48652380 functional-english


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48652380 functional-english

  1. 1. DEFINITION OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH Every is one part of speech or the other. The parts of speech are eight in number, namely, Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction and Interjection. NOUN It is a word that is the name of a person, place, thing, quality, action etc. The word thing includes: EX: Student, boy, Sabiha, city, honesty, race, preparation, etc. PRONOUN It is a word used in place of a noun. EX: I, we, you, he which, who ADJECTIVE It is a word used to describe or add to the meaning of a noun or pronoun. EX: Old, long, simple, lazy, beautiful VERB It is a word which says something about a person or thing. It shows action. EX: Fight, try, stop, fly, are, is PREPOSITION A preposition is a word used with a noun or a pronoun to show how the person or thing denoted by the noun or pronoun stands in relation to something else. EX: a) b) c) There is a cow in the garden. The girl is fond of music. A fair little girl sat under a tree. CONJUNCTION A conjunction is a word which joins words, phrases, and sentences. EX: And, but, though
  2. 2. ADVERB It is a word which adds to the meaning of a verb, adjective or some other verb. EX: Quickly, much, very, kindly, quite INTERJECTION It is a word or sound which shows feeling or emotion. EX: Ah! Alas! Oh! Hurrah! KINDS OF NOUN 1 2 3 4 5 Proper noun. Common noun. Collective noun. Material noun. Abstract noun. PROPER NOUN A proper noun is the name of a particular person, place or thing. Proper means one's own. Hence a Proper Name os a person's own name. Proper Nouns are always written with a capital letter at the beginning. Proper Nouns are sometimes used as common nouns. EX: Aslam, Peshawar, Philips, Sindh, Suez COMMON NOUN A common noun is a name which is common to any person or thing of the same kind. Common Noun means shared by all. EX: City, table, book COLLECTIVE NOUN A collective noun is the name of a number of things or persons taken together. Generally a collective noun is used as a common noun. EX: Class, crowd, procession, mob, team, flock MATERIAL NOUN
  3. 3. A material noun is the name of a material of which things are made. Materials like meat, water, milk, etc. of which foods are made are also material nouns. EX: Wood, iron, plastic, cement ABSTRACT NOUN An abstract noun is a name of a quality, condition, etc. which cannot be seen or felt. EX: Goodness, ability, cruelty, poverty THE PRONOUNS A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun. RELATIVE PRONOUNS Those pronouns which relate clauses. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS Those pronouns which ask questions. EX: Who, whom, whose, which, what THE ADJECTIVE An adjective is a word used to describe or add to the meaning of a noun or pronoun. EX: a) Loud cry. b) Weak performance. c) It was suitable. d) The lazy boy was punished. e) The boy is lazy. CLASSES OF ADJECTIVE a) b) c) d) e) Adjective of quality Adjectives of quantity Adjectives of number Demonstrative adjectives Interrogative adjectives ADJECTIVES OF QUALITY
  4. 4. Adjectives of quality (or descriptive adjective) show the kind or quality of a person or thing. EX: a) Karachi is a large city. b) He is an honest man. c) The foolish old crow tried to sing. d) This is a grammar of the English language. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY Adjectives of quantity show how much of a thing is meant. EX: a) I ate some rice. b) He showed much patience. c) He has little intelligence. d) We have had enough exercise. ADJECTIVES OF NUMBER Adjectives of number (or numeral adjectives) show how many persons or things are meant, or in what order a person or thing stands. EX: a) The hand has five fingers. b) Few cats like cold water. c) There are no pictures in this book. d) I have taught you many things. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES Demonstrative adjectives point out which person or thing is meant. EX: a) This boy is stronger than Kamal. b) That boy is industrious. c) These mangoes are sour. d) Those rascals must be punished. INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES What, which, and whose when they are used with nouns to ask questions are called interrogative adjectives. EX: a) What manner of man is he? b) Which way shall we go? c) Whose book is this? DEGREES OF ADJECTIVE
  5. 5. An adjective has three degrees of comparison i.e. positive, comparative and superlative. POSITIVE DEGREE The positive degree shows the simple quality of an adjective. EX: a) A great man. COMPARATIVE DEGREE The comparative degree shows a higher quality of an adjective. EX: a) A greater man. SUPERLATIVE DEGREE The superlative degree shows the highest quality of an adjective. VERB A verb describes the action or condition of the subject or object of a sentence or clause. It tells about the subject or object. This, we can say that verb is a word which is used to tell or assert something about some person or thing. EX: a) The students rested for a while. b) The country is progressing. c) All the players have been awarded. KINDS OF VERB TRANSITIVE OF VERBS Transitive verbs are verbs which require an object. Transitive means passing over from the doer or subject to an object. EX: (a.v)We built a house. (p.v) A house was built by us. Transitive verb: built; object: house. INTRANSITIVE VERB Intransitive verbs are verbs which do not require an object. Intransitive means not passing over to an object. EX: The slept in their house. She walks beautifully. The action ends with "slept", "walks". "In their house ", "beautifully" are additional words explaining the action. AUXILIARY VERBS
  6. 6. Auxiliary verbs are verbs which are helping verbs. They help the main verbs and complete their meaning; has, have, had, is, are, was, were, been etc. THE SENTENCE A sentence is a combination of words that makes complete sense. It contains a main idea. The words used in a group which make complete sense are called a sentence. THE SUBJECT AND PREDICATE The subject and predicate make up the sentence. The subject of a sentence tells "what" or "whom" the speaker or writer is talking about. The predicate of a sentence usually tells what the subject is doing or what is happening to the subject. KINDS OF SENTENCE DECLARATIVE SENTENCE These are descriptions of fact, affirmative or negative. EX: She goes to college. IMPERATIVE SENTENCE Those sentences in which order or request are made. EX: Go and bring me some fruit. Please lend me your camera. INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE In which questions are asked. EX: Why was she so sad? When are you leaving? TYPES OF SENTENCE SIMPLE SENTENCE It has one main idea. It has one clause, one subject and one predicate or only one finite verb. EX: We live our country more than anything else. Can we ever forget our helpers? COMPOUND SENTENCE
  7. 7. It has two or more main ideas or two or more independent or main clauses joined together by a coordinating conjunction. EX: We waited for ling and at last she came. The armies fought bravely, but neither could defeat the other. COMPLEX SENTENCE It has main clause and one or more dependent clauses. EX: They climbed the mountain whose height they did not know. MIXED SENTENCE It is a mixture of complex and compound sentences has two main clauses and one or more dependent clauses. PHRASE NOUN PHRASE The group of words which does the work of a noun or pronoun is a noun phrase. EX: They want to visit Europe. What they want is difficult to give them. Early to bed is a good habit. ADJECTIVE PHRASE The group of words which does the work of an adjective is an adjective phrase. EX: It is an important matter. [adj] It is a matter of importance [adj phrase] ADVERB PHRASE The group of related words which does the work of an adverb is an adverb phrase. EX: You did it well. [adverb] You did it in a good way. [adverb phrase] They went there. [adverb] They went to that place. [adverb phrase] PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE A prepositional phrase is made up of a preposition and a noun or pronoun or a noun phrase. It works as a noun, adjective and adverb. EX: The pictures she wants are with the librarian. The building of the college is quite beautiful.
  8. 8. She spoke in a sweet voice.