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The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
The Earth And The Moon
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The Earth And The Moon

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My lecture on the earth and the moon give as part of a series I was giving in our college.

My lecture on the earth and the moon give as part of a series I was giving in our college.

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  • 1. Earth and The Moon The Home Planet
  • 2. Earth Evolution
    • First hot and molten
    • Heavy material sank toward center
      • Differentiation
        • Heavy material sinks over time toward the center of the Earth while lighter material rises to the surface.
    • Earth cooled from outside in
    • Radioactivity continues today to heat interior
    • Oldest Earth rocks found on the surface today are about 3.9 billion years old
      • this is known from radioactive dating
      • therefore, Earth formed at least 3.9 billion years ago
        • it actually formed 4.6 billion years ago with the rest of the Solar System
  • 3. Internal Structure
  • 4.  
  • 5. Revolution
  • 6. Long Summer Days
  • 7. Precession
    • There are 2 types of precession
    • Earth is obligated 43km larger in equator
    • Tidal forces of the sun and the moon
    • 25700 years period
  • 8.  
  • 9.
    • The force that cause an spinning top to wobble is parallel to its rotation axis at first
    • Solar gravity is perpendicular to the Earth’s axis
    • The torque is applied to the equatorial bulge
    • The torque is always in the same direction, perpendicular the direction of equatorial poles, so it does not change the axial tilt itself.
  • 10.  
  • 11. Precession of Planetary Orbits
  • 12. Nutation
    • The period of the largest component of the Earth’s nutation is 18.6 years, the same as of the precession of the moons orbital nodes.
  • 13. Magnetosphere
  • 14. Aurora
  • 15.  
  • 16. Earth and The Moon Lunar Phases
  • 17.  
  • 18.  
  • 19. Calculation: phase=fraction(0.20439731+t*0.03386319269) t = [UT] - [12AM, January 1, 2001], in days
  • 20.  
  • 21.  
  • 22. Earth and The Moon Tidal Force
  • 23. Tidal Force
    • An effect of gravity
  • 24. Angular Momentum Kepler’s law of equal areas b
  • 25. h d v |_ v For L to be constant, then the area (a) swept by the planet in a certain length of time ( Δ t) must be always the same.
  • 26. The high tide is not directly underneath of the moon
    • Friction
    • Earth slows down 2X10-9 seconds daily
    • Angular momentum’s being transferring to the moon
    • The Moon goes farther 38mm each year
    • Tidal Acceleration
  • 27. The Fate of Tidal Effects
    • Earth has already slowed down the moon.
    • The period of rotation of the moon = the period of its revolution around the earth.
    • The Earth and the moon will finally lock.
    • Then the tidal effect of the sun pull the moon closer to the earth (causes the moon reach Roche limit, but 10 milliard years!)
  • 28. Leap Seconds
    • UT: Based on Earth’s rotation (irregular, tidal effects and melting ice sheets)
    • TT: Based on Atomic clocks.
    • Δ T = TT-UT
    • Leap seconds are being added to Atomic clocks to adjust standard time of day (UTC) close to mean solar time (UT=GMT) (noon @ noon).
    • The last leap second added in Dec. 31 2005.
  • 29. Universal Time – Coordinated Universal Time
  • 30.
    • Moon Revolution < Earth Rotation so: Tidal acceleration
    • What happens for a moon if it orbit faster than the parent body’s rotation?
  • 31. Earth and The Moon Lunar Impacts
  • 32.
    • Tycho crater (85km wide, 4.8km deep)
    • Central peak
    • Craters are named after astronomers
  • 33.  
  • 34.  
  • 35.  
  • 36.  
  • 37. Earth and The Moon Faces of the moon
  • 38. Near Side (0 degree)
  • 39. Surface Features
    • Maria - large flat areas resulting from lava flows
    • Fourteen (14) named maria, the largest being Mare Imbrium (1100 km diameter)
    • Highlands - lighter appearing, elevated areas
    • Craters - very old => mostly from meteoritic impact - very old
    • Far side surprise
    • no major maria => due to asymmetric crust
    • almost entirely highlands
    • Moon's surface is frozen in time: very little surface erosion
    • no wind or running water, to cause erosion
    • no plates on surface to cause volcanism or seismic activity
    • some erosion from micrometeroids
      • cumulative effect of micrometeroids => dust
  • 40. Far Side (180 degrees)
  • 41. The Far Side
    • Is shielded form the Earth’s radiation
    • Only 2.5% of its surface is Maria
    • The crust is 40km thicker on the far side
    • Maria are denser than surface mat.
    • Moon is oriented in lowest energy configuration (by Earth’s tidal force).
  • 42. Earth and The Moon Lunar Eclipses
  • 43. The Red Moon
  • 44. How?
  • 45. Compare Distances
  • 46.  
  • 47.  
  • 48.
    • Starts: 16 Shahrivar 20:12
    • Ends 17 Shahrivar 00:30 (Tehran Time)
  • 49. Earth and The Moon Libration
  • 50.  
  • 51. Types of Librations
    • In Latitude: Moon axis is inclined
    • In Longitude: The velocity of the moon in its elliptical orbit varies
    • Diurnal (daily)
    • We can see 59% of the moon due libration
  • 52.  
  • 53. Earth and The Moon Formation
  • 54. Giant Impact
    • A Mars-size object firstly located in Lagrangian Point L4 or L5 hit the early Earth, just in the best situation
  • 55.  
  • 56. Roche Limit

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