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  • 1. World Explorer Chapter 2 Africa: Shaped by Its History Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
  • 2. World Explorer Chapter 2: Africa: Shaped by Its History ction 1: Africa’s First People ction 2: Kingdoms and Empires ction 3: The Conquest of Africa ction 4: Independence and Its Challenges ction 5: Issues for Africa Today Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
  • 3. Chapter 2 , Section 1 Africa’s First People • What techniques did early Africans use to get food? • How did important ideas and discoveries spread throughout Africa? • What civilizations arose along the Nile River?
  • 4. Chapter 2 , Section 1 Africa’s First People Key Terms • hunter-gatherer- person who gathers wild food and hunts animals to survive • domesticate- to adapt wild plants and animals for human use • surplus- more than is needed • civilization- a society with cities, a central government, social classes, and usually, writing, art, and architecture • migrate- to move from one place to another • ethnic group- a group of people who share the same ancestors, culture, language, or religion
  • 5. Chapter 2 , Section 1 Africa’s First People Key People and Places • Louis Leakey • Egypt • Nubia
  • 6. Chapter 2 , Section 1 Hunter-Gatherers • Several million years ago, Africa’s first people lived in parts of East Africa. • The earliest humans were huntergatherers, people who collect wild plants and hunt animals to survive. • African hunter-gatherers made tools from wood, bones, and then stone. • The use of stone tools marks the beginning of a period called the Stone Age.
  • 7. Chapter 2 , Section 1 Farming and Herding • Several thousand years ago, huntergatherers began to farm and to herd animals. • Early farmers probably planted wild grains at first. Later they began to domesticate plants and animals—that is, to adapt or breed them for their own use. • Farming allowed people to settle in one place instead of traveling in search of food. • In fertile areas, farmers eventually produced a food surplus, or more than they needed.
  • 8. Chapter 2 , Section 1 Civilizations on the Nile Egypt • The ancient civilization of Egypt arose along the Nile River about 5,000 years ago. • A civilization is a society with cities, a government, social classes, and usually writing, art, and architecture. • Egypt was ruled by pharaohs, kings and queens thought to be like gods. After they died, they were buried in pyramids decorated with hieroglyphics, or picture-writing. Nubia • Starting in about 6,000 B.C., several civilizations arose in Nubia, south of Egypt. The greatest was in the city of Meroë, where African ironmaking probably began.
  • 9. Chapter 2 , Section 1 The Bantu Migrations • In West Africa, farming prospered with the use of iron tools, producing food surpluses and a growing population. • About 2,000 years ago, groups of Bantu-speakers began to migrate, or move, out of the region. • Over hundreds of years, Bantu-speakers settled Central and Southern Africa • The Bantu migrations introduced farming, herding, and iron tools to many areas they migrated into. • Today, most African ethnic groups—groups that share languages, religions, family ties, and customs —speak Bantu languages.
  • 10. Chapter 2 , Section 1 The Bantu Migrations Routes of the Bantu Migration The Bantu migrations were some of the largest in human history.
  • 11. Chapter 2 , Section 1 Africa’s First People—Assessment Which of these technologies did not spread across early Africa? a) tile-making b) ironmaking c) herding d) farming Where did many Bantu speakers migrate to? a) Egypt and Nubia b) Meroë c) Central and Southern Africa d) West Africa Want to connect to the PHSchool.com Web activities for this section? Click here.
  • 12. Chapter 2 , Section 1 Africa’s First People—Assessment Which of these technologies did not spread across early Africa? a) tile-making b) ironmaking c) herding d) farming Where did many Bantu speakers migrate to? a) Egypt and Nubia b) Meroë c) Central and Southern Africa d) West Africa Want to connect to the PHSchool.com Web activities for this section? Click here.
  • 13. Chapter 2 , Section 2 Kingdoms and Empires • How did trade enrich Africa’s kingdoms and city-states? • How did the religion of Islam spread to different parts of Africa?
  • 14. Chapter 2 , Section 2 Kingdoms and Empires Key Terms • Quran- the holy book of the religion of Islam • Pilgrimage- a religious journey, for Muslims, the journey to Mecca • Swahili- an African language that includes some Arabic words • city-state- a city that controls much of the land around it and has its own government Key People and Places • Mansa Musa • Aksum • Ghana
  • 15. Chapter 2 , Section 2 Kingdoms and Empires Key People and Places (continued) • Mali • Songhai • Tombouctou • Kilwa • Zimbabwe
  • 16. Chapter 2 , Section 2 Aksum • From 1000 B.C. African and Arab traders settled along the east coast of Africa, on the western shore of the Red Sea. • Aksum arose along the Red Sea where the modern countries of Ethiopia and Eritrea are today. • Aksum controlled a vast trade network across the Indian Ocean to India and northward to the Mediterranean Sea. • Goods and ideas traveled to and from Aksum. In the mid-300s, Christianity came to Aksum and it became the early center of the Ethiopian Christian Church. • As Aksum declined in the 600s, Arabs took over much of the region’s trade.
