Glaucoma Treatment


Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
1 Comment
  • Initially, 86 patients undergoing glaucoma management treatment were deemed eligible for the study but only 22 pursued it.  Others declined to participate for fear of losing their drivers’ licenses.
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Glaucoma Treatment

  1. 1. Glaucoma: Treatment Depending upon the type of glaucoma, treatment may include medication, usually prescription eyedrops, or surgery to lower the pressure in the eye and prevent further damage to the optic nerve. While there is no cure as yet for glaucoma, early diagnosis and continuing treatment can preserve eyesight. The mainstay of glaucoma treatment is to lower the eye pressure, either with the use of eye drops or surgery. Other eye pressure-independent strategies for glaucoma management are currently being investigated. These include increasing blood supply to the optic nerves and providing some form of neuroprotection. However until an alternative is found, lowering the eye pressure is the only means to reduce the risk glaucoma and visual field loss, and remains the primary goal of therapy. Prescription Treatments A number of medications are currently in use to treat glaucoma, most are usually available in the form of eyedrops other in the form of pills. A doctor may prescribe a combination of theses medications or change prescriptions over time to reduce side-effects or provide a more effective treatment. Typically medications are intended to reduce elevated intraocular pressure and prevent damage to the optic nerve. Some of these medications include; Beta Blockers For over twenty years, beta-blockers are still the most popular anti-glaucoma agents and they far surpass any other medication as the first therapy of choice in open-angle glaucoma. Some examples of Beta blockers includes; Betaxolol (Betoptic), Levobunolol (Betagan) and Timolol (Timoptic). People with asthma, breathing and heart problems should use these treatments with caution as they may trigger their illnesses. Although beta blockers have proven to be very effective and safe when used as eyedrops they have several side effects. Side effects: Side effects can include low blood pressure, reduced pulse rate, and fatigue. Beta blockers can also cause a shortness of breath in people who have a history of asthma or other respiratory disorders. Additionally, beta blockers can change cardiac activity by decreasing the amount of blood the heart pumps out, which may reduce the pulse rate and/or slow down the heart’s response rate during exercise. Rare side effects include reduced libido and depression. Prostaglandin analogues Prostaglandin mimetic drugs lowers intraoclular pressure by increasing the uveosclearal outfow of aqueous humore. Ther ary very effective in reducing the eye pressure and have the advantage of requiring only once a day administration. The prostaglanding analogs seem to be more effective in eyes with dark coloured iris. examples include; Xalantan, Rescula, Travatan and Lumigan.
  2. 2. Xalantan seems to be emerging as the favoured first line eye pressure reducing drug, while the others are not as effective. Side effects: In initial studies, between 5% and 15% of people who used this medication reported a gradual change in eye color, due to an increased amount of brown pigment in the iris of the treated eye. The change in eye color occurs slowly and may not be noticeable for several months to years. Other side effects can include stinging, blurred vision, eye redness, itching, and burning. These medications are new to the market, and long term follow up of people who use them is not yet available. Alpha adrenergic agonists These drugs work by both increasing uveoscleral outflow and by decreasing aqueous formation. They require twice daily administrations to be effective. Examples are Alphagan, Iopindine and Propine. Alphagan along with reducing eye pressure prevents degeneration of retinal nerve cells Side effects: Side effects can include burning or stinging upon instillation of the eye drop, fatigue, headache, drowsiness, dry mouth and dry nose. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors These act by decreasing intraocular pressure by reducing aqueous formation. Although slightly less effective than the beta-blockers, these agents are usually well tolerable. If used as mono- therapy, they may require three-times daily dosing, but twice daily dosing is usually effective when they are used as adjunctive treatment. Side effects Side effects of the pill form of these medications can include tingling or loss of strength of the hands and feet, upset stomach, mental fuzziness, memory problems, depression, kidney stones, and frequent urination. Since eye-drop form of this medication is relatively new, long-term studies are yet to be completed. Current effects of the eye-drop include stinging, burning and other eye discomfort. Combined This is the use of a combination of drugs which works on different receptors. E.g. Drugs like Combigan is a combination of beta blockers and alpha agonist, while Cosopt is a combination of beta blocker and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor Side effects Side effects of CombiganTM include the symptoms of beta blockers and alpha agonists. Side effects of Cosopt® include burning and/or stinging of the eyes and changes in sense of taste. Since these medications are new to the market, long term follow up of people using these medications is not yet available. Non Prescription Treatments Exercise:
  3. 3. Isokinetic (form of active resistive exercise in which the speed of limb movement is controlled by a pre-set limiting machine) and aerobic exercise, cause considerable reduction in intraocular pressure and may be helpful in glaucoma. Aerobic exercise such as a brisk walk for 20 minutes to raise the pulse by 20% -25%, four times a week (minimum), may inprove blood flow to the retina and optic nerve as well Marijuana Studies have shown in marijuana, when smoked, lowers introcular pressure in people with normal pressure and those with glaucoma. Further investigations should that marijuana and drugs derived from marijauna lowered intraocular pressure when administered orally, intravenously also lowered intraocular pressure but not when topically applied to the eye. However, none of these studies show that marijuana safely and effectively lower intraocular pressure any more than a variety of drugs available on the market. other studies include Meditation and Acupuncture.