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DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)
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DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART)

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The focus of this research relates to the democratic security in Latin America and the Caribbean, and what role did the Dominican Republic in democratic defense.One of the elements that stand out are: …

The focus of this research relates to the democratic security in Latin America and the Caribbean, and what role did the Dominican Republic in democratic defense.One of the elements that stand out are: how democracy arises from its beginnings until today. The independence of the United States and the French Revolution in the years 1776 and 1784 respectively mark the beginning of democracy in Latin America and the Caribbean, which transcended independence struggles across the region sustained the liberality of the States. The incidence of the Dominican Republic in defense of democratic security in Latin America and the Caribbean, is manifested in the political life of the Caribbean nation. After independence in 1844, its ideologues sought to create a free and sovereign democratic state based on a current. It is from the ideals of Juan Pablo Duarte, that democracy is part of the Dominican political system that has managed to face all kinds of foreign interference, authoritarian rule that for decades were directing the destinies of the country and that in the end there is a manifest a scenario of over thirty years in the defense of the democratic security of the nation by the different political movements that affect the Dominican people. Democracy in Latin America and the Caribbean, has had a level of acceptance among its inhabitants, those actions in the pursuit of development of the people, a government that guarantees the rights of citizens, and the promotion of human development predominates, the capabilities of States to transform and take place in public policy, political, economic and cultural order, can not be supported by the majority, nor called champion of democracy. Democratic security in the region are based on inclusive policies character among all states seeking to agree through international relations, international conventions and treaties that seek to maintain regional security and peace, away from threats which have traditionally staked political stability in the region. To consider the existence of a democratic security, have been absent from the political stage coups, dictatorships and internal armed conflicts. Even with the opening of political ideas, geopolitics, and international linkages, governed by various bodies such as the OAS and the UN, as well as other political, cultural and economic, impact heavily upon the permanence of democracy in all Latin American and the Caribbean.

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  • 1. Fundeimes.blogspot.com (FREE TRANSLATION) FOUNDATION FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC STUDIES (FUNDEIMES) TITLE: ROLE OF THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (LAST PART) AUTOR: LIC. VÍCTOR B. MERCEDES CRUZ FABIÁN MASTER IN DEFENSE AND NATIONAL SECURITY SANTO DOMINGO, DN YEAR 2014
  • 2. Fundeimes.blogspot.com TITLE ROLE OF THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010
  • 3. Fundeimes.blogspot.com CLARIFICATION "The views expressed in this research report are the sole responsibility of the author and the institution will not necessarily reflect the opinions issued."
  • 4. Fundeimes.blogspot.com CONTENTS Introduction i Problem ii General Purpose vii Specific Objectives vii Ideas to defend viii Methodological framework of the research ix CHAPTER I - BACKGROUND OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA CARIBBEAN YEL. 1.1. Origin of democracy 1 1.2 -. History of the Democratic Security in Latin America and The Caribbean 3 1.3.-Chronology of Democratic Different State Governments In Latin America and the Caribbean 7 1.4 -. Evolution of Democracy in the Dominican Republic 29 1.5 -. Principal approaches of democratic security and validity in Latin America and the Caribbean 35 1.6 -. Organic concept of democracy and security 37 1.7 -. Democracy and Political Institutions in Latin America and the Caribbean 42 1.8 -. Political Institutions in Latin America and the Caribbean 44 1.9 -. Acceptance level of democracy in Latin America and The Caribbean 46 CHAPTER II -. DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN. 2.1 -. Geopolitics and Security in Latin America and the Caribbean 49 2.2 -. Geopolitical Analysis of Latin America and the Caribbean 51 2.3 -. Organization of American States (OAS) in safety Democratic Latin America and the Caribbean 54 2.4 -. Economics and Globalization in Latin America and the Caribbean 58 2.5 -. Features of the situation of globalization in Latin America and The Caribbean 60 2.6 -. Democratic Security and Human Rights 63 2.6.1 The relationship between democracy and human rights 64 CHAPTER III -. INCIDENCE IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN BY DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 3.1 -. Overview of public policy for Security Democratic 67 3.2 -. Incidence of security and defense in the democratic security Latin America and the Caribbean 69 3.3 -. Role of regional bodies for safety Democratic 70 3.4 -. Democratic security in Latin America and the Caribbean 72 3.5 -. Perspective of Public Safety in the Republic Dominican 76
  • 5. Fundeimes.blogspot.com 3.6 -. Contributions from Dominican Republic to defend safety Democratic in Latin America and the Caribbean 80 3.6.1 -. Conventions and treaties democratic security 84 CONCLUSION 89 RECOMMENDATIONS 93 GLOSSARY OF TERMS 95 REFERENCES 98
  • 6. Fundeimes.blogspot.com INTRODUCTION
  • 7. Fundeimes.blogspot.com Introduction This research is based on the role of the Dominican Republic in defense of democratic security in Latin America and the Caribbean, with reference to the events that have marked the freedom of the peoples fighting for a better future, in which underpinned by the fundamental rights recognized peaceful coexistence and the rule of law. Elements in the Dominican Republic, assuming its role in the defense of democratic security is drawn, the political evolution of each state in Latin America and the Caribbean. A number of important events in the political life of the region is analyzed. Geopolitics in the hemisphere is Latin America as a key element for the existence of a climate of harmony and good diplomatic relations between states, which have concluded agreements and meetings with very beneficial results for democracy in the region is also described. The prospect that the Dominican Republic has over other governments in the region in political, trade and security issues, world order posed by globalization, the effects produced by different social changes that persist in the world is observed.
