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    Lang aquistin presss Lang aquistin presss Presentation Transcript

    • LANGUAGE LearningSecond Language Learning
      Presented to: Sir Nazir Malik
      Presented by: Tahira Akbar Sial
      Language Learning is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive ,produce and use words to under
      stand and communicate.
      The Learning of language is doubtless the greatest intellectual feat any one of us is ever required to perform. (Leonard Bloomfield, Language1993)
    • The capacity to learn language is deeply ingrained in us as a species ,just as the capacity to walk, to grasp objects, to recognize faces. We do not find any serious differences in children growing up in congested urban slums, in isolated mountain villages, or in privileged suburban villas.
      (Dan slobin, The human language series2,1994)
    • Second Language L2 Learning deals with Learning of additional languages in both children and adults. They are referred to as L2 (Second Language), L3 (Third Language), L4 (Fourth Language) etc.
      Second Language Learning:
    • After the Critical Period has passed around puberty it becomes very difficult to acquire another language fully.
      Linguists are of the view that
      children can acquire up to 5 or 6 languages by the age of 6 and have maximum ability.
      From 6 to 7 their language learning ability gradually reduces a bit.
      Learning a Second Language.Ability:
    • From the age of 7 to 11 they have a very good ability to acquire second language (s).
      Their language learning ability remains good from the age of 12 to 17.
      Their language learning ability gradually reduces from the age of 17 to 30 and almost ends or ends by the age of 30 or 31.
    • Similarities & Differences
    • Similarities & Differences
    • Contextual Factors in Second Language Learning
      Role models
      Diverse goals
      Home Support
      Diverse needs
      Knowledge of second language
      The learning process
      Learning style
      Native language proficiency
      Language distance
      Motivation & interaction
    • Stage 1: Silent Stage
      Stage 2: Early Production
      Stage 3: Emergence of Speech
      Stage 4: Intermediate Ability
      Stage 5: Advance Fluency
    • There are five main components of Krashen’s theory. Each of the components relates to a different aspect of the language learning process. The five components are as follows:
      The Learning Learning Hypothesis
      The Monitor Hypothesis
      The Natural Order Hypothesis
      The Input Hypothesis
      The Affective Filter Hypothesis
      Five Components of Second Language Learning Theory
    • This hypothesis actually fuses two fundamental theories of how individuals learn languages. Krashen has concluded that there are two systems of language Learning that are independent but related: the acquired system and the learned system.
      The acquired system relates to the unconscious aspect of language Learning. When people learn their first language by speaking the language naturally in daily interaction with others who speak their native language, this acquired system is at work. In this system, speakers are less concerned with the structure of their utterances than with the act of communicating meaning. Krashen privileges the acquired system over the learned system.
      The learned system relates to formal instruction where students engage in formal study to acquire knowledge about the target language. For example, studying the rules of syntax is part of the learned system.
      The Learning-Learning Hypothesis
    • The Monitor Hypothesis
      The monitor hypothesis seeks to elucidate how the acquired system is affected by the learned system. When second language learners monitor their speech, they are applying their understanding of learned grammar to edit, plan, and initiate their communication. This action can only occur when speakers have ample time to think about the form and structure of their sentences.
      The amount of monitoring occurs on a continuum. Some language learners over-monitor and some use very little of their learned knowledge and are said to under-monitor. Ideally, speakers strike a balance and monitor at a level where they use their knowledge but are not overly inhibited by it.
    • This hypothesis argues that there is a natural order to the way second language learners acquire their target language. Research suggests that this natural order seems to transcend age, the learner's native language, the target language, and the conditions under which the second language is being learned. The order that the learners follow has four steps:
      They produce single words.
      They string words together based on meaning and not syntax.
      They begin to identify elements that begin and end sentences.
      They begin to identify different elements within sentences and can rearrange them to produce questions.
      The Natural Order Hypothesis
    • Learner acquire L2 by understanding message or receiving comprehensive input that is a bit ahead of their current level of acquired competence.
      This hypothesis accounts for the existence of silent period from input to production.
      Silent period may be the time during which learner build up competence by means of active listening through input.
      The Input Hypothesis
    • This hypothesis describes external factors that can act as a filter that impedes Learning. These factors include motivation, self-confidence, and anxiety. For example, if a learner has very low motivation, very low self-confidence, and a high level of anxiety, the affective filter comes into place and inhibits the learner from acquiring the new language. Students who are motivated, confident, and relaxed about learning the target language have much more success acquiring a second language than those who are trying to learn with the affective filter in place.
      The Affective Filter Hypothesis
    • According to second language Learning theory, the role of (/grammar-rules/effective-grammar-instruction.html grammar) in language Learning is useful only when the learner is interested in learning grammar. Otherwise, Krashen argues that studying grammar equates to language appreciation and does not positively influence language Learning.
      A Final Point on Grammar
    • The mother tongue or L1 features Learning: takes over most of the language faculty with a resulting loss of flexibility or openness to receive the features of another language.
      Bilingualism & Multilingualism.
      Input & Output.
      Sociolinguistic Competence:
      “ Communicative Competence,
      Strategic Competence,
      Grammatical Competence.”
      FACTORS Affecting L2 Learning:
    • GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD. Or dull traditional method of teachinglearning.
      Language diseases: Dyslexia & Aphasia.
      The Affective Filter: a kind of barrier related to negative feelings due to being stressed, uncomfortable, self-conscious or unmotivated in learning. Usually in adults (from 17 to 30..)
      Negative Factors:
      BEHIOURISM focuses on language learning mostly by social and environmental interaction and conditioning & reinforcement of BEHAVIOUR whereas Mentalism focuses mainly on language learning by hidden MENTAL ABILITY.
    • Piaget focuses on the Cognitive, Conceptual
      & Intellectual Ability of children as useful in Language LearningLearning and focuses on “Cognitivism”. Whereas Bruner focuses mainly on language learningLearning by social interaction and teachings of the care giverscare takers of the child or “Social Interaction.”
    • L1 Learning is different from L2 Learning Learning mainly that L1 Learning takes place mostly unconsciously through natural abilities in a natural environment in a CRITICAL PERIOD whereas L2 or L3 …Learning requires a conscious effort along with natural abilities.
    • Grammar Translation
      Direct Method
      Audio Lingual
      Natural Approach
      Total Physical Response
      Community Language Learning and Teaching
      Second Language Teaching Methods