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Transport Canada   Transports Canada Quebec Region      Région du Québec Civil Aviation     Aviation civileLow Level Flyin...
ContentRecency training requirementsAltitudes and minimum distancesBirdstrikesIllusions and disorientationVFR flights in a...
Recency         Requirementssafety seminar given by TransportCanada Aviationquestionnaire published in AviationSafety News...
Altitudes andMinimum Distances
Where Am I ?Over a Built-Up Area     2 000 or less         500 or less
500’            2 000’       1 000What        to do ?
less than500’ AGL
Did you know...Only known objects extending 300 feetor more will be depicted on VFR chart.Alert TC if there are such objec...
Birdstrikes         E = MV2
E=MV   2E= M V   2
To minimize the risksNOTAM et ATISStrobe lights and landing lightsWindshield heatingAvoid low level flyingReport bird acti...
Illusions anddisorientation Vestibular apparatus and loss of visual references
Runway length and width
Runway and terrain         on a slopeIllusion   ResultToo low    approach           too high                              ...
Runway and terrain         on a slopeIllusion   ResultToo high   approach           too low                               ...
What else ?Black Hole “effect”   When :        At night   Illusion :    Too high   Result :      Approach too low
How to fight illusionsPlanning and pre-landing checksVerify runway length, width and slopeKnow the field elevationDo not “...
DisorientationContributory Factors– Stress– Health condition– Alcoholic drink– Drugs– Sky obscured by fog or clouds
Vestibular Apparatus                          Anterior Canal   Lateral CanalPosterior Canal Opposite turn illusion Corioli...
Semi-circular canals                CupulaEndolymph                 Filaments offluid                 hair cells
What happens ?    No turns
What happens ?         Accelerating            turnLiquid
What happens ?   Prolonged  constant turn
What happens ?   Decelerating      turn                  Liquid
Opposite Turning IllusionWhen will it happen ?– Coming out of a turn or a spin– Loss of visual reference points– Brain is ...
Coriolis IllusionWhen will it happen ?– Coming out of a turn or a spin– Loss of visual reference points– When leaning or r...
To reduce the risksFly healthyLearn to recognize the situations leading todisorientationRecognize when you are a victim of...
VFR flight in adverseweather conditions
TSB RecommendationThe Department of Transportevaluate the adequacy of the marginof safety afforded by current VFRand SVFR ...
CFITWhat is Controlled Flight into Terrain?   When the aircraft collide with an   obstacle before the pilot can react   an...
Safety of VFR FlightHuman factors assessment related to flyingAircraft performance    obstacle avoidancemanoeuvresUndersta...
VFR flight into IMC49 accidents (largest group)Inexperienced pilotsWeather worst than forecastHappened while a/c was turni...
Violations22 accidents - 36 livesknowingly flew into below minimaweatherfor most of the pilots, was commonpractice
AnalysisAlmost no one crashed « legally »Relatively few « willful violations »Perceptual issue :   What does 2 miles look ...
Human PerformanceNavigation      get lostControl of the aircraft      Loss of controlObstacle avoidance      CFIT
NavigationHow does it work– mental model      map or knowledgeDecrease in visibility !!!....– do not recognize landmark   ...
Control of the aircraftHow does it work ?– attitude, altitude and heading   horizon or  landmarksDecrease in visibility !!...
To Prevent CFIT Detect the obstacle  identify hazard Select and implement evasive actionTIME (critical element) – identify...
Decrease in visibility !!!...– decrease in capability to evaluate distance– need more time for decision making
CountermeasuresAcquire bad weather flying techniquesLearn to turn back / alternate plansOvercome normal human decision mak...
Aircraft PerformancesHow much airspeed will you lose if you slam youraircraft into a 45o bank turn ?How much space will yo...
Put the odds on your sideHave a current VFR map of the areayou plan to fly over.                    N DDo not rely only on...
Sherbrooke (20nm N)                                                           1100Z SCT007 OVC012                         ...
REVIEWRespect your limits andcapabilitiesMake room for change of planWeather does not causeaccidents, WE DORegulations may...
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Low level-flying

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  • 2
  • Obstacles not yet depicted on charts are listed in the Planification Section of the CFR
  • 15 Black Hole Effect At night when there is no lightning before the runway. Approach over water or dark ground. Stronger effect by clear night Perception of being closer to the runway. Start the descent too soon. Numerous aviation involving B727 in the year 1970s. A Human Factors engineer with Boeing observed similarities among these accidents. They landed short of the runway at night in clear visual conditions after an approach made over water or dark ground.
