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  1. 1. INTRODUCTIONAfter researching everything about our topic on abortion, welearned a lot about it that really answered our questions.Abortion on the other hand, is the termination of a pregnancybefore the birth with the consequent death of a fetus. If thefetus does not develop normally abortion may occur or themother’s suffers from an injury or disorder there is preventionon her part to stretch the pregnancy to its full term. Suchspontaneous abortion is generally called as miscarriage. Youmight be thinking who are the persons who are capable ofaborting infants are, well these people are rape victims,teenagers who got pregnant accidentally, and successful singlesthat was not prepared to carry a child inside them. Anotherthing that bothered you is why is there a need for them to aborttheir child? One of their reasons is financial incapability ofboth couples. Another reason is unwanted pregnancy because theywere not prepared to have it in the first place. And those whowere victims of rape want to abort their infants because theythink that, the infant would be a memory for what had happenedto them. Here is a question that really bothered us all, why isabortion legal to some countries? The answer may be valid or notvalid for you, but it is valid for the country that made that
  2. 2. law. Places like the US, and some places in the UK like England,Scotland and Wales (they allow abortion until at the 24th week ofpregnancy). They made abortion legal because women are,obviously, known human persons. They make up the majority ofknown human persons. Human persons have rights that an embryo orfetus does not have until its personhood can be established. Thepoint at which a fetus can be taken from the womb and, given theproper medical care, still have a meaningful chance of long-termsurvival. The government has a legitimate interest in protectingthe potential rights of the fetus, but the fetus itself does nothave rights prior to the viability threshold. While researchingabout it, we also found out that there are person that useabortion as a service. Their reason is they learn a lot from theperson that wants to abort their child. Before they abort thebaby inside the person, they ask them why they want to do it,and why is there a need for them to abort the child. They do itbecause they see it as a help for the person. They are awarethat it is a sin against the church. Some of us also wanted toknow if abortion is also carried out in the hospital. Well,abortions are not always carried out in hospital. During earlymedical abortions the tablets are administered at a hospital orclinic, but most women return home afterwards. Vacuumaspirations and D&Es may also take place in a hospital orspecialised and approved clinic as a day procedure, however if
  3. 3. they involve local or general anaesthetic the stay may be longeror overnight. The question that really bothered us, is having anabortion a risk to a woman’s health? Yes, it is a risk towomen’s health because they may experience excessive bleeding,damage of the cervix or womb, and Post-abortion infection thatbrings with it fever, discharge, bleeding or abdominal pain.Along our research on abortion we found out that medicalabortion, suction curettage, dilation and curettage, digoxin,and intact dilation and evacuation. Thus, there are many otherprocesses used for abortion which are vacuum aspiration anddilation and curettage as well as there are surgical methods forremoval of fetus from the uterus with the advancement of scienceand technology in medical realm.These are just few processesthat are being used for the deletion of an embryo or fetus of anunborn child from the mother’s abdominal tract. Before theybecome capable of surviving outside the tract this should beresorted to. There is a strong distinction between abortion aswell as birth of a child.You might be thinking what we could doto prevent abortion, is to implement strict laws againstabortion. Prevention is sex education for teens, if teens wereeducated that further about the consequences of sex they wouldbe safer in doing it, and that could lessen teenage pregnancy aswell as the increasing number of abortion. The use ofcontraceptives will prevent unwanted pregnancies. And lastly the
  4. 4. use of family planning, there is a lot of families that has 10or more children; sometimes they have no choice but to abort theinfant that is still inside the mother’s womb. This happensbecause there is lack of knowledge against family planning.These preventions are just a few; many experts are alreadymoving to study more about the prevention of abortion in thesociety, they are hoping that these could lessen the increasingcases on abortion. There are physical and emotional effectsexperienced after abortion. Physical effects of abortion aresoreness, cramping, bleeding, vomiting, and nausea. These arejust normal effects after abortion. Severe pain in the pelvis,severe stomach pain, infection, and hemorrhage could cause deathto the person after a couple of weeks after abortion. Emotionaleffects are depression, guilt for what they have done, moodswings and relief because they got rid of something that was ahindrance to their success or goals in life.
  5. 5. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: The main problem of this issue/ topic is: “Perception on the legalization of abortion”Furthermore, we aim to answer the following specific questions: 1. What is abortion?2. Is it the person’s freewill to decide whether she wants to abort her baby or not? 3. Why do some person’s perform abortion services?4. Are abortions carried out in the hospital? Why or why not? 5. Is having an abortion a risk to a woman’s health? 6. What are the processes used in abortion?
  6. 6. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:This study aims to provide information about the following questions regarding abortion. This specifically aims to: A. Find out why is abortion legal? B. Know the risk of abortion to a woman’s health. C. Know why some person’s perform abortion services? D. Know some of the processes used in abortion.
  7. 7. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: The study will be beneficial to the following persons: 1. High School and college students. The findings of our research may give them knowledge about the real deal on abortion. The knowledge that they have learned in this study could help them in the future. 2. Persons who had undergone abortion. During our research we have learned that there are health risks that occur after the abortion.3. Persons who needs more information regarding the issue/topic.In this research, we focused more on some questions that people wants to know about abortion.
