforms Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, Website and Celebrities (Michael Moore, Nancy Pelosi) Strengths ƒƒ Supporters highlight how OWS is currently active in 1,500 cities globally and how technology and social media are increasing awareness and participation. ƒƒ In November 2011, Public Policy Polling did a national survey which found that 33% of voters supported OWS. Weaknesses ƒƒ Detractors often criticize OWS for not having clear demands and thus not being able to accomplish any goals. ƒƒ Ginia Fellafante points out in the New York Times that OWS supporters have a lack of focus, highlighting some who note that “no one who uses an Apple computer can possibly say anything critical about capitalism.” SOURCES http://occupywallst.org/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occupy_ Wall_Street http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Spring http://www.yesmagazine.org/people- power/occupywallstreet?gclid=CLOX jv2p67MCFYd9Ogod1DgACQ http://www.yesmagazine.org/people- power/five-ways-occupywallstreet-has- succeeded http://www.theblaze.com/stories/ top-ten-richest-celebrities-supporting- occupy-wall-street/# http://stpeteforpeace.org/occupyarrests. sources.html http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/25/ nyregion/protesters-are-gunning-for- wall-street-with-faulty-aim.html?_r=2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_ Policy_Polling
  • 21. 21BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013 Target Global Sustained Action Continuous Size 773k social actions Key Engagement Platforms Facebook, Twitter, Website, Google+, mobile/texting Social Movement Tsunami Relief Fund Description There were many organizations delivering relief, or funding relief programs, in the wake of the Japanese Tsunami. GlobalGiving was one organization that effectively connected donors with disaster areas or grassroots projects in developing worlds. Potential donors could browse and select from a wide offering of projects, and could easily transfer funds to the area of interest. Call to Action Following the Japanese earthquake and tsunami in March 2011, GlobalGiving established a fundraising goal of 9.5 million dollars for tsunami relief. They solicited and collected donations from multiple platforms, including, digital, mobile, social and TV. Cause GlobalGiving is a charity fundraising movement that gives social entrepreneurs and non- profits from anywhere in the world a chance to raise the money that they need to improve their communities from anywhere in the world. Strengths ƒƒ Supporters proudly highlight that the Tsunami fundraising movement is currently 93% of the way to its goal, with $8.8 million dollars raised out of a $9.5 million goal. ƒƒ For example, Makoto Katakeyama explained how he received relief money from GlobalGiving so he could start oyster farming again, which directly benefited his local economy and increased the local food supply. Weaknesses ƒƒ Detractors label GlobalGiving as fiscally irresponsible because it takes 10% of donations for operating expenses. ƒƒ To illustrate, Charity Navigator, the well-respected non- profit watchdog, only gives GlobalGiving three out of a possible four stars (a concern, since a four-star rating isn’t hard to achieve). SOURCES: http://www.globalgiving.org/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GlobalGiving http://www.globalgiving.org/projects/ japan-earthquake-tsunami-relief/ http://www.charitynavigator.org/index. cfm?bay=search.summary&orgid=11648 http://ecopreneurist.com/2008/11/21/ low-ranked-charity-not-a-scam-but- skip-global-giving-if-you-sleep-in-this- black-friday/
  • 22. 22BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013 Brand Movement Amex Small Business Saturday Description American Express started Small Business Saturday in 2010 as a way to generate more awareness of local, small businesses, and to assist in generating sales for their small business merchants. Call to Action Shop small and shop local — go into your local stores and give them your business. Spread the word — tell others to shop small and shop local. Cause Small businesses across America need the enduring support of local shoppers. While the benefits of big chains and big box retailers cannot be dismissed, it’s America’s small businesses that serve our communities best. Target US Sustained Action Once a year Size 102 million US consumers shopped “small” on Small Business Saturday in 2011. 5mm social actions. Key Engagement Platforms Facebook, Twitter, Website, Merchant Kits, CRM, Advertising Strengths ƒƒ American Express helped drive sales in small, local stores, as 102mm customers shopped on Small Business Saturday. ƒƒ Mashable reported that American Express “saw a 23% increase in transactions at small business in 2011” which was a win for the small businesses as well as Amex. Weaknesses ƒƒ Critics point out how the one-day affair has limited sustainable impact, how American Express charges very high fees to vendors (~2.5%), and how this campaign is designed to help AmEx, rather than the small business community. ƒƒ Inc.com recently reported that the program is “a monetary boom if they can get more people to use the card…but there’s been no reciprocal kindness back to the merchants.” SOURCES: www.americanexpress.com/Business http://mashable.com/2012/03/22/ american-express-small-business- saturday/ http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/02/ business/american-express-to-refund- 85-million.html http://www.inc.com/eric-markowitz/ small-business-saturday-real-effects- on-merchants.html