  • 8. Fundeimes.blogspot.com CHAPTER II. - DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN AMERICA AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN
  • 9. Fundeimes.blogspot.com CHAPTER II. - DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN. 2.1 -. Geopolitics and Security in Latin America and the Caribbean. Our starting point is that geopolitics in the Western Hemisphere has been determined by the interests of the United States of America (USA) who in turn replied to its powerful global interests. The countries of Latin America and the Caribbean focus on the post-cold war period. It begins by giving an overview of the inter-American context in the more general framework of the international system as unipolar key. Analyze changes in the geopolitics of Latin America as a result of the evolution of the concept of security is to answer the question how up democratic security in the region?, Identify factors that indicate the generality binding international relations, and integration regional to maintain a climate of peace and security. The geopolitical position of Latin America and the Caribbean, there is no denying that the region moves towards new scenarios related to globalization and the new world order. Sustained potential in natural resources, and human, makes it more interesting and strategic linkages with its major economic powers of the world. This forces you to hold positions with a multidisciplinary defense strategic foresight. Most governments in Latin America and the Caribbean are democratic, the geopolitics of the region provides a guideline to the integration of the States, which have already merged their democratic security policies, through the signing of agreements such as the case of American Center "Framework Treaty on Democratic Security in Central America," which seeks to consolidate as a region of peace, freedom, democracy and development. The practice of moving towards social and economic development is the responsibility of all States to achieve a safe climate, the rule of law, a stable economy, which will lower the illiteracy, infant mortality, extreme poverty, crime, violence , trafficking and smuggling and drug trafficking. All are considered as threats to democratic security and should be treated globally because it affects the entire region. To attain democracy stabilize the region has appealed to contain subordinating the military to the civil power, promote the military profession, with
  • 10. Fundeimes.blogspot.com the strengthening of the colleges of defense and security, building security white paper and reducing or maintaining the same security budget ie instead of increasing it maintained and that the mission of the military. These decisions concern dissipating at least those streams characterizing coups years. The geopolitical chess defined by the United States in its international political influence having enhanced democracy in Latin America, as it has significantly reduced investment in security for the region as their interests are critical about other axes in the world like this Asia and the Middle East, leaving the area of Latin America and the Caribbean free from any influence, therefore it has influenced the emergence of other threats relate to international crime. The development of a democratic political culture prevents new authoritarian regime that puts at stake the stability of democracy we now enjoy. It basically depends on the major political elites, military, business, and religious are the new institutional bodies that characterize this crucial stability in the political world. The economic factor that has generated major global crisis could be a threat but it is not independent, democratic security remains, what has changed is the decision of the people to demand through large peaceful movements, governments policy changes Economic leaving high unemployment in the region. But yet today unemployment rates have been fluctuating in the United States causing economic imbalance are trying to handle it. The region has unemployment as "Panorama Laboral 2012 in Latin America and the Caribbean," says the regional urban unemployment is 6.4% at the end of 2012, and that trend will continue downward. Having this background it is making an effort to consolidate democracy through good diplomatic relations and humble decision to current political leaders who head the major governments of the region based on climate geopolitics has been playing an increasing factor . 2.2 -. Geopolitical Analysis of Latin America and the Caribbean Geographical factor. The space occupied by the Latin American and Caribbean countries in the world, is limited to the central and southern part of the American continent, bordered by the, Atlantic, Pacific, Antarctica, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and oceans. Composed of the following independent countries: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela, Guyana, French Guyana, Peru, Surinam, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Belize, Nicaragua, El
  • 11. Fundeimes.blogspot.com Salvador, Costa Rica, Panama, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti and Jamaica.There are three official languages: Spanish, Portuguese and French are widely spoken languages. According to studies published in the biographical website http://www.profesorenlinea.cl/geografiagral/U200_4MHyGeog.htm . South America has a surface area of 17,819,100 km ². With a population of about 400, 000,000 inhabitants. http://www.profesorenlinea.cl/geografiagral/U200_4MHyGeog.htm Central America has an area of 522.7601 km ². Population of approximately 45,739,000 inhabitants. http://www.profesorenlinea.cl/geografiagral/U200_4MHyGeog.htm The Caribbean has a total area: 2, 754,000 - Area of land, 239.681 km ². Population about 36 314.0001 bed. http://www.profesorenlinea.cl/geografiagral/U200_4MHyGeog.htm The strategic areas identified in Latin America and the Caribbean are identified as geostrategic elements for the region include: the Panama Canal, administered by the Government of Panama, the large reserves of water in most of the mainland oilfields, and strategic areas of biodiversity and environmental protection. The geopolitical positioning has become a vital aspect of democratic security. In the case of Latin America and the Caribbean, there have been a number of tensions that are expressed more concern of the bourgeoisie of the region by the geopolitical aspects, forcing some to reaffirm and strengthen in this area, and others to create certain alignments where economic, ideological and geopolitical interests are combined. Political Factor The political system in almost all countries of the region is democratic presidential government, or elected by free elections, with the exception of Cuba is under a dictatorial regime. The Latin America and Caribbean projects a global political and economic order. There have been changes in the political and institutional democratization of these countries since the element of the transition is complete. Air breathed political integration in the region with the creation of international bodies able to be
  • 12. Fundeimes.blogspot.com cohesive, with the example of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC). Economic factor According to the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), which frequently publishes economic indicators in the region, the following information is extracted from the internet, I quote: "By far the region has had an annual growth of 3.1 percent in the last ten years, but said big vulnerabilities in the economy persist. This growth is the result of an increase in trade of raw materials and consumption than investment. " 1 Latin America and the Caribbean is based economy mainly in secondary and / or tertiary, has production of oil, natural gas, coal, wine, fish production, industrial products, mining production, etc.. States with the highest GDP in Brazil, Mexico and Argentina, have an economic integration with UNASUR, NAFTA. Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Dominican Republic have in place a free trade agreement with the United States (DR-CAFTA). Military Factor The armed forces of the region are medium and large, professional armies gifted in their generality of modern equipment and ammunition. These armies are mainly specialized in peacekeeping missions of the United Nations, and conducting joint work with other armies on the continent or the world. 2 2.3 -. Organization of American States (OAS) in democratic security in Latin America and the Caribbean. The Organization of American States (OAS) was founded to establish international relations policies to increase security among democratic states in the region, promote institutional development based on democratic systems of government and meets the requirements of peacekeeping. The agency has been busy since its inception to be observant of the various general elections were held and sometimes their involvement in mediating political crisis. After a long time this organization has been losing credibility in some rulers for their criticism of the international organization. The Organization of American States (OAS) was described as being a body serving the interests of the United States, since its headquarters is located in that country and the poor performance has had on the Honduran crisis, the threat of closure of media in Venezuela, ongoing violations in several countries at the Inter- American Democratic Charter and disclosure of praise for the alleged illegitimacy
  • 13. Fundeimes.blogspot.com of the regime of Fidel Castro Cuba, have placed it under a shower of criticism. In the '60s, Cuban President Fidel Castro accused the OAS of being then "a ministry colony" of the United States. Despite these harsh criticism is considered as a body representing the democratic countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, making great contributions to the economic, social and political development of peoples and their pending challenges in the current global scenario, between them overcoming inequality and the need for political consensus that will allow countries to advance social issues. According to the LETTER OF THE ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES (OAS), it was created in 1948 with the purpose of strengthening peace and security in the continent. Try the peaceful settlement of disputes between States or outside groups and promotes the economic, social and cultural development. It is a regional organization whose purposes are to:  To strengthen the peace and security on the continent  Promoting and consolidating democracy  Prevent and ensure peaceful solution of n or conflicts arise between the States of the regi  Organize solidarity action or n é hese aggressive or if n  To promote, through the cooperative action or n, economic development or economic, social and cultural development;  Eradicate poverty í cr tica, which is an obst ass to the full democratic development of the peoples to Mod hemisphere, and  To achieve an effective limitation of conventional weapons or n The mission of the Secretariat for Political Affairs (SPA) is to contribute to strengthening the political processes of the Member States, in particular to support democracy as the best option to ensure peace, security and development. The SPA focuses on strengthening the role of the organization as the core of the American system in the political field and to contribute actively to maintain democracy in the Member States. The OAS has a structure comprising:  The General Assembly;  Or the Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs;  The Councils (the Permanent Council, the Inter-American Council for Integral Development);
