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Organizational behaviour
Organizational behaviour
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Organizational behaviour

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This presentation is related with the behaviour of organizations w.r.t. internal and external environment. Complete Model of OB from individual, group and organizational level is implemented on an …

This presentation is related with the behaviour of organizations w.r.t. internal and external environment. Complete Model of OB from individual, group and organizational level is implemented on an virtual organization named Pak Paints.
Useful for commerce, management sciences, business students.

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  • 1. Organizational BehaviorOB model Implementation on Pak Paints Pvt. Ltd. www.pakpaints.com.pk
  • 2. Presented ToSir Amad un Nasar Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 3. Presented By• Haroon Idrees (52-R) Group Leader• Faisal Abbas (10-R) Member• Muhammad Tayyab (03-R) Member• Musharif Abbas (45-R) Member• Humayun Khalid (04-R) Member Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 4. Vision Statement“First priority to color one’s life” Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 5. Mission Statement• Our mission is to maintain long life relationship with our internal and external customers. We prefer our clients and suppliers on first priority. Our goal is total customer satisfaction through understanding our customer’s current and future requirements and emphasizing quality and services. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 6. Pak Paints History• Establish in December 2011• Strengths that give Edge – Quality management, – Best HRM practices, – Internal and external customer loyalty, – Best quality products. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 7. Company Founders• Founders – Mr. Faisal Abbas – Mr.Haroon Adrees• HR Managers – Mr.Muhammad Tayyab – Mr. Musharaif Abbas• Structure Layout and Culture Development – Mr. Humayun Khalid Qureshi Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 8. Company Overview Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 9. Presenter Name Musharaif Abbas Roll #. 45-R Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 10. The OB Model Stage 1 Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 11. The OB Model individual Level• Human input – Ability: – Biographical characteristics – Age – Gender – Personality: – Values – Attitude – Cognitive dissonance – Perception – Individual Decision Making – Motivation Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 12. Ability• An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job.• Two types of abilities – Intellectual abilities – Physical abilities• Intellectual abilities are abilities needed to perform mental activities – for example thinking, reasoning, and problem solving.• Physical abilities the capacity to do tasks that demand stamina, dexterity, strength, Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 13. Biographical characteristics• Age• Gender• Race reservation category• Length of service Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 14. AgeHow much an employee is older – In our organization we have following age groups • Young employees (20-29 year age) • Middle age employees (30-39 year age ) • Experienced employees (40+ year age persons) Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 15. Gender• Co-workers – Men – Women• Non consistent male – female differences in problem• solving ability, analytical skills competitive drive,• motivation, sociability or learning ability.• Women are more willing to confirm to authority and• that men are more aggressive and more likely then• women to have expectation of success Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 16. Personality• The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with other.• Rather than looking parts of the person, personality looks some aggregate whole that is greater than the sum of parts. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 17. Personality Measurement• Psychological test• Structured technique• Test is based on empirical research and theoretical background.• Test are valid , reliable , and standardized.• Scores on personality test help on manager forecast who the best bet for a job is. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 18. Personality Measurement• Personality is measured in three main ways. – Self report surveys – Observe rating surveys Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 19. Self report surveys• completed by individual• especially a concern when the survey is the basis for employment Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 20. Observer ratings• Developed to provide an independent assessment of personality• Coworkers could do the rating• Observer-rating surveys are better predictor of success Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 21. Big five-personality model• Extraversion• Agreeableness• Conscientiousness• Emotional stability• Openness to experience Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 22. Other personality traits• Core Self Evaluation• Machiavellianism Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 23. Values• Beliefs of a person or social group in which they have an emotional investment (either for or against something); "he has very conservatives’ values.• Values help people solve common human problems for survival.• Values tell people what is good, beneficial, important, useful, beautiful, desirable, constructive...etc. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 24. Occupational Differences in Values• Members of different occupational groups espouse different values• Salespeople rank social values less than the average person, while professors value "equal opportunity for all" more than the average person. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 25. Values across Cultures• Cross-cultural differences often contribute to failed business negotiations• Different cultures value work differently.• People for whom work is a central life interest tend to work longer hours Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 26. Attitude• An attitude is a fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some specific object, situation, person, or category of people. Belief + Value = Attitude à Behavior. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 27. Changing Attitudes• In PAK PAINT Manger Most attempts at attitude change are initiated by a communicator who tries to use persuasion of some form to modify the beliefs or values of an audience that supports a currently held attitude.• Techniques used to affect attitude change are known as persuasion techniques. