Art 17 Drawing Classifications of Life

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  • Eukaryotes evolved from Prokaryotes 2 billion years ago. Prokaryotes can generate energy only by pumping charged atoms across their membranes. That constraint helps limit their size. As prokaryotes grow in size, their volume increases much faster than their surface area. They end up with too little energy to power their cells. Eukaryotes, on the other hand, can pack hundreds of energy-generating mitochondria into a single cell. And so they could get big, evolving into an entirely new ecological niche. The eukaryote also opened the way to more complex species. Single-celled eukaryotes could evolve into multicellular animals, plants, and fungi. Individual cells in those organisms could evolve into specialized forms, such as muscles and neurons. Mitochondria make energy with a series of complex chemical reactions using glucose and oxygen.

Transcript

  • 1. Microscopic Life and Composition: Balance: Symmetrical Asymmetrical Radial All-over
  • 2. Symmetrical Balance: (Giorgioni, Italian, 1503)
  • 3. Asymmetrical Balance: (Ito Jakuchu, 18th C. Japanese)
  • 4. Radial Balance: (MC Escher, 20th C. Belgium)
  • 5. Radial Balance: (MC Escher, 20th C. Belgium)
  • 6. All-Over Balance: (MC Escher, 20th C. Belgium)
  • 7. All-Over Balance: (MC Escher, 20th C. Belgium)
  • 8. Kingdom Animalia Phylum Porifera (sponges)
  • 9. More life forms with radially-balanced body plans: Phylum Cnidaria, Class Scyphozoa (Jelly Fish)
  • 10. Kingdom Animalia Phylum Cnidaria Class Anthozoa (Corals)
  • 11. Prokaryotes
  • 12. Eukaryotes
  • 13. Ernst Haeckel’s Lithographs and engravings (Lived 1834-1919)
  • 14. Ernst Haeckel Sea Anemones: Kingdom Animalia Phylum Cnidaria Class Anthozoa
  • 15. Jelly Fish: Kingdom Animalia Phylum Cnidaria Class Scyphozoa
  • 16. Jelly Fish: Kingdom Animalia Phylum Cnidaria Class Scyphozoa
  • 17. Jelly Fish: Kingdom Animalia Phylum Cnidaria Class Scyphozoa
  • 18. Kingdom Animalia Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Crustacea Class Malacostraca (shrimp) Class Maxillopoda (copepods)
  • 19. Kingdom Animalia Phylum Bryozoa (A predatory sea slug is included in this composition.)
  • 20. Domain Eukarya Kingdom Protisa Phylum Polycystina (Radiolarians) Radiolarians are protists that produce intricate mineral skeletons. Most are found in the ocean.) The protists (as opposed to Kingdom Animalia) have a relatively simple organization—either they are unicellular, or they are multicellular without specialized tissues.
  • 21. Radiolaria: Phadeoardia (Haeckel himself named nearly 150 new species of radiolarians.)
  • 22. Radiolaria: Discoidia
  • 23. Radiolaria: Polycyttarria
  • 24. Radiolaria: Cyrtoidea
  • 25. Radiolaria: Acanthophracta
  • 26. Radiolaria: Phadeoardia
  • 27. Radiolaria: Spumellaria
  • 28. Student work: pastel and ink
  • 29. Student work: charcoal, ink, and Prismacolor
  • 30. Student work: ink and Prismacolor
  • 31. Student work: ink and Prismacolor
  • 32. Student work: graphite and Prismacolor
  • 33. Student work: ink and Prismacolor
  • 34. And now for a demonstration…