  • 17. Chapter 2 , Section 2 West African Kingdoms Ghana • Located between the Senegal and Niger rivers, Ghana was known as the “land of gold.” It grew rich from trading its plentiful gold for salt from North African traders. Mali • The kingdom of Mali in the Upper Niger Valley took over the gold trade from Ghana in the 1200s. Mali’s famous king, Mansa Musa, brought Islam to Mali and ruled by the Muslim holy book, the Quran. He made a pilgrimage, or religious journey, to the Arab city of Mecca. He gave out gold along the way, attracting European interest in African gold. Songhai • The Muslim empire of Songhai conquered Mali and became the greatest power in West Africa. The city of Tombouctou became a famed center for trade and learning.
  • 18. Chapter 2 , Section 2 West African Kingdoms West African Kingdoms and Trade Routes Three kingdoms— Ghana, Mali, and Songhai—ruled West Africa for hundreds of years. They grew wealthy from trade with North Africa.
  • 19. Chapter 2 , Section 2 East African City-States • • • • • Traders along the East African coast used the changing winds of the Indian Ocean to sail to ports in India and China, and then bring goods back to Africa. The mixing of cultures created a new East African language, Swahili—a blending of Bantu and Arab words. Some East African cities became wealthy city-states, cities with their own government and control of surrounding land. The city-state of Kilwa had great trade wealth and beautiful homes. Kilwa and other city-states were conquered by Portugal in the early 1500s. The inland city-state of Great Zimbabwe peaked in about 1300. The ruins of its 200 giant stone buildings exist today.
  • 20. Chapter 2 , Section 2 East African City-States East Africa citystates traded goods along the coast and exported gold and other products east to India and north to the Mediterranean.
  • 21. Chapter 2 , Section 2 Kingdoms and Empires—Assessment Which famous king brought Islam to Mali? a) Aksum b) Kilwa c) Mali d) Mansa Musa What did Kilwa and Great Zimbabwe have in common? a) Both were located on the east coast of Africa. b) Both were city-states. c) Both traded their salt for gold. d) Both were Muslim kingdoms. Want to connect to the PHSchool.com Web activities for this section? Click here.
  • 22. Chapter 2 , Section 2 Kingdoms and Empires—Assessment Which famous king brought Islam to Mali? a) Aksum b) Kilwa c) Mali d) Mansa Musa What did Kilwa and Great Zimbabwe have in common? a) Both were located on the east coast of Africa. b) Both were city-states. c) Both traded their salt for gold. d) Both were Muslim kingdoms. Want to connect to the PHSchool.com Web activities for this section? Click here.
  • 23. Chapter 2 , Section 3 The Conquest of Africa • Why did European contact with Africa increase? • What were the effects of European rule in Africa?
  • 24. Chapter 2 , Section 3 The Conquest of Africa Key Term • colonize- to settle an area and take over or create a government Key People and Places • Gorée • Cape of Good Hope • Olaudah Equiano
  • 25. Chapter 2 , Section 3 Europeans on the Coast • On the island of Goreé, off the coast of Senegal, is the “Door of No Return.” Captive Africans passed through that door to be loaded on slave ships bound for the Americas. • The Atlantic slave trade lasted from about 1500 to the late 1800s. • Direct trade between Europe and western Africa began when Portuguese sailors explored the coast of West Africa. The Portuguese traded foods from the Americas and other goods for African products such as gold, ivory, and pepper. • Starting around 1500, Portugal, followed by other European countries, set up trading posts and settlements in Africa. They spread out, seeking land for farming.
  • 26. Chapter 2 , Section 3 Europeans on the Coast Africans resisted European colonization, but as this timeline shows, Europe slowly took control of more and more of Africa. Europeans in Africa 1885 The Berlin Conference carves up control of Africa among colonial powers. 1500s—1800s Europeans trade slaves across the Atlantic Ocean. 1450 1550 1650 1500s—1800s Portuguese, Dutch, French, and English set up trading posts all along Africa’s coasts. 1400s Portugal begins building trading posts in West Africa. 1750 1850 1652 The Dutch establish a colony at the Cape of Good Hope. 1912 South Africans form the South African Native National Congress to protest laws that treated Africans unfairly. 1914 Britain, France, Belgium, and Portugal control nearly all of Africa. 1950 1920s Pan-African movement begins to form, with the slogan, “Africa for Africans.”