  8. 8. DEFINITION OF TERMS:LEGALIZATION-is the process of removing a legal prohibitionagainst something which is currently not legal. Legalization isa process often applied to what are regarded, by those workingtowards legalization, as victimless crimes, of which one exampleis the consumption of illegal drugs (see Drug legalization).http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LegalizationPERCEPTION- is the process ofattaining awareness or understanding of the environment byorganizing and interpreting sensory information. All perceptioninvolves signals in the nervous system, which in turn resultfrom physical stimulation of the sense organs.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PerceptionMISCARRIAGE- is the spontaneous end of a pregnancy at a stagewhere the embryo or fetus is incapable of survivingindependently, generally defined in humans at prior to 20 weeksof gestation. Miscarriage is the most common complication ofearly pregnancy.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miscarriage
  9. 9. Medical abortion- It is a form of procedure and technique thatdoes not necessitate surgery but induces the process through theinduction of medication for all intents and purposes orsusceptible to miscarriages. Doctors advise various medicationssuch as mifepristone as well as misoprostol. This proceduretakes care of various weeks of implementation for the purposesof carrying out this process without endangering the life of themother at the same time.http://www.bestpregnancytips.com/abortion-techniques-methods-types/Suction Curettage– This procedure is also known as menstrualextraction or vacuum aspiration. It is the most common techniqueadopted in the United States of America by involving anobstetrician or a gynecologist for insertion of a tube akin tothe size of a pencil which should be connected to a powerfulvacuum or hand pump into the fetus of the woman which can bedilated with rods which are in a tapered form. This procedureutilizes a powerful vacuum that rips apart an unborn child’sbody by collectingthe various pieces in a jar. The doctor later checks the jar formaking sure that none of the parts of the body were left insideor could cause some kind of an infection.
  10. 10. http://www.bestpregnancytips.com/abortion-techniques-methods-types/Dilation and Curettage – This procedure involves the process ofsurgery for dilation of the cervix as well as scraping of thefetus with a curette for removal of contents of fetus. These arecommonly performed during the course of the first trimester ofpregnancy.http://www.bestpregnancytips.com/abortion-techniques-methods-types/Dilation and Evacuation – This procedure is performed during thecourse of the second trimester of pregnancy. In this procedure agynecologist rips open a child apart in the fetus with the helpof forceps or other surgical tools.http://www.bestpregnancytips.com/abortion-techniques-methods-types/Digoxin – The procedure of Digoxin is utilized during the courseof second and third trimesters for the purposes of carrying on
  11. 11. this process. You can also utilize the aids of an ultrasound forenabling injection of an unborn child’s heart with anappropriate chemical by induction of labor for removal of thebody from the fetus.http://www.bestpregnancytips.com/abortion-techniques-methods-types/Intact Dilation and Evacuation – This procedure is also known aspartial abortion and the methodology is delivery of a baby up tothe stage of head remains in the fetus behind the cervix.http://www.bestpregnancytips.com/abortion-techniques-methods-types/
  12. 12. METHODOLOGY: The methodology used in this topic was to gather information about the topic using the internet. We wanted to searcheverything on the internet because it would be faster and easier for us to learn more about it. While searching the internet about abortion, we had a lot of references that talk aboutabortion much further than those on books. Another thing why we chose the internet as our source of information is because theinternet provides us with both knowledge and technology. We allknow that technology gives us the drive to study and learn more. Researching everything was not that hard. All you got to do is to organize the meanings, description ant etc. because everything is found in the internet regarding abortion. It explains further the issues we have to know about it. Not only that, we discovered things that we thought was kind of unbelievable. One example of that are the different methods ofabortion. The books may provide us details that we need to know,but in the internet it provides us details and information that we should know.
  13. 13. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE: “ALL ABOUT ABORTION”When making a decision about your pregnancy, it is important tohave reliable abortion facts. An abortion is a procedure where awoman chooses to end her pregnancy. Unintended pregnancy is asignificant concern that affects thousands of people each year.More than half of the 6 million pregnancies occurring each yearin the United States are unplanned. According to a studypublished inPerspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health,about 50% of the women faced with these unplanned pregnancieswere actually usingcontraception during the month that theyconceived. Abortion is one of the most common medical proceduresperformed in the United States as approximately 1.3 millionabortions performed each year. Data indicates that more than 40%of all women will end a pregnancy by abortion at some time intheir reproductive lives.Brief Background:In 1973, the Supreme Court case Roe v. Wade ruled that womenhave the right to an abortion during the first 6 months (2trimesters) of pregnancy, thereby legalizing abortion. The court
  14. 14. asserted that abortion is a fundamental right under the U.S.Constitution and prohibiting abortion would violate the DueProcess Clause of the 14th Amendment (which protects againststate actions to deny the right to privacy, including a womansqualified right to terminate her pregnancy).Abortion Facts - When Women Seek Abortion:Approximately 88% of abortions are preformed within in the firsttrimester (3 months) of a pregnancy. Roughly 59% take placewithin the first eight weeks of pregnancy, 19% in weeks 9 to 10,and 10% in weeks 11 to 12.About 10% of abortions occur during the second trimester (6% inweeks 13-15 and 4% by week 20). After 24 weeks or pregnancy,abortions are only provided due to serious health reasons (andaccount for less than 1% of total abortions). Earlier abortionsare easier, safer, and tend to be less expensive than abortionstaking place later in a pregnancy.