  • 20 As the fluid speed reaches that of the canal the inner ear tells the brain there is no motion. In clouds, when you loss visual cues, your brain will receive false messages. YOU MUST THRUST YOUR INSTRUMENTS. It was proven that pilots with no instrument flight knowledge will put the aircraft in a spin within one minute.
  • 21 Fluid in all three canals is in motion. When the fluid speed reaches that of the semi-circular canals, your brain receives the message that everything is in equilibrium on a vertical plane. When the motion is stopped and the head held upright, the inner ear signals the brain that the body is falling over. SENSATION OF TUMBLING Sensation is stronger when your head turns in the direction opposite to that of the airplane.
  • 22 Ask about the side-effects of any over the counter medication to your aviation medical examiner. Drinking and flying is deadly. Even after 8 hours, there is still alcohol left in the canals’ fluid of the vestibular apparatus - emphasize all sensation of rotary motion. Human senses are not perfect.
  • TSB expressed its concerns over the frequency and the consequences of CFIT and LOC accidents.
  • CFIT accidents kill more people than any other type of aircraft accident. Virtually all CFIT are attributable to human error frustrating because the errors leading to CFIT have been identified again and again, but he same accidents keep happening.
  • It was decided to examine the decisions that resulted in accidents. The study team analyzed 129 Canadian CFIT and LOC accidents that occurred between 1984 and 1995. As a result, they identified six categories of accidents among which Night VFR and VFR flight into IMC.
  • It is difficult to estimate what minimum visibility is required to preclude loss of control. In fact, control difficulties have been encountered in excellent visibility conditions when there was no contrast on the ground or horizon available to provide external references to the pilots, such as in white-out conditions. In an experiment conducted at the University of Illinois, twenty non-instrument rated student pilots in ground trainers flew into simulated IMC. They loss control of their aircraft in average of 178 seconds . The shortest time to loss of control was 20 seconds and the longest any of them maintained control was 480 seconds .
  • Hazard recognition and decision times will be extended. Rules regarding minimum visibility are unambiguous, the cues by which a pilot can assess the prevailing visibility are not clear. Determining, with certainty, when visibility has fallen below two miles in VFR flight, or 1 mile in SVFR is beyond the ability of pilots. TRICK The length of the interval from the sighting of the most distant discernible feature until the aircraft is overhead might be useful to in determining whether the flight can be continued safely. If the time available between sighting an obstacle and arriving overhead does not permit these actions to be accomplished, flight is not safe.
  • Transcript of "Low level-flying"

    1. 1. Transport Canada Transports Canada Quebec Region Région du Québec Civil Aviation Aviation civileLow Level Flying Brigitte Ouellet System Safety
    2. 2. ContentRecency training requirementsAltitudes and minimum distancesBirdstrikesIllusions and disorientationVFR flights in adverse weatherconditions
    3. 3. Recency Requirementssafety seminar given by TransportCanada Aviationquestionnaire published in AviationSafety Newsletterobtaining a rating, a permit or a license
    4. 4. Altitudes andMinimum Distances
    5. 5. Where Am I ?Over a Built-Up Area 2 000 or less 500 or less
    6. 6. 500’ 2 000’ 1 000What to do ?
    7. 7. less than500’ AGL
    8. 8. Did you know...Only known objects extending 300 feetor more will be depicted on VFR chart.Alert TC if there are such objects notdepicted on VFR chart.Make sure you will not enter anMF or ATF Zone.