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 28. Cognitive dissonance• Feeling of tension experienced when certain cognitions are contradictory or inconsistent with each other.• Dissonance theory suggests that engaging in behavior that is not supported by our attitudes might lead us to change our attitudes to reduce the tension produced by inconsistency. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 29. Perception• A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment• Individuals behave in a given manner based not on the way their external environment• individual has personal perception in PAK PAINTS the evidence suggests that what individuals perceive from their work situation will influence their productivity more than will the situation itself.• Absenteeism, turnover, and job satisfaction are also reactions to the individual’s perceptions. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 30. Individual Decision Making• Individuals think and reason before they act.• in PAK PAINTS we find individuals looking for solutions that satisfied rather than optimize, injecting biases and prejudices into the decision process, and relying on intuition. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 31. We offer five suggestions• Analyze the situation• Be aware of biases• Combine rational analysis with intuition• Do not assume that your specific decision style is appropriate for every job• Try to enhance your creativity Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 32. Motivation• Motivation is a term that refers to a process that elicits, controls, and sustains certain behaviors.• Two methods are used in PAK PAINTS to motivate the employees – Intrinsic motivation – extrinsic motivation Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 33. The OB Model Group Level Stage Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 34. Presenter Muhammad Tayyab Roll #.03-R Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 35. Change and stress• Stress is the bodys reaction to a change that requires a physical, mental or emotional adjustment or response.• Change is the act, process, or result of altering or modifying: Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 36. Change and stress• Change and stress in O.B model effect on all individual, group and organizational level because change and stress affects every level of organization.• PAK PAINTS overcome the problems of change and stress in HR policies and practices by using the computerized system.• Engineers from China come after every fifteen days to check the computerized system. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 37. Group decision making• Group decision making depend on communication and it also has two ways of relation with leadership and trust• PAK PAINTS structure is based on employee involvement.• Communication related to group decision making when person know with each other their approaches such as mental level, work style and skills Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 38. The seven-step decision-making model– Identify the decision to be made– Analyze the issue under discussion– Establish criteria– Brainstorm potential solutions– Evaluate options and select the best one– Implement the solution– Monitor and evaluate the outcome Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 39. Leadership• Leadership is a process of getting things done through people.• Three Dimensions – Bottom-up leadership – Thought leadership – Leading by example Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 40. Trust• Firm belief in the reliability, truth, ability, or strength of someone or something.• Trust is the necessary precursor for the following: – Feeling able to rely upon another person; – Cooperating as a group; – Taking thoughtful risks; – Experiencing believable communication. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 41. Benefits of Leadership and Trust• Increased Efficiency• Enhanced Unity• Mutual Motivation Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 42. Group structure• What is group?• A collection of individuals wh o have regular contact and frequent interaction, mutual influence, common feeling and who work together to achieve a common set of goals.” Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 43. Things contribute in group structure• Communication• Leadership and trust• Team work• Power & politics• Conflicts Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 44. PresenterName Haroon Idrees Roll#. 52-R Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 45. Communication• The exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, signals, writing, or behavior. Communication must include both the transfer and the understanding of meaning.• Ways of communication used in PAK PAINTS – Non-verbal communication – Oral communication – Written Communication – Telephone – Mobile – Intranet – Extranet – Videoconferencing Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 46. Communication Functions• Control member behavior.• Foster motivation for what is to be done.• Provide a release for emotional expression.• Provide information needed to make decisions. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 47. Barriers to effective human communication• Physical barriers• System design• Attitudinal barriers• Ambiguity of Words/Phrases• Information Overload• Physiological barriers• Presentation of information Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 48. Power and politics• A capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes.Leadership PowerFocuses on goal achievement. Used as a means for achieving goals.Requires goal compatibility with Requires follower dependency.followers. Used to gain lateral and upwardFocuses influence downward. influence Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 49. Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in the Workplace• Unwelcome advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature.• Steps taken by PAK PAINTS to Prevent Sexual Harassment – Make sure a policy against it is in place. – Ensure that employees will not encounter retaliation if they file a complaint. – Investigate every complaint and include the human resource and legal departments. – Make sure offenders are disciplined or terminated. – Set up in-house seminars and training. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 50. Impression Management• The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them.• IM Techniques in PAK PAINTS – Conformity – Excuses – Apologies – Self-Promotion – Flattery – Favors – Association Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 51. Conflict• A process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about.