  • 23. 23BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013 Target Global Sustained Action Continuous Size 4.4mm social actions Key Engagement Platforms YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, Multiple Websites, Email, Partnerships (with Clinton Global Initiatives, etc.) and PR/Blogger Outreach Brand Movement Nike Foundation, The Girl Effect Description Founded by The NoVo Foundation and The Nike Foundation, The Girl Effect is a movement to invest in and provide opportunities to adolescent girls as a means to end poverty in developing countries. It is based on the theory that, if given the right opportunities, girls and women can be effective at lifting themselves and their communities out of poverty. Call to Action The desired behavior of this movement was to end poverty in developing countries by focusing on, and investing in adolescent girls in those countries. Cause Ending poverty by investing resources in girls around the world. Strengths ƒƒ Supporters highlight how Nike was able to successfully draw attention and interest to an important international social and economic issue, as evidenced by $41 million donated to the program in first three years (2007-2009). ƒƒ The Huffington Post reported on how the Girl Effect helped decrease HIV prevalence by 60%, compared to peers. Peers? Means what? Unclear. Weaknesses ƒƒ Critics have slammed the Girl Effect for playing up to stereotypes of women and girls as natural caregivers, ignoring questions of structural inequality and power imbalance.FIX WIDOW. ƒƒ Aidwatchers openly questioned, “Why reinforce perceptions about “women’s work” and “men’s work” by claiming that women make better homemakers?” SOURCES: http://youthinkyouknowme.girleffect. org/ http://www.girleffect.org/learn/the- big-picture http://nikeinc.com/pages/the-girl-effect http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Girl_ Effect www.hks.harvard.edu/hauser/role-of- brand/documents/girleffect.pdf http://www.guardian.co.uk/global- development/poverty-matters/2012/ mar/23/girl-hub-strength-weaknesses http://aidwatchers.com/2011/01/so-now- we-have-to-save-ourselves-and-the- world-too-a-critique-of-%E2%80%9Cthe- girl-effect%E2%80%9D/
  • 24. 24BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013 Brand Movement Pepsi Refresh Description The Pepsi Refresh Project began in 2010 as an initiative to identify and fund projects that would have a positive impact on their community, states, or the country. Originally planned as a one-year campaign, Pepsi Refresh lasted for two years, and awarded $20mm in grants to non-profit organizations, businesses, and individuals, who were chosen through a system of voting via social media. Call to Action The desired behavior of this movement was to encourage individuals and nonprofits to ideate innovative and creative solutions to help move their communities forward. Cause Refresh Everything (The Pepsi Refresh Project) was conceived as a “ground-breaking initiative designed to fund good ideas, big and small, that help refresh our world.” Target US Sustained Action Two years Size 6.7mm social actions Key Engagement Platforms Facebook, Twitter, Website, Mobile, YouTube, and Advertising Celebrity tie-ins (NFL) Strengths ƒƒ Built equity for the Pepsi brand, as evidenced in a 2010 Forbes and Reputation Institute study, which indicated that Pepsi moved from #16 to #5 among the country’s most reputable brands. ƒƒ Empowered communities and individuals to believe they could step up and change their world. Weaknesses ƒƒ Didn’t correlate directly enough to sales, as market share decreased during the same time period. ƒƒ Faced criticism with how grants were awarded, and there were many allegations of cheating. SOURCES: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepsi_ Refresh_Project http://adage.com/article/viewpoint/a- teaching-moment-professors-evaluate- pepsi-refresh-project/237629/ http://www.hugeinc.com/casestudies/ pepsi http://www.pepsico.com/PressRelease/ The-Pepsi-Refresh-Project-Awards-13- Million-to-Support-the-Publics-Favorite- Idea03222010.html http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/06/ business/06charity.html http://helloenso.com/Pepsi-refresh
  • 25. 25BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013 Appendix A: Top Ten Pages on Facebook, Twitter and YouTube Facebook Brand Fans 1 Facebook 84,121,319 2 YouTube 67,719,238 3 Texas Holdem Poker 67,666,376 4 Rihanna 64,797,581 5 Eminem 64,490,260 6 The Simpsons 58,826,643 7 Shakira 58,572,171 8 Coca-Cola (Coke) 56,883,666 9 Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows 54,723,452 10 Lady Gaga 54,678,908 Source: http://fanpagelist.com/ as of 1/3/13 Twitter Brand Followers 1 Lady Gaga 32,660,281 2 Justin Bieber 32,372,480 3 Katy Perry 30,699,659 4 Rihanna 27,579,512 5 Barack Obama 25,257,501 6 Britney Spears 22,912,239 7 Taylor Swift 22,449,120 8 YouTube 21,435,228 9 Shakira 19,175,242 10 Kim Kardashian 17,050,528 Source: http://twitaholic.com as of 1/3/13 YouTube Brand Views 1 Psy 1,116,593,319 2 Justin Bieber 817,886,738 3 Jennifer Lopez/ Pitbull 636,739,081 4 Eminem/ Rihanna 527,855,009 5 LMFAO 512,476,646 6 Charlie Bit My Finger - again! 505,465,413 7 Shakira 504,975,753 8 Lady Gaga 502,934,765 9 Michel Telo 473,010,286 10 Don Omar 415,846,863 Source: http://www.youtube.com as of 1/3/13
  • 26. About Social@Ogilvy S ocial@Ogilvy is the largest social media marketing communications network in the world. Named 2011 Global Digital/Social Consultancy of the Year by The Holmes Report, the practice leverages social media expertise across all Ogilvy & Mather disciplines, offering an extensive list of services within the foundational business solutions – Listening and Analytics; Social Business Solutions; Social Media Marketing and Communications; Social Shopping; Social CRM; Social Care; and Conversation Impact. For more information, visit social.ogilvy.com and connect with us at www.facebook.com/socialogilvy, www.twitter.com/ socialogilvy, www.slideshare.com/socialogilvy.