  • 14. Fundeimes.blogspot.com  The Committee é í Jur American physician;  The Interamerican Commission or Human Rights;  Í The Secretariat General;  The Specialized Conferences;  The Specialized Agencies. This information was compiled by the author on the website of the International organization ( http://www.oas.org/es/ ). How the OEA oversees elections in Latin America? The agency sends the Electoral Observation Mission made up of delegates from the various countries of the region, almost all elections held in the Member States. The OAS brings fifty (50) years observing elections in Latin America. It sent its first mission in 1962 to Costa Rica. He has observed elections in 26 of its 34 member states. Observations have mainly contributed to consolidate hemispheric democracy because one of the essential pillars on which it is based is the legitimacy derived from the genesis of the political process, ie free, transparent and inclusive elections. In their reports highlight the participation of citizens during election days, the behavior that showed the population to express their preferences through voting, issues of access, equity, gender, campaign finance, media, transparency and general support to electoral institutions in each country. Upon completion of the counting of votes and elected officials, the election observer mission of the OAS delivers relevant recommendations noted during the event in order to give a substantive step in the consolidation of democracy. 3 Inter (2001) Democratic Charter. This letter was adopted at the twenty-eighth special session September 11, 2001 Lima, Peru, whose purpose is. ¨ Art. 1 - The peoples of the Americas have a right to democracy and their governments have an obligation to promote and defend. Democracy is essential for the social, political and economic development of the peoples of the Americas ¨ With this statement the agency ensures that governments implement all legal or regulatory measures to maintain political stability, which have achieved the States of Latin America and the Caribbean. Democratic security is maintained with such international instrument covering the political and strategic security objectives. This international instrument commits States to pay attention to democracy and human rights issue, comprehensive development, poverty eradication, institutional stability, etc.. Other documents such as Resolution 1080 and the
  • 15. Fundeimes.blogspot.com Protocol of Washington, among others, are manifestations of wanting to ensure democratic security including human rights and guarantees, such as the separation of powers. 4 So once rated the systemic and contextual challenges that countries assume their effective implementation, it is necessary to reflect not only on his philosophical-political mark, its actual capacity to serve and lead institutional changes demanded by the region in terms of projection legal development of the United Nation, from the local social cohesion and strengthening the multilateral coexistence, while in favor in principle. 5 2.4 -. Economics and Globalization in Latin America and the Caribbean The economy -. Might be framed within the group of social sciences and dedicated to the study of production and exchange procedures, and analysis of the consumption of goods (products) and services. The word comes from Greek and means "management of a household or family." In 1932, the British brought another Lionel Robbins definition of economics, considering it as the branch that analyzes how humans satisfy their unlimited low- resource needs that have different uses. The role of economics is to provide rational criteria for the allocation of resources as efficient as possible. Globalization -.'s A modern phenomenon that can be analyzed from different angles. The term comes from English globalization, where global or overall equivalent to globalization would be more appropriate. The growing interdependence between states and societies globally implies that decisions and activities of a part of the globe have significant consequences for societies in distant parts of the world (Mc Grew and Lewis, 1992, p.22) Broadly speaking, one could say that globalization is the integration of various international companies in a single world capitalist market. Therefore, the phenomenon is defended from economic theories as neoliberalism and institutions like the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. 6 Globalization has created an economic impact in Latin America, which results in the creation of the free market as an example the region has a free trade agreement with Central America, the Caribbean, and the United States. While the foregoing, we can say that both economic factors and globalization have impacted significantly on democratic security in Latin America and the Caribbean. The economic climate has led some states have to rely on
  • 16. Fundeimes.blogspot.com external funds to cover the budget deficits of governments in their policies of state investment. This has been possible through multilateral financial agencies are available to those countries with democratic physiognomy. Mention the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. 2.5 -. Features of the situation of globalization on Latin America and the Caribbean Latin America and the rest of the world have a relationship that is not the same as it competes with more powerful countries a security environment characterized as a zone of peace and economic context marked by neoliberal inheritance and trade openness. In this context, Latin America has taken several different ways: first, openness, economic integration second and third joint free trade agreements with the United States. However, the area lacks a strategy for insertion in the globalized world. 7 Latin America has had several alternatives that are the result of combined processes, globalization, regionalization and nationalism-which must be understood and studied to extract the result they have now organized in the States that compose UNASUR Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, Brazil, Argentina, Suriname and Guyana. Created as a means of uniting integrationist forces seeking the development of the peoples of the region in the field of political, economic, social and cultural. Search multilateralism, reducing the asymmetry with the rest of the developed world. Latin America is a region with great opportunities, one must refer to the new scenario between Latin American countries and increasing its links with other regions such as Asia led by China, in the broader context of globalization. For example, the globalization of markets has encouraged Latin American countries to diversify their contacts outside the region, and even beyond the Western Hemisphere. 8 In addition, each Latin American sub-region receives differently U.S. influence, that after the end of the Cold War has adopted different strategies. He has made agreements with Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, and countries such as Chile and Colombia. Brazil and Chile have achieved an enviable economic growth, are examples for the rest of the area. Asymmetry is a common theme throughout Latin America. Mean that other regions such as Europe, Asia and North America are more attractive for AL than for herself. 9
  • 17. Fundeimes.blogspot.com The global economy is in transition, with North America and the European Union in crisis and a key economic hub that is geared increasingly towards Asia.Although Latin America, with just 8% of the gross world product can not change position abruptly. The security context It is relevant to understand the strategies adopted by Latin American countries in international relations. There have been important changes in the relations between the countries of the region in relation to the traditional concerns for peace and security. A broad concept of security means also include problems such as increasing unemployment and poverty, marginalization of many sectors of the population, human rights violations, environmental degradation, threats to democratic development and economic welfare, and economic and political instability. Terrorism and drug trafficking pose new challenges for sub-regional security plans, as are attempts to develop within the framework of Mercosur. The new threats that countries do not perceive its neighbors as potential enemies, but prevent create a clear perception about who is the common external adversary and how it must face. Economic Context Latin America and built a neoliberal policies related to globalization. As a result of this decision, built strong relationships with market economies, it became more dependent and closely integrated into the global economy. Tariffs were reduced, exports were promoted, are invited foreign investors to bid to purchase state enterprises and free trade agreements were promoted. The effects of globalization have not had good results or damage. Economic liberalization brought results, generated more dependence on economies, increased vulnerability of global capital markets and reduced political autonomy. The emergence of a new populist left in countries like Ecuador, Venezuela and Bolivia can be interpreted as a policy response to the economic integration in globalization. 10 Today, regionalism emerges as another powerful force of globalization that continues to be the same effect as the latter has left. The important thing is that the region is strengthened in any economic environment, the exploitation of their wealth, fostering competitive exports, supported by integrationist policies, the benefits of multilateral agencies, is the case of Petrocaribe, MERCOSUR, FREE TRADE AGREEMENT , THE
  • 18. Fundeimes.blogspot.com AGREEMENT OF LOME, Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas, ALBA, SOUTH BANK, driving the engine of productivity and the development of peoples. 11 2.6 -. Democratic Security and Human Rights. Understanding what is actually meant by democratic security, it is clear that its development and has sought to advance outlining depending on the clause of the rule of law and the effective exercise of fundamental freedoms and human rights. Thus democracy much use in the correlation of effective policies framed rules governing society. A society must grant the sovereignty of self determination without any interference of a Foreign or domestic, to which must be strictly applied the Constitution of the State. The social state emerged in the early twentieth century as a response to the lack of legitimacy was going through the capitalist state, which had plunged into a deep crisis. The labor movement and socialist doctrines inspired by communists, constituting one of the most significant expressions that could be placed in hard to own the whole structure of the productive apparatus of the liberal state situation arises then. At that time, the state was characterized by observing a condition of non- intervention in the most important areas of society development. It starts to change the perception and understanding of what were the rights. Rights and disclosed in the French Revolution, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (1789), inspired by the American Declaration of Independence of 1776 and the philosophical spirit of the eighteenth century, marks the end of the Old Regime and the beginning of a new era. At the end of World War II, the United Nations on October 24, 1945 is created with the signing of the charter of the United Nations by 51 countries, in order to maintain international peace and security. Subsequently, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted on 10 December 1948. And Latin OAS also adopted the OAS Charter and the American Convention on Human Rights, adopted in San Jose is created , Costa Rica on November 22, 1969. Now they should be guaranteed beyond approval but had to sign them to ratify and publish. Thus human rights are part of the rule of law and the constitutionality of the signatory as the same cover Civil, Political, Economic, Social and Cultural rights. Democratic security is also related to human rights, otherwise it is not effective application of public security policies. All plans are based on democratic
  • 19. Fundeimes.blogspot.com security guaranteeing citizens' rights enshrined in the civil and political, social, economic and cultural agreements covenants. 2.6.1 The relationship between democracy and human rights In its contemporary conceptualization, democracy has been closely linked to the respect of human rights, because certain political regime can not be described as democratic if within the same gross and systematic violations of human rights occur. It can be argued that at least it is possible to find a field in which the projection of democratic values is unquestionable. Thus democracy, as noted D. Beetham, understand, today, as one of its components, recognition and respect for civil and political rights also equal rank, such rights. To understand, in its effects, these two aspects together should define the content thereof in the international order and note that in regional areas of law, have become legitimate force democracy. In the American system the recognition and protection of human rights has expressed a clear link established between rights and democratic society, as interpretive identifying the limits of the rights recognized in the Covenant on Human Rights Inter. In this regard, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights has stated that "the concept of rights and freedoms and, therefore, of their guarantees, is also inseparable from the system of values and principles that inspire. In a democratic society, the rights and freedoms inherent in the person, the guarantees and the rule of law form a triad of components each of which is defined, complete and makes sense in terms of the others. " In regard to Latin American integration, the relationship between democracy and human rights is of particular relevance, since the democratization of Latin America and the Caribbean is an undeniable fact that emerged from new RIAs.