• Types of Conflict that arises mostly in PAK PAINTS – Task Conflict – Relationship Conflict – Process Conflict Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 52. Conflict Management Techniques adopt by our management• Problem solving• Super ordinate goals• Expansion of resources• Avoidance• Smoothing• Compromise• Authoritative command• Communication• Bringing in outsiders• Restructuring the group Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 53. Positive effects of conflicts Management• Increased group performance• Improved quality of decisions• Stimulation of creativity and innovation• Encouragement of interest and curiosity• Provision of a medium for problem-solving• Creation of an environment for self-evaluation and change Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 54. Work Team• A group whose individual efforts result in a performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 55. The OB Model OrganizationalStructure and Culture Development Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 56. PresenterName Humayun Khalid Qureshi Roll#. 04-R Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 57. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 58. Organization Structure development• The frame, naturally hierarchical, within which an organization arranges its lines of authority and communications, and allocates rights and duties.• Key Points – Work Specialization – Departmentalization – Chain of Command – Span of Control – Centralization and Decentralization – Formalization Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 59. A ViewDepartmentalization Span of Control Organizational structure Elements Formalization Centralization Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 60. Work Specialization• In our Organization – Work is divided according to job specification – Every employee has its own duties – Every ten employees are under a supervisor – Who coordinate the work planning, management the activities and report to its operational manager at the end of the day. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 61. Duties of Supervisors• Being concerned in Organization and Employee Policies• Taking Care of Employee Needs• Schooling the Employee Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 62. Structure under operational manager Manager Operational Manager Supervisor Supervisor Supervisor Supervisor Supervisor A B C D E 10 10 10 10 10 Employees Employees Employees Employees Employees Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 63. Benefits of Division of labor• Social division of labor• Technical division of labor• Territorial division of labor Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 64. Merits of Division of Labor• The right man in the right place• The worker becomes an expert• Heavy work taken over by machinery• Less training required• Invention• Cheaper things• Economic in the use of tools• Saving in time Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 65. Departmentalization & Chain of Command• Departmentalization by Process { Mechanical }• Departmentalization by Product { Production }• Departmentalization by Marketing { Sales & Marketing }• Departmentalization by Employees and Customer { Administration }• Departmentalization by Technology {Information Technology}• Departmentalization Financial Planning {Accounting & Finance} Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 66. Mechanical Department• A manager who is head of Mechanical Engineering Department, which includes Electrical, Mechanical Engineering fields.• Duties include: – Overall administration and management of the department. – Plant repairs and maintenance – Plant inspection after every one week – Overall electricity control and maintenance – Emergency Team management – Monthly report to CEO Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 67. Production Department• Production manager who is the head of the production department is working under CEO.• Duties include: – Provide overall Management of the ongoing Production operations including Inventory – Control, Scheduling, Documentation, Equipment Maintenance, Calibration, Shipping, and – Quality Control/Inspection. – Assist in creation of efficient processes through hands- on development and training. – Track quality of all processes through analysis of recorded data and formation of additional test-points. Correlate results with requirements/specifications. – Report directly to CEO. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 68. Marketing Department• Marketing manager is responsible for company and its products marketing• Performing following duties: – Focus on the Customer – Monitor the Competition – Own the Brand. – Find & Direct Outside Vendors. – Create New Ideas. – Communicate Internally. – Manage a Budget. – Understand the ROI. – Set the Strategy, Plan the Attack, and Execute. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 69. Administration• Admin department is responsible for managing HRM affairs and all customer care problems.• Duties: – Control all discipline of the working area. – Manage all HRM matters – Manage all Customer care problems. – Handle all employees’ conflicts. – Employees firing with the consent of CEO. – Arrange internal and external meetings – Provide general clerical assistance to other senior officers as required. – Errands Management. – Work as liaison – Weekly report to CEO. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 70. Information Technology Department• This department is responsible for managing online database, website, and online business tools.• Duties of IT administrator: – Managing databases – Managing, designing and updating website – Managing online business tools – Security cameras configuration – Manage backup, security and user help systems. – Manage overall computer systems of the organization. – Manage plant-programming system through computer softwares. – Assign and review the work of systems analysts, programmers, and other computer-related workers. – Develop computer information resources, providing for data security and control, strategic computing, and disaster recovery. – Meet with department heads, managers, supervisors, vendors, and others, to solicit cooperation and resolve problems. – Purchase necessary equipment. – Weekly report to CEO. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 71. Accounting & Finance Department• Lifeblood of any organization• Gives financial support• Duties: – Responsible of all financial matters – Daily reporting to CEO about all transactions – Full implementation of accounting principles on financial data of organization. – Complete cycle of transaction to balance sheet – FSA process – The routine working capital and cash management decisions. – Dividend decisions – Investment decisions – Financial forecasting – International financial decisions – Portfolio management – Risk management – Cash management – Salary and allowances managementHumayun Khalid Prepared By – Monthly report to CEO.