    9. 9. Birdstrikes E = MV2
    10. 10. E=MV 2E= M V 2
    11. 11. To minimize the risksNOTAM et ATISStrobe lights and landing lightsWindshield heatingAvoid low level flyingReport bird activity and birdstrikes 1-888-282-2473 or http://www.tc.gc.ca/aviation/wildlife.htm
    12. 12. Illusions anddisorientation Vestibular apparatus and loss of visual references
    13. 13. Runway length and width
    14. 14. Runway and terrain on a slopeIllusion ResultToo low approach too high Perceived height Actual height above above the runway the runway Down slope
    15. 15. Runway and terrain on a slopeIllusion ResultToo high approach too low Perceived height Actual height above above the runway the runway Up slope
    16. 16. What else ?Black Hole “effect” When : At night Illusion : Too high Result : Approach too low
    17. 17. How to fight illusionsPlanning and pre-landing checksVerify runway length, width and slopeKnow the field elevationDo not “cut corners” on the approachProp pitch and power settings
    18. 18. DisorientationContributory Factors– Stress– Health condition– Alcoholic drink– Drugs– Sky obscured by fog or clouds
    19. 19. Vestibular Apparatus Anterior Canal Lateral CanalPosterior Canal Opposite turn illusion Coriolis illusion
    20. 20. Semi-circular canals CupulaEndolymph Filaments offluid hair cells
    21. 21. What happens ? No turns
    22. 22. What happens ? Accelerating turnLiquid
    23. 23. What happens ? Prolonged constant turn
    24. 24. What happens ? Decelerating turn Liquid
    25. 25. Opposite Turning IllusionWhen will it happen ?– Coming out of a turn or a spin– Loss of visual reference points– Brain is sending/receiving erroneous information
    26. 26. Coriolis IllusionWhen will it happen ?– Coming out of a turn or a spin– Loss of visual reference points– When leaning or raising your head– Brain is sending/receiving erroneous messages
    27. 27. To reduce the risksFly healthyLearn to recognize the situations leading todisorientationRecognize when you are a victim ofdisorientationLearn to control disorientationTrust your flight instruments
    28. 28. VFR flight in adverseweather conditions
    29. 29. TSB RecommendationThe Department of Transportevaluate the adequacy of the marginof safety afforded by current VFRand SVFR regulations.TSB A96-10
    30. 30. CFITWhat is Controlled Flight into Terrain? When the aircraft collide with an obstacle before the pilot can react and avoid it.
    31. 31. Safety of VFR FlightHuman factors assessment related to flyingAircraft performance obstacle avoidancemanoeuvresUnderstanding the process leading to CFIT– identify unsafe act(s) and conditions– determine error type (slip, lapse, mistake)
    32. 32. VFR flight into IMC49 accidents (largest group)Inexperienced pilotsWeather worst than forecastHappened while a/c was turning aroundFailed to delay or land
    33. 33. Violations22 accidents - 36 livesknowingly flew into below minimaweatherfor most of the pilots, was commonpractice
    34. 34. AnalysisAlmost no one crashed « legally »Relatively few « willful violations »Perceptual issue : What does 2 miles look like ?Decision difficulty - selection of actionUse available resources
    35. 35. Human PerformanceNavigation get lostControl of the aircraft Loss of controlObstacle avoidance CFIT
    36. 36. NavigationHow does it work– mental model map or knowledgeDecrease in visibility !!!....– do not recognize landmark LOST– misidentify landmark do NOT KNOW that we are LOST
    37. 37. Control of the aircraftHow does it work ?– attitude, altitude and heading horizon or landmarksDecrease in visibility !!!....– disorientationAt night
    38. 38. To Prevent CFIT Detect the obstacle identify hazard Select and implement evasive actionTIME (critical element) – identify the obstacle as a hazard – select the appropriate action – make control inputs – aircraft response time
    39. 39. Decrease in visibility !!!...– decrease in capability to evaluate distance– need more time for decision making
    40. 40. CountermeasuresAcquire bad weather flying techniquesLearn to turn back / alternate plansOvercome normal human decision makingtendencies « traps »Better weather interpretation and weatherrelated decision making skillsMake PIREPSUse available liveware
    41. 41. Aircraft PerformancesHow much airspeed will you lose if you slam youraircraft into a 45o bank turn ?How much space will you need to do a 180o turn ?How much more space will you need with a 20 knotwind behind you half way round the turn ?If you have to pull up quickly straight ahead, whatairspeed will you have after 300 feet of climb ?
    42. 42. Put the odds on your sideHave a current VFR map of the areayou plan to fly over. N DDo not rely only on your GPS. L ABeware of power lines.Get a complete weather briefing prior to theflight.
    43. 43. Sherbrooke (20nm N) 1100Z SCT007 OVC012 6SM -DZFGSt-Hubert1200Z VFRPortland 1 000 ASL1251Z OVC005 3SM FG 1 300 ASL 1 400 ASL 300 AGL Radar Plots Flew around the Portland (forecast) thunderstorm cells OVC020 2SM FG ... SCT 020 OVC100 5SM
    44. 44. REVIEWRespect your limits andcapabilitiesMake room for change of planWeather does not causeaccidents, WE DORegulations may well have protectedthese people, had they been observed
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