  • 20. Fundeimes.blogspot.com CHAPTER III. - IMPACT ON THE DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN DOMINICAN REPUBLIC BY
  • 21. Fundeimes.blogspot.com CHAPTER III. - IMPACT ON THE DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN BY DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 3.1 -. Overview of public policy for democratic security. In several countries in the region have implemented public policies for democratic security in order to guarantee the fundamental rights of citizens, the formation of programs to preserve and strengthen the political climate based on democracy has been a task set countries enjoying over 30 years in democracy.The policies are grounded in the rule of law, security of persons and property, and regional security organization and institutionalization, according to "democratic security treaty framework of Central America." On this case the Dominican Republic has adopted a stance of joining this international agreement, in order to take a geostrategic commitment to tackle crime and transnational organized crime because relations between countries are very good and there is a great degree of cooperation . The objective of this intervention is to provide the experience that Central American countries have accumulated in the development of collaborative processes among states for public policy for the defense sector and identify possible strategies for future collaboration. Despite how it appears in recorded programs, these policies have a vital task in several topics characterized treaties. Possible collaboration between States and some sectors of society, in this context usually expression was directly or indirectly a confrontation with other sectors of society. Authoritarian form of government and armed conflict as a political phenomenon that occurred in the region for decades dictated logic relationship with the idea of "collaboration" not responding to the needs of public policy for the common good, but survival needs of a question that sought political enforcer to social protest. This prevailed in the Cold War era, the episode ends and we find another drama with prevailing alternatives, is only the case of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). 12 But now the picture has changed. The States of Central America have been able to exorcise the ghost of regional conflict, have been able to put an end to internal armed conflicts that had developed in her womb, and representative
  • 22. Fundeimes.blogspot.com democracy have adopted as a standard for the regulation of relations of power within society. This is a process still underway, democracy is established in the region, as evidenced by compliance in each of the countries of the basic conditions of all electoral democracy. However, the consolidation of democracy depends not on the survival of these minimum conditions that serve the political sphere, but the extension of the principles and values that democracy provides for regulating power relations at all areas of social life: economic, social, occupational, familial, etc..From this point of view, the construction of democracy is an ongoing process, with diversity of scale and scope and under different conditions, companies in Latin America face the limitations and shortcomings of the young to advance democracy and its consolidation, both the development of political institutions, such as the democratization of all social relations under consideration; Bernardo Arévalo de León in his publication ¨ public security policies and democratic governance: elements for building intersectoral collaboration in Central ¨ . 13 3.2 -. Impact of the security and defense of democratic security in Latin America and the Caribbean. Security and defense are the prerogative of States to make a commitment to having a military force ready to provide national security and defense of their territory from any threat no matter its nature. Historically, military forces have been present in all manifestations of the Free States. As is the case in Latin America and the Caribbean, their presence has been outstanding, but have participated in sounded against the constitutional order, it looks like your part and negative in one case and not in others have advocated a constitutional government. Yet the Armed Forces are part of the democratic security policy, subordinate to the civil power, to be able to defend national sovereignty and popular will preserve democracy as the only way to peace and social stability. In the last thirty years have seen progress in the area of civil-military relations by changes internally in our Armed Forces, with the doctrinal addressing a new mission. Democracy has become a target, at least the declared across the region. Most analysts of this issue of Armed Forces agree that these institutions are inherently conservative. The armed forces in a democracy are, in many respects, and beyond all, different from an authoritarian regime. It is vital for the maintenance of a democratic government in Latin America that security and defense are part of
  • 23. Fundeimes.blogspot.com the strategic policies of the nation, the military forces fulfill their role or duties in the context of democratic values. 14 3.3 -. Role of regional bodies for democratic security . In the region there are several agencies political, social, economic and cultural, are linked to the same democratic security. agencies What are these?Economic Commission for Latin America, ECLAC, the Central American Integration System (SICA) the Organization of American States (OAS), the Andean Community (CAN), the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), the Association of Caribbean States (ACS), Community of Latin American and Caribbean (CELAC), the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA) Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), Central American Parliament (PARLACEN) and other integration schemes worldwide and international institutions. What has been the contribution of these organizations to democratic security? Aiming to strengthen international relations between states of Latin America, these bodies make a significant contribution to the consolidation of democracy, the development of peoples, because they need mutual aid, cooperation in various screeds public policy of a country, and that is achieved progress in regional integration through these agencies with a permanent presence in the history of diplomatic relations. To encompass the economic, political and social lines has had to resort to such bodies to understand that it takes a body balance which is used when there are some conflicts or crises between countries whose interests are violated by those with greater force to worldwide. The countries of the region and of these summits held agreements and treaties arise; in the area of democratic security the free trade agreement with the United States, Petrocaribe, CELAC in Caracas Declaration, Declaration of the Heads of State of the member countries of the Forum of Latin American Pacific Basin is signed is highlighted. The reduction of poverty is seen as a political goal, their presence in the region prevents the development of peoples, that is why bodies dealing with this subject as millennium goal. Another contribution of international organizations is through the funding and how to access soft loans, resources for the purpose of being able to carry out the development of investment programs. As part of international policy in the region has benefited from the Interamerican Development Bank (IDB) created in 1959, which provides funding to the poorest countries in the region as a contribution to its democratic security.