  • 72. Departmentalization Hierarchy Graphic Representation BODs Managing Committee CEO Mechanical Production Sales & Accounts & Administration IT Marketing Finance Plants Product Marketing & Financial HRM Management Planning Advertising Reporting & Analysis Customer Cares Engineers and Production Ads, operators Manager & Commercials Staff Databases & Media Website Management Prepared By Humayun Khalid Management
  • 73. Plants Management Mechanical Innovation Human Team Output Engineers and operators Product PlanningProduction Human Innovation Output Team Production Manager & Staff Marketing & Advertising Sales & Human Innovation Output Marketing Team Ads, Commer cials Media Management Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 74. Accounts FinancialAccounts & Internal audit team Reporting & Finance Analysis Finance Checking Team HumanAdministration Output Customer Cares IT Databases & Best Communication Website System Management Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 75. Span of Control• In our organization we have main six departments• Every department at least we have 20 members each under the control of the manager of the department. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 76. Mechanical Deptt. 2 18 ManagerProduction Deptt. 2 18 Manager Sales &Marketing Deptt. 2 18ManagerAccounts & Finance 1 19 Deptt. ManagerAdministration Deptt. 2 18 Manager IT Deptt. 1 19 Manager Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 77. Centralization• In our organization, the CEO is the final authority for all major decisions.• However, minor decisions can be done through manages• It is helpful: – For long run decisions – Give easiest and predefine, structured decisions model for new employees and management. – Decision power remain in experienced hands – The top managers make decisions. – Close control of operations – Uniformity of policies, practices, and procedures – Better use of centralized experts Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 78. Organization Environment• Political • Economic Mission Vision Leadership Culture• Socio-Culture • Technological Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 79. Techniques to Reduce the Affect of External Environment• Control the internal politics• Political calls off• Manage the strategies for hiring and managing the employees• Strict rules implications• Hiring under the supervision of CEO and BODs• Performance evaluation and tests• Weekly evaluate the economic conditions• Seminars• Social consorts for welfare and popularity of the organization• Social campaigns for social awareness.• Technology improvements• Trainings and workshops for employees in assembly lines• By applying these techniques, we can control our external environment, can be stable in the market, and can compete our competitors. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 80. Organizational Culture Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 81. The organizational Culture Development• Our organization we have applied following strategies for the development of organizational culture. – Innovation & Risk Taking – Attention to Details – Outcome orientation – People Orientation – Team Orientation – Aggressiveness – Stability Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 82. Benefits of Culture Development• First it helps in making the role and jobs of each employee clear, well define, and understandable• Second benefit is that it gives the identification of organization members.• Third, it helps us in increasing the employee’s commitment towards the organization.• Forth, it helps us in enhancing the stability of the social culture of the organization.• Finally it help in making the organization in developing a rules oriented organization that guides the attitude, behavior, set the values of the employees. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 83. Culture Development equation • Model + Support + Reward = Culture• A role model for motivation• Supportive activities• Reward on good performance• These all make a culture Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 84. How We Keep Alive Our Culture?• In our organization we have used following strategy to keep our organization culture alive, active and imposed.• Selection – Process is to hire just those persons who are capable, have knowledge, skill abilities to perform jobs within the organization successfully.• Top management – Top management works as filter in the organization because it the model that inspire co-workers, sub-ordinates, and other employees.• Socialization methods – The adoption process of culture by the new employee is called socialization. – Three-stage strategy • Pre-Arrival Stage • Encounter Stage • Metamorphosis Stage Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 85. Socialization Process Out comes Pre-Arrival Stage Encounter Stage Productivity + Commitment Metamorphosis Stage + Turnover + Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 86. How we teach culture?