Cosonants 2 lecture 4

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Cosonants 2 lecture 4

  1. 1. Description of English Consonants
  2. 2. Describing Speech Sounds <ul><li>MVP </li></ul><ul><li>Manner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>way the airstream is modified </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voicing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>whether or not the vocal folds are vibrating </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Place </li></ul><ul><ul><li>where the constriction is located </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Place </li></ul><ul><li>Bilabial </li></ul><ul><li>Labiodental </li></ul><ul><li>Interdental </li></ul><ul><li>Alveolar </li></ul><ul><li>Palatal </li></ul><ul><li>Velar </li></ul><ul><li>Manner </li></ul><ul><li>Stops (plosives) </li></ul><ul><li>Fricatives </li></ul><ul><li>Affricates </li></ul><ul><li>Nasals </li></ul><ul><li>Glides </li></ul><ul><li>Liquids </li></ul><ul><li>Voicing </li></ul><ul><li>Voiced </li></ul><ul><li>Voiceless </li></ul>
  4. 4. English Consonants <ul><li>No difference </li></ul><ul><li>p, b </li></ul><ul><li>t, d </li></ul><ul><li>k, g </li></ul><ul><li>m, n </li></ul><ul><li>f, v </li></ul><ul><li>s, z </li></ul><ul><li>h </li></ul><ul><li>w </li></ul><ul><li>l </li></ul><ul><li>New ones to learn </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  5. 5. Stops <ul><li>Complete obstruction of the airstream </li></ul><ul><li>Stops are PAIRED by PLACE (with a voiced and voiceless partner) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>p,b </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>t,d </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>k,g </li></ul></ul><ul><li>cognates = _______________ that differ only in voicing </li></ul>
  6. 6. /p/ voiceless bilabial stop-plosive <ul><li>pigs </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul>
  7. 7. /p/ voiceless bilabial stop-plosive <ul><li>Pigs /p  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul>
  8. 8. /b/ voiced bilabial stop-plosive <ul><li>stubborn </li></ul><ul><li>/ Γ / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>Buy me a blue bee </li></ul>
  9. 9. /b/ voiced bilabial stop-plosive <ul><li>Stubborn /st Γ / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>Buy me a blue bee /b  / </li></ul>
  10. 10. /t/ voiceless alveolar stop <ul><li>taste looked </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  |  / </li></ul>
  11. 11. /t/ voiceless alveolar stop <ul><li>taste /t  / looked /l  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  |  / </li></ul>
  12. 12. /d/ voiced alveolar stop <ul><li>Doe </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/ Γ / </li></ul><ul><li>Dave kept his den heated </li></ul>
  13. 13. /d/ voiced alveolar stop <ul><li>Doe /do  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/ Γ / </li></ul><ul><li>Dave kept his den heated </li></ul><ul><li>/de  / </li></ul>
  14. 14. /k/ voiceless velar stop <ul><li>like clock cat </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/ Γ / </li></ul><ul><li>He could come for coffee </li></ul>
  15. 15. /k/ voiceless velar stop <ul><li>like clock cat </li></ul><ul><li>/l  / /kl  / /k  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/ Γ / </li></ul><ul><li>He could come for coffee </li></ul><ul><li>/hi k Γ   / </li></ul>
  16. 16. /g/ voiced velar stop <ul><li>gone ghost </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>Give a goat gum </li></ul>
  17. 17. /g/ voiced velar stop <ul><li>gone /g  / ghost /go  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>Give a goat gum /g  o Γ / </li></ul>
  18. 18. /  / voiceless glottal stop <ul><li>May occur as an allophone of /t/ </li></ul><ul><li>Release occurs in the vocal folds instead of the oral cavity </li></ul><ul><li>mountain kitten Anna </li></ul><ul><li>Little bit of tea </li></ul><ul><li>****this phoneme is often an error in young children </li></ul>
  19. 19. /  / voiced alveolar flap (tap) <ul><li>/t/ and /d/ may be articulated as flaps when they occur between two vowels , the second of which is unstressed </li></ul><ul><li>**think of it as less power than a true /t/ or /d/ </li></ul><ul><li>city </li></ul><ul><li>lady </li></ul><ul><li>latter/ladder </li></ul>
  20. 20. Oral vs. Nasal Consonants <ul><li>Oral sounds exit through the mouth; the _______________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Nasal sounds exit through the nose; the velum is lowered </li></ul><ul><li>m </li></ul><ul><li>n </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  21. 21. /m/ (voiced) bilabial nasal <ul><li>men hammer </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/ Γ / </li></ul><ul><li>Meg and Matt swam home </li></ul>
  22. 22. /m/ (voiced) bilabial nasal <ul><li>Men /m  / hammer /h   / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/ Γ / </li></ul><ul><li>Meg and Matt swam home </li></ul><ul><li>/m   / </li></ul>
  23. 23. /n/ (voiced) alveolar nasal <ul><li>nice dinner </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>Ben moved to Panama </li></ul>
  24. 24. /n/ (voiced) alveolar nasal <ul><li>nice /n  / dinner /d  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>Ben moved to Panama </li></ul><ul><li>/b  / </li></ul>
  25. 25. /  / (voiced) velar nasal <ul><li>Cannot be used at the beginning of words in English </li></ul><ul><li>camping sing bingo </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>Stop banging, laughing, and clapping so loud </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  26. 26. /  / (voiced) velar nasal <ul><li>Cannot be used at the beginning of words in English </li></ul><ul><li>camping sing bingo </li></ul><ul><li>/k  / /s  / /b  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>Stop banging, laughing, and clapping so loud </li></ul><ul><li> /st  / </li></ul>