  • 24. Fundeimes.blogspot.com Another program created in January 1962 by the government of the United States is THE ALLIANCE FOR PROGRESS, which established priorities for improving economic conditions in some countries in the region. The aid is targeted technical assistance to reduce poverty and strengthen democratic ties with the United States. These regional and international bodies have been instrumental in Latin America and the Caribbean achieved boost development, maintain political stability in the democratic framework and overcome the setback meant the existence of dictatorial governments, internal conflicts and revolutionaries, now turn to enjoy a peace that took much effort and sacrifice of men and Latin women. 3.4 -. Democratic security in Latin America and the Caribbean Democratic security in Latin America and the Caribbean to be approached on two criteria: first : the functionality of the democratic system, and second : the factors of perceived security and respect for human rights. Democratic security is not only political stability, free elections, or absence of coups, but rather safety- related conditions; in this region have adopted policies with efforts to ensure it several agreements. The safety initiative the Caribbean Basin under the leadership of the United States poses a strategic security perspective hemisphere directed to strengthen their capacity to address common challenges such as illicit trafficking, enhance public safety and promote social justice. Common problems of security in the Caribbean require common responses, more interregional coordination. For some time, CARICOM and the Organization of Caribbean States (OEC) have attempted to boost cooperation mechanisms. Hemispheric region faces several threats that becomes a vulnerable area, although their democratic governments to ensure respect for human rights, is considered the most violent in the world with high levels of insecurity becoming a social problem more than 140,000 homicides a year and great loss of human and economic resources, not less than 14% of annual GDP, causing an erosion of democratic institutions. There are regional differences: the Andean region is the most complex, then follows Central America and finally the Southern Cone. Democratic security in Latin America and the Caribbean has been the subject of several reports on the progress achieved. Governance is one of the indices that point which has been his stay and outcomes experienced an accelerated process of political, economic and social changes since the 1980s in the third wave, the new democracies called technocrats have been able to play its role on some States characterized by neoliberal economic policies. The democratic
  • 25. Fundeimes.blogspot.com populism has been confronting the neoliberal and producing changes in acceptance of the voters, democracy also faces the problem of administrative corruption wearing governments to commit such acts. The neoliberal economic policies often become blamed for the decline of democratic security, that is why it is assumed even by the lack of political stability.While obviously the technocratic strata loaded with guilt. The application of the law, the rule of law and equality before the law are garantistas rights that must be protected in democratic governments, however the topic more justice in Latin America has created a culture of inequality before the law, producing a adverse to democracy because it increases poverty, corruption and cronyism characterized by the inability of institutions to respond to social demands, under a free regime, with regular and transparent elections to show that the democratic system is legitimately accepted factor. In effect based Latino Barometer 2010 indicates that 70% of citizens surveyed in Latin America and the Caribbean believes that democracy has problems, but is a good system; 66% say it is the best system to get to do a developed country; 62% say that in no circumstances would support a military government, 53% believe that democracy is preferable to any other form of government; 59% believe that there can be no democracy without a parliament, while 54% believe that there can be no democracy are political parties; 53% believe that democracy can solve the problems that have as a country. There are 11 of the 18 countries where more than 60% of the population says that voting is effective and in 13 of the 18 countries more than 50% believe in the efficacy of the vote to change things. This study shows that the majority of the population is sympathetic to democracy, are the people who are empowered to maintain democratic governments and stay for more than 30 years and even demand better social and economic conditions for the rest of the population, which when making any decisions at the political level must be approved by the people as the star of the reality of Latin America and the Caribbean. Democratic security tends to citizenship dela nation in which project leaders seeking innovative ideas to improve social welfare and reject any solution by military means. This is the case of Venezuela when it declined to give a coup President Hugo Chavez and another case of Honduras when the legislature associated with military power took the government of José Manuel Zelaya
  • 26. Fundeimes.blogspot.com Rosales, acts that were rejected by other countries of the Organization of American States (OAS). According to a report published by UNDP in 2004 established the levels of democracy in Latin America and the Caribbean, among them are included as the most democratic Cost Rica, Chile, Dominican Republic and Uruguay, this is due to the civic culture of the exercise of rights and levels of support for democracy. In the case of Dominican Republic, the country has played a role or role in democracy to the rest of the other countries identified with excellent diplomatic relations, marked by over 30 years of democracy makes this country as a defender of the rights citizens and promoting the maintenance of peace in the region, is included in the 3rd wave according to Samuel Huntington. The defense of the country to democratic security in Latin America and the Caribbean necessarily related to foreign policy with the United States, provided these relationships significantly influence the political position of the Dominican State regarding this issue. The Carter administration had an effect on the political developments in the region and then the Carter center influences how choice policies of governments, provided this was contrary to the dictatorial currents enthroned in the region. The Dominican Republic took advantage of this policy of human rights proclaimed by Jimmy Carter in the midst of the Cold War was a strong ideological difference versus socialism or communism. Very few achievements that can be presented in the Dominican Republic by the defense of democratic security in Latin America and the Caribbean because we have to face several challenges in the economic, political, and social. Economic openness and foreign investment in Latin America and the Caribbean has been the only source of funding able to curb domestic inflation and shift to moderate growth. The macro-economic policy paid off positive and tourism development permit growth for bigger jobs and achieve economic levels according to ECLAC in 1980 Latin America the richest 10% of the population owned a volume of income 21 times higher the income of the poorest 40%. For 1990, 10% more privileged absorbed 27 times more income by receiving 40% less favored this is a sign of poverty presented by ECLAC. These figures influence human development scheme in the region and therefore in democratic security So far in the region the Organization of American States (OAS) is not considered that it has provided both in terms of nature of security, political, and democratic security, has only obeyed external pressures in order to maintain its
  • 27. Fundeimes.blogspot.com leadership in the region . Their missions are limited and very questionable, focusing on a new agenda based face new threats: drug trafficking, terrorism, immigration, smuggling and trafficking in persons and smuggling of weapons. 3.5 -. Perspective on Citizen Security in the Dominican Republic The Dominican Republic made in the year 2005 the first public safety plan called DEMOCRATIC SECURITY PLAN (PSD) , in order to maintain public tranquility and peace, as well as guarantees of citizens' rights. This plan included the implementation several sub-programs: reform of the national police, safe neighborhood, safe town, village public safety, food network, protecting victims of violence, health and safety, alcoholic beverage control, control firearms, control and regulation of fireworks, roadside assistance, immigration program regularization of foreigners, naturalization, called 911, and interagency coordination committee micro strategies against drug trafficking and sorting fire departments. Each sub-program had its objective and the actions to take. NATIONAL POLICE REFORM : Adapt to the institution in the organizational order to be effective, and to ensure the exercise of the rights of citizens in a democratic state. SAFE NEIGHBORHOOD: empower neighborhood leaders to the issue of security and link with state agencies in cooperation to seek peaceful solutions to conflicts generated within the most vulnerable society solutions. MICROENTREPRENEURS FINANCING DISTRICT OF ME . Facilitating microcredit portfolio to the most deprived persons operating as small businesses in the targeted neighborhoods. Financing business was achieved 2,747 total 12,813 direct beneficiaries. A ROOF FOR MY NEIGHBORHOOD . Help facilitate the improvement of the poorest households to enjoy a decent roof people. Before applying a diagnosis was made in the National District and neighborhoods Santiago, indicating very high crime rate, and a high perception of insecurity which placed the country at a high risk of crime. Other programs implemented as social assistance, arms control, and limiting the hours of sale of alcoholic beverages, came to bring a complement that affected the decrease violent acts. The effectiveness of the Democratic Security Plan had its positive and negative effects for years after crime rates soared.