  • 27. Chapter 2 , Section 3 The Atlantic Slave Trade • Slavery existed in Africa before the Europeans came. But European slavery differed from African slavery because Europeans treated their slaves as permanent property. • Millions of Africans were taken in the Atlantic slave trade. Africans were sought because of their skills and endurance. • The Atlantic slave crossing was brutal. Slaves were packed into disease-ridden ships for the long voyage. Up to 20 percent of the captives died on the crossings. • Olaudah Equiano wrote an account of his capture at age 11, the terrifying Atlantic crossing, and his life as a slave. • The slave trade tore apart West African societies. They lost family members and their youngest, most skilled workers.
  • 28. Chapter 2 , Section 3 Europeans Carve Up Africa • At the end of the slave trade, Europeans moved into the interior of Africa. They wanted African resources for their new factories. • Africans resisted European conquest, but the new European machine gun made resistance nearly impossible. • European countries competed in a race to gain African territory and colonize it—that is, to govern and settle it. By 1900 they had conquered much of the continent. • Europeans ruled their colonies in differing ways, some with direct control and some with less control. But either way, Africans had little power. • The division of Africa caused lasting harm, as ethnic groups were divided and forced together under new boundaries.
  • 29. Chapter 2 , Section 3 Europeans Carve Up Africa By 1914, European countries ruled almost all of Africa.
  • 30. Chapter 2 , Section 3 The Conquest of Africa—Assessment How did Europe’s relations with Africa change after 1500? a) Europe moved to take slaves and resources. b) The Atlantic slave trade finally ended. c) Africans stopped Europeans from invading Africa’s interior. d) Americans began to prefer Native American slave labor. What effect did the division of Africa have? a) It ended the slave trade. b) It increased the slave trade. c) It destroyed the organization of African societies. d) It increased the wealth of both Africans and Europeans. Want to connect to the PHSchool.com Web activities for this section? Click here.
  • 31. Chapter 2 , Section 3 The Conquest of Africa—Assessment How did Europe’s relations with Africa change after 1500? a) Europe moved to take slaves and resources. b) The Atlantic slave trade finally ended. c) Africans stopped Europeans from invading Africa’s interior. d) Americans began to prefer Native American slave labor. What effect did the division of Africa have? a) It ended the slave trade. b) It increased the slave trade. c) It destroyed the organization of African societies. d) It increased the wealth of both Africans and Europeans. Want to connect to the PHSchool.com Web activities for this section? Click here.
  • 32. Chapter 2 , Section 4 Independence and Its Challenges • What techniques did African nations use to win independence from European powers? • What challenges did new African leaders face after independence?
  • 33. Chapter 2 , Section 4 Independence and Its Challenges Key Terms • nationalism- a feeling of pride in one’s homeland; a group’s identity as members of a nation • Pan-Africanism- a movement that stressed unity among all Africans • boycott- refusal to buy or use certain products or services • democracy- a government in which citizens have power through their elected representatives
  • 34. Chapter 2 , Section 4 Independence and Its Challenges Key People • Robert Mugabe • Léopold Sédar Senghor • Kwame Nkrumah
  • 35. Chapter 2 , Section 4 The Growth of Nationalism • Nationalism, a feeling of pride in one’s homeland, arose in Africa after its conquest by Europe. Leaders of rival ethnic groups united to encourage pride in being African. • In the early 1900s, Africans in British-ruled South Africa formed a political party, the African National Congress (ANC). The ANC fought for rights such as voting. • In the 1920s, Africans formed a movement called PanAfricanism. It encouraged unity and cooperation among all Africans. • Poet and political leader Léopold Sédar Senghor led the Pan-Africanism movement and became Senegal’s first president when the country gained independence in 1960.
  • 36. Chapter 2 , Section 4 World War II • During World War II, Africans fought and died to free European countries from occupation. Africa provided crucial military supplies and airfields. • When Africans returned from the war, they wanted their own freedom from the European countries who controlled them.
  • 37. Chapter 2 , Section 4 Different Paths to Independence • European countries, weakened by the war, gradually were forced to give up their colonies. • African countries achieved independence in various ways. Some, such as Ghana, gained freedom peacefully. Kwame Nkrumah led protests, such as boycotts. A boycott is an action in which people refuse to buy particular products or services. • Other countries fought wars for independence. Algeria’s eight-year war with France was especially bloody. • Governments of the newly freed countries generally had little experience. Military rulers seized control in some places. Other countries created democracies, in which citizens help make governmental decisions.
