Compound words


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Compound words

  1. 1. TopicStress in compound words
  2. 2. Contents• Introduction• Rules of compound stress• Hypotheses on compound stress• Conclusion
  3. 3. Introduction• Compound vs. phrasese.g.Family tree, doctor’s dilemma, black boardFamily affairs, doctor’s office, blackboard
  4. 4. • Two main criteria for classificationa) Whether the combination of words is functioning as a compound or a phrase e.g gentleman ,gentle manJesperson (1942)Criticism : the word unit is vagueb) Whether the combination has primary stress on the first element or second.Bloomfield: Ice- cream , ice cream
  5. 5. Bloch and Trager formal distinction between compound and phrase English has formal distinction• phonemic modification of their components• kind of juncture• Stress patternOr the combination of above factors
  6. 6. Trager and Smith rules out “stress pattern” “simply two different dialects”E.g. Long Island , long island
  7. 7. Levi explored complex nominals distinguished it from other compound constructions Divided complex nominals into three types• nominal compoundse.G apple cake (forestressed N+N)• nominalizationse.G presidential refusal (afterstressed Adj+N) metal detection (forestressed N+N)• non-predicate adjectivese.G musical clock, electrical engineering (afterstressed Adj+N)
  8. 8. Schmerling It does seem to be the case that in some instancesstress assignment is governed by the choice of head orattribute, in others by syntactic characteristics(whetherthe attitude has the superficial form of an adjective ora noun).There ought to be rules that captures thesegeneralizations. In other cases stress assignment is anidiosyncratic property of individual compounds andought to be indicated in the lexicon as such. The factthat stress placement is sometimes predictable shouldnot make us try to predict it always.
  9. 9. Chomsky/Halle analysis “relative prominence tends to be preserved under embedding both for compounds and phrases”. both combinations occur as constituents of larger construction and the relative stress levels are maintained.E.g whale oil , whale oil lampAmerican history, American history teacher, teach American history.
  10. 10. • Chomsky/Halle analysis is not applicable at a large scale.• Liberman and Prince: Nuclear Stress rule, The compound stress rule, Rhythm rule
  11. 11. The Nuclear Stress Rule• The Nuclear Stress Rule specifies that the strongest stress in a phrase will fall as far back, i.e., as close to the end as possible.
  12. 12. . . * . . . * . . line 2__________ ____________(* . *) (* . . *) . . line 1Jesus wept Madison Avenue
  13. 13. Metrical Boundaries(to (the (people (of Judea)))) ×××××× to the (people of Judea) √√√√√√
  14. 14. Larger Constituents . . . *----------------------------------------------------(. . . * ) -------------------------------------------- . ( . . * ) ---------------------------- * * (* * )[Jesus[preached[to[the[people[of[Judea]]]]]]]
  15. 15. Stress Equalization Convention• When two or more constituents are conjoined into a single higher level constituent, the asterisk columns of the heads of the constituents are equalized by adding asterisk to the lesser column(s).
  16. 16. Line 4 . . . * ____________________________________Line 3 {*} . . * -----------------------------------------Line 2 {*} {*} . * ---------------------Line 1 * * * * (Jesus(preached to the(people of Judea)))
  17. 17. • JESUS preached to the people of Judea• Jesus PREACHED to the people of Judea• Jesus preached to the PEOPLE of Judea• Jesus preached to the people of JUDAE
  18. 18. The Rhythm Rule• The Rhythm Rule specifies that the stress on a word will be retracted (i.e., moved forward) in order to avoid consecutively stressed syllables. This rule reflects the tendency in English towards alternating stressed and unstressed syllables.• In a constituent composed of two or more words, retract the right boundary of the prefinalsubconstituent of constituent to a position immediately before the head of subconstituent, provided that the head of subconstituent is located in the last word of subconstituent (with further restrictions if the subconstituent consists of a single word).
  19. 19. • “Rhythm rule is universally constrained from moving the absolute stress peak of the phrase to which it applies”. Prince (1983) 3 1 2 4 New York Maine Route 3 1 2 4 Maine New York Route Like the nuclear stress rule, the rhythm rule for word sequences applies cyclically.