  • 28. Fundeimes.blogspot.com This shows that democratic states have to adopt public policies on citizen security, the rule of law is preserved and that the citizen has no protection if nothing had better enjoy a government that claims to be a guarantor of freedom. Crime rate in the Dominican Republic (2000-2010). Years old Homicide Rate 2000 14.6 2001 12.8 2002 14.9 2003 21.8 2004 25.2 2005 26.3 2006 23.6 2007 22.1 2008 24.8 2009 25.02 2010 25.01 Source statistics department of the national police A report on the violence in Dominican Republic: nature, recent developments and prospects Control * by Dr. Mayra Brea Edylberto Dr. Cabral Cabral of the Autonomous University of Santo Domingo said: "That the assessments made by the same official sector Safe Neighborhoods program highlights however, three weaknesses: 1. The inability of state institutions to respond to permanent and growing to multiple social and economic causes of violence and marginality way. February. Failure of Police for lack of human and material resources, to expand in its task of prevention. March. Limitations neighborhood organizations to integrate prevention. " Graph of violent deaths in years 1991-2008 RD Source uasd.edu.do / IPSU / Perception of Public Safety. Crime rates have increased in Dominican Republic in the last 10 years despite the figures, and statistics are not very accurate, the offense has been associated with the most populated cities Santo Domingo, Santiago and San Cristobal another factor to micro-traffic affecting any citizen transiting through the city streets. The levels of perceived insecurity in the
  • 29. Fundeimes.blogspot.com region exceeds the 53.8% in Dominican Republic varies by 46.5% this percentage gives the country where the perception of crime is among the highest in the region because in recent years has had to implement programs of crime control to bring calm to the population and minimize this perception. This scenario demonstrates that public policies on citizen security properly implemented still positive for democratic security. 3.6 -. Contributions of the Dominican Republic to the defense of democratic security in Latin America and the Caribbean. From the government of Juan Bosch, (1963) the Dominican Republic, a new stage in the democratic construction that required a constitutional amendment.Several institutional changes that was just emerging from a dictatorship over thirty years were given. President Juan Bosch to take over the government, urged the people to throw fear to fight for maintaining a democratic society, with civil liberties and social justice with these words there was a strong interest of sustaining democracy with the support of the people, though seven months after military groups produce a hit State constitutional government. This government in only seven months evinced a nationalist and progressive, seeking political and economic development of the nation. But social groups disagreed with that freedom and openness of the political ideal transformers confused government with socialist ideals. Democratic security was absent at that time was not known as such because it is a modern trend practiced in the absence of global ideological bipolarity. The defense of democratic security in Dominican Republic was historically manifested in the revolution of April 1965, where the return to constitutional government, which brought the consequences of a second military intervention by the United States to impose geopolitical interests were required Empire North. This event led by the Constitutionalists including Colonel Francisco Alberto Caamano, were forced to negotiate the international conflict with the Organization of American States (OAS) and the National Reconciliation Act was signed. The two governments agreed to step down and choose a provisional Civil Government.Other agreements were the holding of elections in 1966, the declaration of a general amnesty, disarmament of civilians and the withdrawal of the U.S. military. This agreement is another element that has to do with democratic security in Dominican Republic . 15 Since 1966-1978 the Dominican Republic on a democratic basis transited very challenged by the opposition, it was a very difficult period for the country, the
  • 30. Fundeimes.blogspot.com desire for continuity politically affected his administration Dr. Joaquín Balaguer Ricardo, had to face opposition iron, even to the extent of political persecution, political prisoners and the occurrence of alleged killings of opposition leaders, trade union, university students, journalists etc., perpetrated by uncontrollable government groups, generating many questions against the government considered by many critics as an opponent of democracy. Democratic security begins to be taken into account in the latest wave of democratization in 1978 when the Dominican Revolutionary Party (PRD) won the elections in that year as the main opposition party the Reform Party. (Rosario Espinal political scientist) said the following: " The attempt of electoral fraud in the vote count generated an internal political crisis that resonated internationally, and both the Socialist International and the United States, expressed their opposition to fraud, thus facilitating the process of political transition in 1978 . " About this event suggests that governments in the region were concerned that the popular will expressed at the polls was respected even if necessary take all achievable measures of democratic security, military forces are not resisted those claims although the heat of the elections openly supported the continuity and only subjected to the civil power. From this change democracy has endured for over 30 years, accompanied by three constitutional reforms. It has prevailed alternative presence of three political parties (PRD, PLD and PRSC) that have alternated power on several occasions, but persists political patronage drawing sideways democratic power and participation of citizens in politics. Courting democracy has been achieved through the efforts of many people who sacrificed for freedom this people should not abandon any particular interest.Democratic institutions must be strengthened to obtain the support of the people. The defense of democratic security is embodied in two scenarios: one doctrinal and legal (rule of law) nature and other classroom-based (national security) resting on security and national defense. Democracy in the Dominican Republic has been strengthened, and so indicate the surveys conducted by Latino barometer as to the confidence of citizens in the political system, and as an example the measurements made in the year 2010 are described. Support for democracy in the region Despite the economic crisis, democracy has continued to be supported by the population. Between 2008 and 2010 in our country that confidence ranges between 68% and 74%. Our findings revolve around the maintenance of the
  • 31. Fundeimes.blogspot.com citizenry is able to maintain a democratic security has made significant contribution in the region. System Support Although democracy has strong support does not mean that governments have a good performance and support of the population, in this case the political system is highly contested and that does not meet the expectations of the agent and this generates little system support Dominican Republic indicators show that in 2008 with a 57.6% and 53.9% in 2010. Satisfaction with democracy Around this indicator variable is common in supporting democracy, ie people sometimes feel not feel satisfied in the best way with government, as to Dominican Republic values are 2008 54.0% and 2010 50.7% . With the conclusion that the population has a slightly lower satisfaction perception of how the government handled economically and politically, making it clear that there is a social debt. Support for Military Coups Although the region in such actions no longer occur there is the conviction that the economic crisis led to military groups banging United but once taken over the same economic crisis prevents them continue to exercise government. Respondents would support a coup with different conditions: high unemployment, high crime, and high corruption in Dominican Republic in 2008 to 31.7% in 2010 32.2%. These findings demonstrate the low percentage of the population to support a military coup no matter the conditions that exist certain threats that disrupt democratic security. 16 3.6.1 -. Conventions and treaties on democratic security . In Latin America have created various regional agreements are made Framework Treaty on Democratic Security in Central America , including the States of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama, and then adhered the Dominican Republic. This agreement is a management model of international partnership in order to integrate these countries for the consolidation of democracy, development and hemispheric security. This document has been instrumental defense of democratic security in the region where all countries assume that commitment. A similar document is the Democratic Charter of the Organization of American States (OAS). The treaty framework components are based on the rule of law, the guarantee of fundamental economic freedoms, social justice, and democratic values.
  • 32. Fundeimes.blogspot.com It also serves to resolve situations that violate the peace and affect the security of any state. To the extent that has consolidated democracy countries have made much progress in the quality of life for residents and exceeded internal armed conflict. The current liberal democracy today is affected by crime, youth violence, gangs, terrorism and narco activity. Has been appointed as a Democratic Central American Security model that supports the strengthening of civilian power, ensure public safety, overcoming poverty, protecting the environment, controlling violence, trafficking in arms and persons and facing the problem of illegal immigration. Basically the treaty protocol comes Tegucigalpa containing cooperation for democracy, rule of law, the principle of the subordination of the armed forces and the police, face public or private corruption. Recognize the importance of those security forces guide their actions in the resolutions of the United Nations. Maintain mutual respect among nations parties where required not to allow their territories destabilizing any action or task that threatens peace in the region. All these conditions will allow the consolidation of democracy held by governments maintaining good governance bailing equal fundamental rights of people and systematic decisions opt potential economic and social policy impact. Within this context, the Dominican Republic plays a role in defending democratic security, as a free and sovereign State is actively involved in diplomatic or political relations with other neighboring nations that are committed to make the same commitment. We can describe the role played by the country in defense of democratic security in the XX Summit of Heads of State and Government of the Rio Group, on March 7, 2008 in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, in which governments of Colombia and Ecuador were able to make peace, generated an international conflict between two nations, President of Colombia Alvaro Uribe accused the President of Ecuador Rafael Correa to cover in their country groups of the FARC, and he accused Uribe of that his country's troops raided his territory after attacking and killing several fighters including one of their leaders Raúl Reyes. The participation of the president of the host country Dr. Leonel Fernández Reyna, in this peace agreement was significant with the call for "unity of America" because it could save the stability of international relations between democratic governments serving space to discuss on the diplomatic crisis that pitted Ecuador with Colombia and Venezuela , and that led to a harsh exchange of accusations.