  27. 27. Syllabic nasals [  ] [  ] <ul><li>Nasals closing unstressed syllables may become syllabic </li></ul><ul><li>When a stop and a homorganic nasal occur in the same word, _________________________ __________________________________ of the next unstressed syllable without the aid of a full vowel </li></ul><ul><li>hidden  </li></ul><ul><li> /h  / /s  /  </li></ul>
  28. 28. homorganic sounds <ul><li>produced in the same PLACE of articulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>examples of homorganic sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>p,b,m </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>t,d,n,s,z </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>k,g,  </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Fricatives <ul><li>____________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>sibilants are the more intense higher frequency fricatives </li></ul> fan van  think the  sink zoo  push beige
  30. 30. /f/ voiceless labiodental fricative <ul><li>fix tough phone </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>Find fantastic and fascinating food </li></ul>
  31. 31. /f/ voiceless labiodental fricative <ul><li>fix tough phone </li></ul><ul><li>/f  / /t Γ / /fo  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>Find fantastic and fascinating food </li></ul><ul><li>/f  /  </li></ul>
  32. 32. /v/ voiced labiodental fricative <ul><li>vote of Stephen(*not syllabic because /v/ and /n/ are not homorganic) /  / </li></ul><ul><li>/ Γ / </li></ul><ul><li>Twelve students vote never to give up </li></ul>
  33. 33. /v/ voiced labiodental fricative <ul><li>vote of Stephen(*not syllabic because /v/ and /n/ are not homorganic) /vo  / / Γ / /stiv  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/ Γ / </li></ul><ul><li>Twelve students vote never to give up </li></ul><ul><li>/tw Γ / </li></ul>
  34. 34. /  / voiceless interdental fricative <ul><li>teeth thing </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/ Γ / </li></ul><ul><li>He did not think to thank her </li></ul>
  35. 35. /  / voiceless interdental fricative <ul><li>teeth thing </li></ul><ul><li>/ti  / /  / or /  / **p. 123-4 </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/ Γ / </li></ul><ul><li>He did not think to thank her </li></ul><ul><li>/hi d   / </li></ul>
  36. 36. /  / voiced interdental fricative <ul><li>father mother clothe </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>They like them with those leather noses </li></ul>
  37. 37. /  / voiced interdental fricative <ul><li>father mother clothe </li></ul><ul><li>/f  / /m Γ / /kl  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>They like them with those leather noses </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul>
  38. 38. /s/ voiceless alveolar fricative <ul><li>sink ice </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>or /  / </li></ul><ul><li>Six swift spiders seem to be sobbing and sighing </li></ul><ul><li> /j/ </li></ul>
  39. 39. /s/ voiceless alveolar fricative <ul><li>sink ice </li></ul><ul><li>/si  / /  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>or /  / </li></ul><ul><li>Six swift spiders seem to be sobbing and sighing </li></ul><ul><li> /j/ </li></ul><ul><li>/s  /  </li></ul>
  40. 40. /z/ voiced alveolar fricative <ul><li>zone fizz was scissors </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/ Γ / </li></ul><ul><li>The blizzard caused delays </li></ul>
  41. 41. /z/ voiced alveolar fricative <ul><li>zone fizz was scissors </li></ul><ul><li>/z  / /f  / /w  / or /w Γ / /s  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/ Γ / </li></ul><ul><li>The blizzard caused delays </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul>
  42. 42. Transcribing plurals, past tense, and third person <ul><li>When the word ends in a voiceless sound, the plural is [s] and the past is [t] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>examples: hits walked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cuffs cuffed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>laps mopped </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When the words ends in a voiced sound, the plural is [z] and the past is [d] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>examples lids paved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bags slugged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>globes clubbed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? coarticulation </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. /  / voiceless palatal fricative <ul><li>Technically called palatoalveolar or alveopalatal </li></ul><ul><li>shoe sugar </li></ul><ul><li>machine anxious </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>Shelly shipped cash to the shop </li></ul>
  44. 44. /  / voiceless palatal fricative <ul><li>Technically called palatoalveolar or alveopalatal </li></ul><ul><li>shoe sugar </li></ul><ul><li>/  / /  / </li></ul><ul><li>machine anxious </li></ul><ul><li>/m  / /ei  k  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>Shelly shipped cash to the shop </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul>
  45. 45. /  / voiced palatal fricative <ul><li>does not occur word-initially in English </li></ul><ul><li>beige measure </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/ Γ / </li></ul><ul><li>The treasure is in the garage.*** </li></ul>
  46. 46. /  / voiced palatal fricative <ul><li>does not occur word-initially in English </li></ul><ul><li>beige measure </li></ul><ul><li>/bei  / /m  / </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li>/ Γ / </li></ul><ul><li>The treasure is in the garage.*** </li></ul><ul><li>/  / </li></ul><ul><li> / Γ / /  / /  / </li></ul>

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