Chapter 5 Acquiring And Teaching A New Writing System


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Chapter 5 Acquiring And Teaching A New Writing System

  1. 1. Chapter 5: Acquiring and Teaching a New Writing System Vivian Cook Summarized by Dolphin Lin
  2. 2. <ul><li>I. Writing systems </li></ul><ul><li>II. Spelling </li></ul><ul><li>III. Punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>IV. The writing system and language </li></ul><ul><li>teaching </li></ul><ul><li>V. Journal Article Discussion: </li></ul><ul><li>Questions Teachers Ask About Spelling </li></ul>
  3. 3. I. What is a writing system? <ul><li>1. It is used as an overall term for the ways in which written symbols connect to language. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ a set of visible or tactile signs used to represent units of language in a systematic way’ ( Coulmas, 1999:560 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Sound-based vs Meaning-based </li></ul><ul><li>Arbitrary vs Analogue </li></ul><ul><li>2. It is used for the specific rules for writing used in a particular language. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ In this sense a writing system is language specific’ </li></ul><ul><li>( Coulmas, 1999:560 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Letters </li></ul><ul><li>Correspondence rules </li></ul><ul><li>Punctuation </li></ul>
  4. 4. Two Main Writing System of the World Alphabetic: Spanish, Russian, Hindi etc Consonantal: Arabic, Persian, Urdu, etc. C haracter-based: Chinese, Japanese (kanji) Syllabic: Japanese (kana), many Indian languages (Bengali, Tamil, Gujarati etc) Needs: – unvarying word forms, e.g Chinese – many thousands of characters Needs:  – some phonological properties e.g. predictable vowels (Arabic)   – small number of symbols  淼 ; 森 ; 驫 Morlock; priori incantatem; honorificabilitudinitatibus   Meaning-based writing systems Sound-based writing systems
  5. 5. Sound-based/ Meaning-based writing system <ul><li>Though the routes between writing and meaning are distinct in principle, they are often mixed in practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Can you give me some examples? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Correspondence Rules <ul><li>The rules for connecting letters to sounds and vice versa. </li></ul><ul><li>example 1: letter to sound  the letter “a” </li></ul><ul><li>example 2: sound to letter  the sound “/ei/” </li></ul><ul><li>example 3: 「ㄒㄧㄣ」  </li></ul><ul><li>example 4: 「兟」  </li></ul>
  7. 7. Transparent <ul><li>If the correspondence between the sound and the letter is one-to-one, then it is a highly transparent writing system. </li></ul><ul><li>Italian :the grapheme <d> can only be read as /d/, and </li></ul><ul><li>the phoneme /d/ can only be spelled as <d> </li></ul><ul><li>Finnish: There is almost one-to-one correspondence between letters </li></ul><ul><li>and sounds. 連 youtube </li></ul><ul><li>English:<d> can be read as /d/ ('red'), /dʒ/ ('procedure'), </li></ul><ul><li>or it can be silent ('sandwich'). </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  8. 8. Vertical vs Horizontal writing <ul><li>Japanese </li></ul><ul><li>Arabic </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>Do you teach English script letters for your students? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think it necessary to learn cursive writing? </li></ul>
  9. 9. II. Spelling <ul><li>“ English spelling is chaotic and unsystematic.”----Do you agree? </li></ul><ul><li>Spelling rules examples, see Box 5.3 and 5.4 </li></ul>Words that do not follow the rules Words that contain silent letters; that is, letters that must be included when you write the words even though they are not pronounced. Words that contain letters that have nothing to do with the way the words are pronounced. Words that have the same sounds but are spelled differently.
  10. 10. <ul><li>How important is learning spelling rules? </li></ul><ul><li>What spelling rules should students learn? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you explain the word that is not following the rules to your student? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Mistakes with English Spelling <ul><li>Letter doubling--- “hab b it”, </li></ul><ul><li>Letter omission--- “Dophin”, “trafic”, “snadwich”, “umbrela” </li></ul><ul><li>Using the wrong letter--- “gramm e r”, “Dol f in”, “ea z y”, “umbr a lla”, “beaut y ful” </li></ul><ul><li>Adding an extra letter--- “bor e ing” </li></ul><ul><li>For other mistakes, see Box 5.5 and 5.6 </li></ul>
  12. 12. III. Punctuation <ul><li>Stress disease kills Australia's koalas </li></ul><ul><li>the koala australia's star symbol is dying of stress koalas live in the rolling hills and flat plains where eucalyptus trees grow because they need the leaves for both food and water but as people move in koalas are finding themselves with fewer trees researchers say. the stress is bringing out a latent disease that infects 50 to 90 percent of the animals. Koalas are in diabolical trouble says researcher frank carrick who heads the koala study program at the university of queensland. Numbers show that even in their stronghold koala numbers are declining alarmingly. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Punctuation includes… <ul><li>1. Punctuation marks: , . ; : “” ? ! </li></ul><ul><li>2. Word spaces </li></ul><ul><li>3. Forms of letters: Capital letter, </li></ul><ul><li>underlining , italics </li></ul>
  14. 14. What is Punctuation for? <ul><li>1. The Punctuations are the guidelines as to how to read the articles, and what it conveys. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The punctuation marks help the reader to understand when to pause, when to change the tone and when to stop. </li></ul><ul><li>3.Punctuation has also been seen as a guide to grammatical structure. </li></ul><ul><li>關關難過關關過 ( 請標點符號 ) </li></ul>
  15. 15. IV. The writing system and language teaching <ul><li>Teachers need to teach: </li></ul><ul><li>the type of writing system, direction, letter formation, and so on, to students whose first writing system is different. </li></ul><ul><li>the rules and orthographic regularities of of spelling. </li></ul><ul><li>the punctuation and capitalization rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual spellings of frequent words and of frequently misspelt words. </li></ul>