  • 33. Fundeimes.blogspot.com Another case that is highlighted is the coup in Honduras, on June 28, 2009 the constitutional government of President Manuel Zelaya, who won the rejection of the other countries in the region, the Dominican Republic condemned the coup and maintained a diplomatic balance address this political event hosting as a political exile Manuel Zelaya, and continued to play a conciliatory role in the crisis. The OAS suspended Honduras as a member of the organization until the country "restore democratic government." The election of the Secretary General of the Organization of American States (OAS), José Miguel Insulza, in May 2005, was produced with the support of the vast majority of States parties including the Dominican Republic, the country's mission to the OAS, held a strong position regardless of the interest shown by the United States in another candidate. The coalition of states that supported democratic Insulza maintained security in the region. As for international relations and its link with the democratic security in Latin America and the Caribbean, the Dominican Republic supports the various initiatives to maintain regional security. Is the case of Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, also known as the Rio Treaty or Treaty of Rio, and the American Treaty on Pacific Settlement Pact of Bogotá. In 1991, the Santiago Commitment to Democracy and the Renewal of the Inter-American System which states "the need to promote representative democracy as an indispensable condition for the stability, peace and development in the region" was approved. This commitment, along with Resolution 1080, constituted collective action mechanisms of the organization through which they could deal with situations of threat to democratic institutions in some Member States. This resolution was put forward by the Member States of the OAS on four occasions: Haiti (1991), Peru (1992), Guatemala (1993) and Paraguay (1996). The Organization of American States (OAS) has been for several years a series of political interventions in Latin America and the Caribbean, where the Dominican Republic held a position of political balance in the sphere of external relations. OAS intervention in Latin America and the Caribbean YEAR COUNTRY SITUATION APPLICATION 1991 Haiti Coup President Jean B Aristides 1080 1992 Peru Government of Alberto Fujimori, stroke institutional 1080
  • 34. Fundeimes.blogspot.com status 1993 Guatemala President Jorge Serrano Elias, ordered the suspension of several articles of the Constitution. 1080 1996 Paraguay The resistance of General Oviedo to abide by the presidential Wasmosy 1080 Year Country Juncture Application 2002 Venezuela Coup against President Hugo Chavez Article 20 2003, 2005 a nd 2008 Bolivia Successive political crises and violent street demonstrations Invocation Generic 2004 Peru Clashes between the branches of government Invocation Generic 2004 and 2005 Nicaragua Clashes between President Enrique Bolaños and Parliament Article 18 2005 Ecuador President Lucio Gutiérrez removed in the Supreme Court and appointed new members unconstitutionally 2009 Honduras Coup against President Manuel Zelaya. Honduras I remain suspended from participating in the OAS Articles 20 and 21 Data compiled by the author
  • 35. Fundeimes.blogspot.com CONCLUSION In the present investigation has been reported chronology of democracy in Latin America, seen as a system in the early twentieth century began to produce political changes in the different States, however international politics influenced the presence of government characterized by despotism, warlordism, and long dictatorships, who obeyed the moment tempered by the geopolitical world order divided into two bipolar currents that marked the Cold War. This ideological struggle between capitalism and communism prevailed permanently in the region, most of these governments were supported by one of these streams, represented by the U.S. and the USSR. Another phenomenon occurred in Latin America, were the various revolutions or internal armed conflict, which sought to impose their ideologies against imperialism. The common enemy represented communism. Elapsed the Cold War, leads to international organizations, with a commitment to establish political stability in the region, gradually disappearing dictatorships, and emerge a new security policy in the region. Democracy is a symbol of development, cultural, economic and political development of institutions capable of responding to the needs of the people in education, food, housing, health, culture, work, other fundamental rights. Democracy is focused on another nature, which makes it more important, plays a decisive role in the future of Spanish-speaking peoples. The governments of national concentration, liberalism, democratic security, democratic socialism, is what we are experiencing today. Is achieved by producing public policies that strengthen democratic security, in the fight for social equality in poverty reduction and macroeconomic equilibrium. A threat to democracy is foreign debt, which in many cases has been the collapse of democratic governments in Latin America and the Caribbean. The economic factor measures the perception of people about their government, if a weak economy is high perception of insecurity and conversely if a strong economic policy society values their rulers well with a high perception of security. In each country under review is a common component that makes the policy of the various governments, facing a crisis, dictatorial regimes under the leadership of the military arise. Moreover, the popular will as a result of any group seizes power at will and manage the country's destiny is imposed. International relations in the defense significantly influenced the maintenance of democratic systems that prevail in the region today.
  • 36. Fundeimes.blogspot.com With harmonize conditions between the states of Latin America has been a phenomenon in particular that despite the difficulties faced by the region, as a crisis of political, economic, and ideological, countries have faced bravely with such threats, without the support of the most powerful nations, Latin America has achieved many successes and different lines already identified. The economy in the last ten years has been in the context of macroeconomic stability, experiencing a slight increase. Seeking to maintain connections with the various regional bodies that relate to the economy, trade and productivity. But however this has failed, reducing extreme poverty, illiteracy, infant mortality, crime, drug trafficking, violence, unemployment, immigration, lack of opportunities, hunger, and the violation of human rights . These threats endangering democratic security so much effort has cost the Latin American people. The Dominican Republic, in the defense of democratic security in LA and the Caribbean, has played a central role because of its geographical location in the region, only participated in all meetings and summits of heads of state and their representatives presented good proposals to address the threats identified above with a view to contributing to peace and development of the Caribbean and continental peoples, is not much that can be said about the achievements obtained in the country in defense of democratic security, His example says it all. Democracy is the product of wills emanating from the majority to decide the fate of a nation free. Security is a faculty that keeps belongings safe state those that are acquired by people. In this case it is the democratic security is an abstract security is not physical, not touched, is similar to the legal certainty applies to preserve the application of laws in a state, so it is the democratic security not seen is not a person or thing but it relates to people living in an organized society represented by a nation or state. The term of democratic security is new, is associated with security in general term is typical of the conditions prevailing in a State, for its sovereign conservation. System of government to promote flying characteristics guarantees fundamental rights of citizens the enjoyment of civil and political, economic, social and cultural rights that vision puts governments in a complex and responsible situation, once allows the conquered people such powers can not violate those rights, so there assume the defense of democratic security is in the hands of everyone.
  • 37. Fundeimes.blogspot.com In short, the Dominican Republic has excellent diplomatic relations with all State of Latin America and the Caribbean including Cuba for special reasons to retaining different to other countries in the region socialist system. This paper shows how Dominican Republic is a democratic path, how to assume their role in relation to other countries and their links. In this perspective the role of the Dominican Republic in defense of democratic security in Latin America and the Caribbean is analyzed. The space left by the end of the Cold War, Perestroika, bipolarity, the union of Germany and the near disappearance of coups, what comes to occupy the democratic order itself attracts other challenges of capitalism, the rapid growth Asian economies, the creation of the European Union, neoliberal governments, globalization, social democracy, social exclusion, extreme poverty, world hunger, terrorism, drug trafficking, arms trafficking, illegal migration or immigration, makes the States come together to seek an appropriate solution to these new threats that do not cause more damage to the democratic system. Bodies worldwide UN has established resolutions, conventions and treaties that regulate processes in 193 countries worldwide political, economic, and social; equally regional bodies such as Latin America have had a significant presence in the same order, seeking integration, development, peace and security of the peoples of Latin America. Democratic security depends categorically effort to make all institutions of the State, so that citizens can fully enjoy a citizens' democracy is more democracy to use democracy constitutions of advanced societies, laying down a State law outlines that for many the ideal of democracy. RECOMMENDATIONS. 1 -. As a contribution to society and those scholars safety, we recommend that it be continued research from another perspective. Considering that is very widely from different points of view, for a contribution to the political system of the power groups that only through democracy people manage development. . 2 - Create strategic plans to maintain the democratic security of the country and the rest of the region, to maintain security and defense. 3 -. Reorient the fight against new threats, such as drug trafficking, organized crime, youth violence, illegal immigration, arms trafficking, smuggling and trafficking in persons, as the only way to maintain peace, democracy and social life in Latin America and the Caribbean.