  15. 15. Some Abortion Facts and Demographics: U.S. women, age 24 and younger, account for about for 52% of those who obtain an abortion. This number is further broken down into: 19% of these abortions are obtained by teenagers, and women age 20 to 24 account for 33% of these abortions.Approximately 60% of abortions are obtained by women who havehad at least one child.Two-thirds of all abortions occur in women who have never beenmarried.Women of every social class and race elect to have an abortion:78% of women who have had an abortion report having a religiousaffiliation, 88% of women who obtain abortions live inmetropolitan areas, and 57% of women who seek abortion areeconomically disadvantaged (living below the federal povertylevel).Of women obtaining abortions, 54% were using a birth controlmethod during the time they became pregnant. Many of thesepregnancies resulted from condoms breaking or beingused incorrectly (49%) and due to women who missed takingtheir birth control pills (76%).
  16. 16. Half of all women seeking a first abortion had not been using any type of contraception when they conceived (despite agreement with their sexual partners about not wanting to become pregnant). Deciding to Obtain an Abortion:It is important that a woman make a well-informed decision when she is considering obtaining an abortion. Discussing one’s options with trusted and supported friends or family aswell as early pregnancy counseling can be helpful in reaching adecision that a woman feels the most right about. Women may have a choice between two or more types of abortion procedures depending on how many weeks pregnant they are. The safest time to have an abortion is 5-10 weeks after your last menstrual period. In the past, there was concern that an abortion may increase a womans risk of breast cancer. More recent andcarefully done studies, however, indicate that there is no link between having an abortion and having breast cancer later in life.
  17. 17. CONCLUSION:Therefore, we conclude that abortion is a complicated issue foreveryone in the society. Some wants it to be legal, while others do not. For us, we believe that the legalization of abortionshould not be allowed, especially here in our country. We have used ethics to help us in concluding, abortion is probably oneof the most intensely debated ethical issues in today’s society. For example, Pro-choice believers feel that a woman has the right to choose whether to have an abortion, while Pro-lifefollowers feel that abortion is never an option. However, in anattempt to find common ground on this issue, we tend to overlook the basic facts regarding this issue. To solve this issue onecould look at abortion under an objective view instead of only a subjective view and find that while there is no real answer to this controversy, ethical choices are plentiful. With all the examination complete it then becomes apparent that since it is always wrong to cause death to an innocent person, abortion is always wrong. With that said, the Pro-life view is morally and ethically the correct view. Before we begin to make decisions about abortion we must first examine the definitions thatsurround this issue. The first definition that we must define is“personhood”. What makes up personhood? The definition of when a fetus becomes a person is a very gray area, however if we
  18. 18. utilize medical definitions of life, we can see that a fetus is a person when its heart begins to beat on its own. While onviews of Pro Choice amongst women many clinics provide abortion services for women with unplanned or uncontrollable pregnancies. Some women find themselves with an unplanned pregnancy rather than an uncontrollable one. Unplanned in fact that a contraceptive failed, or may not have been easily accessible: uncontrolled in the sense of factors being greaterthan limited contraception. Abortion has been performed in many clinics as a treatment for unfit or unhealthy women, and forwomen who may have been molested or raped. Abortion shouldn’t be used as a form of contraception, nor should women’s lives besacrificed to bear an infant before morally ready to commit. If a woman is raped, and the outcome incurs pregnancy, then abortion is an alternate form of controlling the unwanted pregnancy. Abortion should stand as only the woman’s choice, never as a decision adverse to Pro-Life activists. Pro-Choiceadvocates seem to vindicate abortion, accepting that abortion is not considered a form of birth control, but merely a method of controlling the woman and fetus future. Women are the sole determinate persons in stating if they are capable of withholding a full term pregnancy. no matter how you defend itto be right it will still be a wrong decision to abort something
  19. 19. that is already given to you. As a solution to your problem, face the consequence and do not run from it.
  20. 20. BIBLIOGRAPHY: References:Naina, Roy. Introduction on abortion. Best information guide. December 20, 2008Naina, Roy. Types and methods of abortion techniques.November 10, 2008 Tom Head. Why is abortion legal?.www. About.com. Tom Head. Why do persons perform abortion services?.www. About.com El. Abortion risks. Afterabortion.org. November 23, 1999
  21. 21. PERCEPTION ON THE LEGALIZATION OF ABORTION A Term Paper presented to: Ms.Jureca Failanga Instructor St. Paul University Iloilo College of Arts and SciencesIn the partial fulfilment of the requirements for the subject ENGLISH 102 - writing presentation Presented by: Karlyn Denise Casalmir Roshyll Asperga Frances Anne Solinap