  • 38. Chapter 2 , Section 4 Different Paths to Independence From 1910 (South Africa) through 1993 (Eritrea), African countries won independence from Europe. Most countries became independent following World War II.
  • 39. Chapter 2 , Section 4 Independence and Its Challenges—Assessment European countries gave up their African colonies because a) Africans fought and died to free Europe in World War II. b) Europeans had used up Africa’s resources. c) the slave trade ended. d) World War II weakened the European colonizers. What challenge did African nations face after independence? a) Colonial officials refused to leave. b) The countries’ natural resources had been used up. c) Their best leaders had died in World War II. d) Many Africans had little experience in national government. Want to connect to the PHSchool.com Web activities for this section? Click here.
  • 40. Chapter 2 , Section 4 Independence and Its Challenges—Assessment European countries gave up their African colonies because a) Africans fought and died to free Europe in World War II. b) Europeans had used up Africa’s resources. c) the slave trade ended. d) World War II weakened the European colonizers. What challenge did African nations face after independence? a) Colonial officials refused to leave. b) The countries’ natural resources had been used up. c) Their best leaders had died in World War II. d) Many Africans had little experience in national government. Want to connect to the PHSchool.com Web activities for this section? Click here.
  • 41. Chapter 2 , Section 5 Issues for Africa Today • What challenges do African countries face today? • What actions may help Africans meet some of their challenges?
  • 42. Chapter 2 , Section 5 Issues for Africa Today Key Terms • commercial farming- the large-scale production of crops for sale–often coffee, cocoa, or bananas • hybrid- a plant that is a combination of two or more types of the same plant • literacy- the ability to read and write • life expectancy- how long an average person will live Key Places • Niger • Senegal
  • 43. Chapter 2 , Section 5 Economic Issues • The colonial powers did little to build industries in Africa. So, most countries’ economies are based on either farming or mining. • Besides subsistence farming, Africans also practice commercial farming, the large-scale production of cash crops. Africa also exports its rich supply of oil, gold, and other minerals. • Countries that had specialized economies are attempting to diversify by producing new crops or adding industries. • To feed their growing populations, nations are developing hybrid crops. Hybrids are made by combining different types of the same plant. They can produce large harvests.
  • 44. Chapter 2 , Section 5 Economic Issues During the 1990s, the price of copper on the world markets rose and fell several times. Falling prices hurt countries such as Congo that relied on the sale of copper for most of their income. World Copper Prices Year Cents Per Pound (kg) 1990 123.16 (271.52) 1991 109.33 (241.03) 1992 107.42 (237.01) 1993 91.56 (208.86) 1994 111.05 (244.82) 1995 138.33 (304.97) 1996 109.04 (240.39) 1997 106.92 (235.72) 1998 78.64 (173.37)
  • 45. Chapter 2 , Section 5 Social Issues • African families must often give up their children’s needed labor in order to send them to school. Many parents make this sacrifice to give their children a better chance in life. • In many countries, the rate of literacy, the ability to read and write, has increased greatly since independence. • Life expectancy, the age a person lives to on average, varies greatly in Africa. Some countries have very low life expectancies because of diseases such as malaria, measles, and AIDS. • Many governments and agencies are working to fight AIDS. The disease has hit hard in much of Africa, killing millions. Work has focused on providing medicines to the poor.
  • 46. Chapter 2 , Section 5 The Environment • Like other countries, Africa faces difficult environmental problems. • Two thirds of Africa is desert or dry land. The desert is spreading, causing the loss of farmland. Fertile soil is also being lost to erosion that occurs when people cut down forests for wood. • African farmers are using irrigation and hardy hybrid plants to grow crops in dry lands. To fight erosion, they are planting vegetation that holds the soil in place.
  • 47. Chapter 2 , Section 5 Issues for Africa Today—Assessment Diseases such as AIDS in Africa have caused a) migration. b) environmental problems. c) low life expectancies. d) low literacy. To farm in an increasingly dry environment, farmers are a) cutting down rain forests. b) practicing subsistence farming. c) practicing commercial farming. d) using irrigation and hybrid plants. Want to connect to the PHSchool.com Web activities for this section? Click here.
  • 48. Chapter 2 , Section 5 Issues for Africa Today—Assessment Diseases such as AIDS in Africa have caused a) migration. b) environmental problems. c) low life expectancies. d) low literacy. To farm in an increasingly dry environment, farmers are a) cutting down rain forests. b) practicing subsistence farming. c) practicing commercial farming. d) using irrigation and hybrid plants. Want to connect to the PHSchool.com Web activities for this section? Click here.