• We have used following methods for the transportation of our culture to employees. – Stories – Rituals – Martial Symbols Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 87. Ethics and our Organization• In our organization we teach the ethics by keeping two important considerations into mind. – The Individualistic Approach – The Communal Approach Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 88. ModelSupport Culture EthicsReward Individual Group Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 89. Explanation• Ethics have both positive and negative effect on the individual person and on groups. If the an employee has the knowledge of his job, have a role model in front of him, and sufficient support is given for his job and he also follow the model and support it, he will be awarded with reward and this will create the culture of hardworking, devotion, and motivation, that helps in creating good working environment in the organization and creating good ethical working place that affect the individual and groups in positive manners. Similarly if an employee don’t have knowledge of job, don’t have expertise and don’t give attention to the role model it will negatively affect the culture, in results the work place ethics will negatively affected that also negatively affect an individual and groups. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 90. How we develop Positive Org. Culture• By using three basic approaches we make positive org culture. – Building employee strength – Reward more than punishment – Individual vitality and growth Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 91. Human Output Strategies Productivity Absence Turnover Deviant Workplace Behavior Citizenship Satisfaction Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 92. Productivity• Productivity is a measurement or calculation between inputs and outputs. Inputs are the amount of time and effort spent working, while outputs are the results. If the outputs are equivalent to the inputs, the worker is considered productive. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 93. Satisfaction Employee Productivity Successful organization Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 94. Absence• Absence is an occasion or period of being away from a place or person.• Ways to reduce Absence – Monitor and Measure Absence – Absence Reporting Procedure – Return to Work Interviews – Analyze Absence Records – Act on the Information – Consider Terms of Employment and Bonus Schemes – Organization Doctor / Occupational Health Advisors – Health Care – Pro-active Management – Have a written Absence Policy Document Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 95. Turnover• Turn is the number of permanent employees leaving the company within the reported period versus the number of actual Active Permanent employees on the last day of the previous reported period (physical headcount).• Strategy to reduce turnover of employees – Develop People – Recognize Good Performance – Build Trust – Reduce Boredom – Communicate more – Cross Train – Don’t Overtax – Keep It Light – Feedback Performance Prepared By Humayun Khalid – Train Leaders
  • 96. Deviant workplace behavior• Deviant workplace behavior is a behavior that violates organizational norms.• Techniques to Control – Moral awareness programs – Moral judgment programs – Moral intention – Moral behavior Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 97. Citizenship behavior• Citizenship the extent to which an individual is voluntary support and behavior contributes to the organizations success. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 98. Satisfaction• Satisfaction Fulfillment of ones wishes, expectations, or needs, or the pleasure – Fulfillment of Physiological needs – Fulfillment of Safety needs – Love and belonging – Esteem – Self-actualization Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 99. THE OB MODEL ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL STAGE 2.1 Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 100. Presenter• Name – Faisal Abbas – Roll #. 10-R Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 101. Human Resource Policies and Practices• Selection Practices – Initial Selection – Substantive Selection – Contingent Selection Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 102. Training and development programs• Types of training – Pre-service Training – In-service Training and Staff Development – Individual Formal Training • ON-THE-JOB TRAINING – Coaching – Job Rotation • OFF THE JOB TRAINING – Lectures/Conferences – Films – Simulation Exercise – Cases – Experiential Exercises – Vestibule Training – Role Play – Management Games By Humayun Khalid Prepared