  20. 20. Removing Stress Clashes• JapaNEse• INstitute• Japanese (adjecent) Institute =• JApanese INstitute• sixTEEN JapaNEse vs. SIXteen JApanese INstitutes• ANtique NINEteen TWENty MOtor
  21. 21. Cooper and Eady (1986)• Thirteen corporations/companies submitted bids...• thirTEEN• THIRteen Look ahead???
  22. 22. The Compound Stress Rule• No new rule is required, for the stress contours of compound words result from the interaction of the nuclear stress rule and the rhythm rule.• In particular, the nuclear stress rule freely applies to all constituents composed of two or more full words (that is, not clitics).• The rule will apply to compounds as well as to noncompounds and will place an extra asterisk on the rightmost subconstituent.
  23. 23. Three hypothesis• Structural hypothesis• Semantic hypothesis• Analogical Hypothesis
  24. 24. Plag(2006)Structural hypothesis• Compounds are regularly left-stressed• Word combinations with right stress cannot be compounds.• Questions raised and confusions• Stress is the only distinction between Madison street and Madison Avenue
  25. 25. • Giegrich (2004) has proposed a new variant of structural hypothesisCompliment –head: structures like truck driver cannot be syntactic phrases hence must be compounds i.e left-stressedModifier-head: structures such as steel bridge display the same word order as corresponding modifier-head phrase (wooden bridge) hence are syntactic structures and are right-stressed.
  26. 26. • Contradictions:e.G opera glasses , table cloth• Giegrich: above is the result of lexicalization.• Problems with the above idea:• Lexicalization---- not a categorical process• It cannot be decided whether an item is lexicalized?
  27. 27. Contradictions• We should not find rightward stress among NN constructs that exhibit comliment- head order.Counter example:Tory leader• structural hypothesis------Not Valid!
  28. 28. Semantic Hypothesis “ stress assignment according to semantic categories”• rightward stress--- well defined categories• E.g geologist-astronomer , scholar- activist• Above are----Copulative compounds
  29. 29. • Other meaning relations :Temporal: summer nightLocative : Boston marathonCausative: aluminium foil, silk tie-----(made of) Shakespeare sonnet, Mahler symphony(created by)
  30. 30. Contradictions• Summer school, summer camp , day job• Fudge’s theory: NNs in which N refers to the period or point of time are right-stressed---- REFUTED!• Common point in both hypothesis? Rightward stress is restricted to modifier- head compounds.
  31. 31. Analogical hypothesis• Schmerling:------ “many compounds choose their stress pattern in analogy to combinations that have the same head”------e.G Oxford street, Main street, Fourth Street Madison Avenue, Fifth Avenue• It is however unclear that how far this approach can reach.
  32. 32. • Manufactures Rule Made-of-Rule - Final stress apple pie, raspberry jam, wooden doll• One word Rule Compounds written as one word almost always have initial stress Blackbird, Greenhouse
  33. 33. • Location Rule - Final stress• Country, region, town - Final stress Russian Roulette, Siamese Cat• Place names - Final stress Kings Square, Western Avenue• Parts of a house, building - Final stress Garden Shed, Church clock, School Hall
  34. 34. • Positioning - Final stress Left hand, West wing• Time Location - Final stress March sales, winter sports• Magazines, Newspapers - Final stress Western Mail, New York Times
  35. 35. • Skills, academic subjects - Initial stress French teacher, Russian class, swimming instructor• Compound nouns formed from a phrasal verb - Initial stress set-up, make-up, comeback, feedback• Compound nouns with verb + er/ing + participle - Final stress hanger-on, passer- by
  36. 36. • Verb + ing + noun (purpose is aided or achieved by the object) - Initial stress Washing machine, running shoes• Verb + ing + noun (a characteristic) - Final stress sliding scale, running water• Adjective +verb + er - Final stress high-flier, fast-breeder, loudspeaker