IRELAND By: Caylah, Tracey, Rebeca, Hannah & Taylor
Irish Eadaigh(Nonverbal Use of Clothing) By: Caylah Hager
Traditional Style (Medieval & Renaissance) Men wore a linen shirt called a leine. Women wore long dresses that often laced up in the front. Both men and women wore shaggy cloaks called mantles. During the 18th and 19th century they began dressing like the English. During some of that time it was actually against the law to wear the traditional clothing.
Irish Dancers Womens dresses are very elaborate. Pipers wear a kilt In 1910 male dancers began to wear kilts as well. Women dancers just started wearing shoes a century ago.
Fun Facts Kilts in Ireland are typically a solid color. Kilts did not originate in Ireland. They became popular to step dance in the 1930’s and 1940’s.
St Patrick’s Day People in Ireland do not typically wear green. On St Patrick’s Day most people wear a small bunch of shamrocks pined to the outside of their coat. This symbolizes the teaching of the holy trinity by St Patrick.
Gender Roles Ireland’s women By: RebecaMatison
Gender Roles and Statuses
The United Nations figured out 25 years ago fairly quickly that “Women constitute half the world’s population, perform nearly two-thirds of its work hours, receive one tenth of the world’s income and own less than one hundredth of the world’s property”.
Even though gender equality is guaranteed by law, astonishing inequities exist in many areas; pay, access to professional achievement, and parity of esteem in the workplace. Many jobs and professions are continued to be considered by the majority of the population to be linked to one’s gender. It is said that gender biases continue to be recognized and reinforced in the nation’s largest institutions of government, education, and religion. Feminism is a growing movement in rural and urban areas of Ireland, but still faces multiple obstacles among traditionalists.
1937 Irish Constitution clearly defined women's gender roles “death knell of the working women”
1971 Irish Women’s Liberation - 47 members took “contraception train” from Belfast to Dublin. Before the late 1990’s Ireland was known for how gender repressed it was. The Catholic church ruled virtually unchallenged while placing women as second class citizens. Some argue that it is not the feminist’s nor the media that have generated this change, but the changes in capitalism that have led to the changes in the lives of Ireland’s women. Women’s oppression is rooted in their role in the reproduction of the next generation of workers. The way reproduction is organized depends on the way production is organized—women’s oppression can be ended only by overthrowing capitalism and bringing production under the worker's control. In a recent report by the National Women’s Council of Ireland (Who Cares?: 2009) presented that over the course of 7 days, women on average spend a fifth of their day occupied by care and household work, averaging out to be three times as much as men, indicating that there is a constant cultural bias towards conventional gender roles in Ireland.
Women in the Workplace Given that the Irish economy started changing in the 1970’s women growing up expected and demanded a life outside the home. They wanted to be more than wives and mothers. By 1996 there were 488,000 women at work and increase of 213,000 since 1971. Ireland saw a growth of more than 600% for married women working outside the home. Most women workers are clustered in the lowest paid jobs and earn on average 73 percent of men’s wages. The difference is even more among the lowest paid women. 1974 - An Anti-Discrimination (Pay) Act. In 1992 Irish women received less than 70% of male earnings. Married women in the workforce The Celtic Tiger relied on women’s labor and more families now rely on two wages.
“Women and Men in Ireland 2004” gender report published by the CSO.
The collective effects of economic and social change have broken down many of the old stereotypes of women as wives and mothers.
Even though most women earn too little to break away completely, a measure of economic independence makes leaving a partner a real possibility.
Women make up the majority of those relying on Carer’s payments.
80% of those receiving payments are women.
85% of those claiming Carer’s Benefit are women.
One third of those on Carer’s allowance and over half of Carer’s Benefit recipients also care for children.
The age profile of those receiving Carer’s payments confirms women’s over representation during working age years. Being a full time carer during these years deprives women of the opportunity to earn wages and provide for their own retirement years.
Women in Politics The election of Mary Robinson to the Irish Presidency in 1990, Ireland’s first female president, who was also a distinguished lawyer and a seasoned campaigner for the liberalization of divorce and contraception law gave way to the women’s movement and was ideal representative of the new modern and progressive Ireland February 25th 2011 marked the election of 25 women to DáilÉireann. This is considered a high in terms of women’s political representation in Ireland. Ireland still falls behind in 74th position in a world classification table of women’s representation in parliament. Only 86 of the total 566 candidates were women in the recent election. Then expectations placed on women to maintain the customary role of main home-maker, prevents or delays many women from entering politics. In relation to cash, the 2010 CSO Women and Men in Ireland Report inidicates that women’s annual income is around 70 percent of that of men. With not as much cash at their disposal, many women find it difficult to enter politics and fun campaigns.