  • 103. Performance Evaluation• Individual Evaluation Methods – Confidential report – Essay evaluation – Critical incident technique – Checklists and weighted checklists – Graphic rating scale – Behaviorally anchored rating scales Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 104. Managing Diversity in Organizations• Diversity Training is an Important Component of our Organizations Business Strategy – Diversity Training Increases Customer Satisfaction, Market Share & Competitive Positioning. – Diversity Training Increases Workplace Productivity & Innovation – Diversity Training Can Reduce Legal Exposure, Costs and Adverse Publicity Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 105. Four Major Forces Creating Change in Organizations• Globalization• Technological Change• Knowledge Management• Cross-boundaries Collaboration Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 106. Planned change Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 107. Lewins 3 Stage Model• Stage 1: Unfreeze – This stage involves creating the right conditions for change to occur. By resisting change, people often attach a sense of identity to their environment. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 108. Stage 2: Transition• Psychological level it is typically a period of confusion.• No clear understanding of the new ways which will replace them.• The end goal of this stage is to get people to the unfrozen state and keep them there. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 109. Stage 3: Refreeze• Ggoal of the model is to achieve a refreeze, re-establishing a new place of stability and elevate comfort levels by reconnecting people back into their safe, familiar environment. Refreezing takes people from a period of low productivity in the transitional state to a stable and productive state. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 110. Kotters Eight Step Plan• The Eight-Step Plan for Implementing Change1. Establish a sense of urgency by creating a compelling reason of why change is needed.2. Form a coalition with enough power to lead the change.3. Create a new vision to direct the change and strategies for achieving the vision.4. Communicate the vision throughout the organization.5. Empower others to act on the vision by removing barriers to change and encouraging risk taking and creative problem solving6. Plan for and create reward short term wins that move the organization toward the new vision.7. Consolidate improvements, reassess changes, and make necessary adjustments in the new program.8. Reinforce the changes by demonstrating the relationship between new behaviors and organizational success. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 111. WHY We Do OD?• Human resources• Changing nature of the workplace• Global markets• Accelerated rate of change Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 112. OD IS A PROCESS of• Entry• Start-up and contracting• Assessment and diagnosis• Feedback• Action planning• Intervention• Evaluation• Adoption• Separation Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 113. Learning Organization• We aims and prove – A Clear Vision – Capabilities to Create a Learning Organization – Stress management – Diversity management Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 114. Stresses• Overload• Work relationships• Job security• Work-life balance• Resources and communication• Pays and benefits Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 115. Potential sources of stress• Job is unlikely to change in the next 5–10 years• Poor physical working conditions• Fear of physical violence• Work performance closely monitored• Organization changes for changes sake• Dull and repetitive work• Dealing with difficult customers/clients• Lack of enjoyment of job• outside pressure• Communication Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 116. Tools to Reduce and Manage Job and Workplace Stress• Coping with work stress in today’s uncertain climate• Manage job stress • Taking responsibility for improving physical and emotional well-being. • Avoiding pitfalls by identifying knee jerk habits and negative attitudes that add to the stress we experience at work. • Learning better communication skills to ease and improve relationships with management and coworkers. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 117. • Recognize warning signs of excessive stress at work – Feeling anxious, irritable, or depressed – Apathy, loss of interest in work – Problems sleeping – Fatigue – Trouble concentrating – Muscle tension or headaches – Stomach problems – Social withdrawal – Using alcohol or drugs to cope Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 118. Time management tools for reducing job stress• Create a balanced schedule• Over-commit• Try to leave earlier in the morning• Plan regular breaks. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 119. Task management tips for reducing job stress• Prioritize tasks• Break projects into small steps• Delegate responsibility• Be willing to compromise Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 120. Reduce job stress by improving emotional intelligence• Self-awareness• Self-management• Social awareness• Relationship management Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 121. Ways to Dispel Stress• Take time away• Talk it over with someone• Connect with others at work• Look for humor in the situation Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 122. Dealing with Stressful Situations: The Four A’s• Change the situation: – Avoid the stressor. – Alter the stressor.• Change the reaction: – Adapt to the stressor. – Accept the stressor. Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 123. Learn the relaxation response• Advises to Employees• To – A healthy lifestyle – Exercise regularly – Eat a healthy diet – Reduce caffeine and sugar – Avoid alcohol, cigarettes, and drugs – Get enough sleep Prepared By Humayun Khalid
  • 124. Prepared By Humayun Khalid

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