  • 38. Fundeimes.blogspot.com GLOSSARY OF TERMS GLOSSARY OF TERMS 1. Sustainable development -. sustainable development here is called é l development that is able to meet current needs without compromising the resources and possibilities of future generations. Intuitively a sustainable activity is here é call that can be maintained. (ccqc.pangea.org / cast / sustainable / soscast.htm) 2. Democr to cia -. 's a system that allows you to organize a collection of individuals, in which power does not reside in one person but distributed among all citizens. Therefore, decisions are made u n s Eye View of a majority or y. 17th 3. Matches í pol ticos -. The set of individuals who re u nen and work together in order to gain power and achieve their proposals for the organization or social n. 18 4. Globalization or n -. means reconnecting the human community. Defined by Webster as a process that converts various activities and aspirations "global in scope or application things or n ". 5. Socialism - A system of social organization or economic or mica n and based on the ownership and administration or collective or state n of the means of production or ny is proposed which gradually walks away. Í theory raised by Karl Marx in the mid-nineteenth century. 6. War fr t . a - Finali Zado conflict b é lico Second orld War or the War inici Fr í a, which maintained two opposing ideologies í world as: capitalist and socialist until mid d é each of 1980. 19 7. Econom í world. - The set of social productive business relationships, financial, monetary, and pol t policies that make the order or global econ mico, under which forms of production or between ny cooperation or n t pa are structured ses. www.definicion.org/
  • 39. Fundeimes.blogspot.com 8. Human security -. means protecting vital freedoms of individuals exposed to certain situations and threats. Creating systems that give people the elements b musicians to survival, dignity and livelihood. 9. To democratic security policy -. pol í is a government policy paper proposing a m to s active society, inside of the struggle of the state and its organs or security against the threat to the occurrence of violence, and criminal actions. 10. Narcotr to fico. - The narcotr to trafficking is the illegal drug trade t or xicas in large quantities. The process begins with the cultivation of substances continues with the production or ny or ends with the distribution and sale is usually conducted by various posters that specialize in a certain part of the chain. 11. Insecurity -. C oncept public safety é n can also refer to the practices of pr ny defense or protection of citizenship í to by the state or government, in pursuit of transforming an insecure one stage or socially violent arm or mail. 12. Human rights -. those rules and prerogatives are inherent to human beings, which serve as protection or n to freely exercise such powers, universally recognized. 13. Homeland Security -. intr í n Function or nseca state that seeks to protect its people, institutions or territory against any internal or external threat. 20 14 -. Defending National -.'s action to maintain security objectives, the first responsibility lies with the military. 21
  • 40. Fundeimes.blogspot.com REFERENCES CONTENIDO LIBROS Pared Pared, Silgfrido, A. Seguridad, defensa e identidad nacional, editora Corripio edición 2006 RD. Círculo Militar. Primera jornada sobre defensa nacional. RD. 1997 Hendrihck, William C. Los Derechos Humano en Europa y América. España. 2004. Alcaide Fernández, Joaquín. Las actividades terroristas ante el derecho internacional contemporáneo 2000. Ramón Chornet, Consuelo. Derecho y libertades ante las nuevas amenazas a la seguridad global año 2005. Metre Chust, José Vicente. La necesidad de la educación en el derecho humano año 2007 Aufrert, Philippe.- Informe sobre la pobreza en la Rep. Dom. la pobreza en una economía de alto crecimiento año 2002. Brea, Ramonina, Duarte Isis, Tejada Ramón, Báez Clara. Estado de situación de la democracia Dominicana (1978-1992) PUCMM. 1995 EDITORA CORRIPIO. Dos Santos, Theotonio.- La crisis norteamericana y América latina año 1997 Serbin , Andrés. América latina y el Caribe anglófono año 1997. Marret Serrano, Nicolás. Metodología de investigación científica, guía para redactar trabajo de investigación año 2008. Riezc Antonio Cuerda Jiménez García Francisco. Nuevos desafío del derecho penal internacional, terrorismo crimen internacional y derecho fundamentales año 2009 Wolf, Grabendorff. La Seguridad Regional en las Américas enfoques críticos y conceptos alternativos. Bogotá 2003 fondo editorial cerec. B) Metodológicos •Cea D´Ancona Ángeles, Métodos y Técnicas de Investigación cuantitativa”, Editorial Síntesis Madrid 1997.
  • 41. Fundeimes.blogspot.com •Festinger y Katz. “Los Métodos de Investigación en Ciencias Sociales”. Piados 1992. •Flórez Ochoa, Rafael y Alonso , Tobón Restrepo. Investigación Educativa y Pedagógica. Bogotá: McGraw Hill. 2001 •Grawitz M. “Métodos y Técnicas de las Ciencias Sociales I-II.” Editorial Mexicana 1984, México •Hernández, Fernández Baptista. “Metodología de la Investigación”. McGraw Hill 1994. Colombia. •Made Serrano, Nicolás. “Metodología de la Investigación”. Santo Domingo, 2006 •Padua J. “Técnicas de Investigación” FCE-Colegio de México 1982, México. •Sabino, Carlos A. El Proceso de Investigación. Buenos Aires: Edit. Lumen.1996. •Salkind, Neil J. Métodos de Investigación. México: Prentice Hall. 1999. •Sierra Bravo R. Técnicas de investigación Social Teoría y ejercicios, Décima edición, Editorial Paraninfo 1995 Madrid. •Taylor, S.J. y R. Bogdan. Introducción a los métodos cualitativos de investigación. Barcelona: Paidós. 1987. •Tesis e Investigaciones de Internet. C) Tesis Romero Portuando Rafael Reynaldo. La relaciones dominico haitiana incidencia en la defensa y seguridad nacional 1994-2004. Optar por la maestría en defensa y seguridad nacional año 2010. Acevedo Santo Erick Antonio PérezGarcía Leandro Ernesto. Participación de la Fuerza Aérea Dominicana en la seguridad pública 2005-2010. Optar por la licenciatura las ciencias militares aeronáutica 2011. Arias Campusano Manuel B. Causa y consecuencia de la amenaza emergente y su impacto en las fuerzas armadas. Año 2011. Escuela de graduados de estudios superiores navales M.G.D. año 2011. Santos Sánchez Peter Antonio B. Rol del Tratado Interamericano de asistencia reciproca (TIAR) como mecanismo para la preservación de la democracias en América. Escuela de graduados de altos estudios EGAE. Año 2011.
  • 42. Fundeimes.blogspot.com Manuel Arias Campusano B. Cause and consequence of the emerging threat and its impact on the military. Year 2011. Naval school graduates higher education MGD 2011. Antonio Sánchez Peter B. Santos Role of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (Rio Treaty) as a mechanism for the preservation of democracy in America. Graduate school of higher learning EGAE. Year 2011 .

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