Male Gender Roles in Ireland By: Tracey Lanner
Male Gender Role “A husband’s job is to earn money; a wife’s job is to look after the home and family.” “It is not good if the man stays at home and cares for the children and the woman goes out to work.” “People who have never had children lead empty lives.”
Male Gender Role For large parts of the last decades, a strongly male-breadwinner orientation has been dominant, institutionally supporting the work orientation of men while women were expected to primarily fulfill care tasks.
Male Gender Role “Both the husband should contribute to the household income.” “Having a job is the best way for a woman to be an independent person if there is not a man in the house.” “Most women have to work these days to support their families, this is not only a mans job to work women need to help support their family also.”
Male Gender Role Most of the male roles can be done my either male or female. Male gender is not the only gender that makes up the household and need to work. Men have always been successful in the employment area.
Verbal Traditions By: Hannah Hong
The Irish language is called Irish-Gaelic. The language is one of four surviving Celtic languages. The prideful Irish refer to their language as simply “Irish” in order to clear any confusion there might be with Scottish-Gaelic.
In Ireland today, only about 5% of the population is fluent in Irish; their main language is English. The Irish language has disintegrated over the past 165 years. National laws, however are very strictly written in Irish and then translated into English.
Irish-Gaelic does not use the lettersJ, K, Q, X or Y and also does not use the “th” sound. There is no equivalent to simple words such as “yes” and “no” instead answers are given in an affirmative or negative rephrasing of the original question.
The Irish have a reputation for their humor and jokes; they call it “having a crack.” They often tease each other and trade insults which they call “slagging.” Becoming offended or upset by these insults is unacceptable. The Irish’s quick tongue has caused them to be witty speakers and fascinating story tellers which has helped pass down information through generations.
The Irish pay close attention to how you speak and make formal judgments based solely on your communication skills. The Irish are very modest and do not appreciate people who are loud or tend to brag or try and take superiority. Being polite and eloquent in your speaking is more important than expressing your true feelings; this is how they avoid conflict. Irish greetings are always formal and most often lead to a full conversation.
Non Verbal Traditions of Ireland By: Taylor Kinyon
Etiquette : When invited to another persons home, it is pertinent to be on time Maintain eye contact when speaking in Ireland , shying away while speaking means that you are untrustworthy Irish shake everyone's hand when getting-together(children, men, and women ) Irish expect reserved behavior Irish people wait patiently when it comes to waiting for their turn to be served When visiting another person home a small gift is required
Gestures : Giving a peace sign with fingers faced outward is taken as the American middle finger Personal displays of affection are considered vulgar and inappropriate While driving a single finger up while hand is on steering wheel is common
Dining and Entertainment: When at a pub it is considered rude to not buy a round of drinks when it is your turn The small plate next to a dinner plate is for peelings removed from boiled potatoes Spouses may or may not be invited to a business dinner
Works Cited Traditional dress of Ireland Retrieved May 18, 2011 http://www.gowealthy.com St Patrick’s Day Celebrations & Traditions Retrieved May 18, 2011 http://www.yourirish.com Facts on Traditional Irish Clothes Retrieved May 20, 2011 http://www.ehow.com Clancy, Patrick, SheelaghDrudy, Kathleen Lynch, and Liam O'Dowd, eds. Irish Society: Sociological Perspectives , 1995. Curtin, Chris, Hastings Donnan, and Thomas M. Wilson, eds. Irish Urban Cultures , 1993. L German, Sex, Class and Socialism (London, 1989). National Women’s Council of Ireland (Who Cares?: 2009) Department of Social & Family Affairs (2009) Statistical Information on Social Welfare Services, 2008, D/SFA: Dublin. "Ireland - Guide to Language, Culture, Customs, Doing Business and Etiquette." Professional Translation Services | Interpreters | Intercultural Communication & Training. Web. 20 May 2011. <http://www.kwintessential.co.uk>. Steves, Rick, and Pat O'Connor. Rick Steves' Ireland: 2011. Berkeley, CA: Avalon Travel, 2011. Print.
Questions When did it become illegal for the Irish to wear traditional clothing? What do Irish men do similar to men in the United States? How to do the Irish avoid conflict among each other? By the year 1996 how many women were working in Ireland? How much of a growth was it since 1971?