Online Learning Communities for Teachers Continuous Professional Development         Case study of an eTwinning Learning E...
Online Learning Communities for Teachers Continuous Professional Development         Case study of an eTwinning Learning E...
1. Research context    Online learning communities                       Study on learning communities                    ...
1. Research context     Case study: an eTwinning Learning Event                         • eTwinning supports teachers acro...
Online Learning Communities     Case study of an eTwinning Learning Event for     Teachers Continuous Professional Develop...
2. Research design                                    Theoretical framework                                               ...
2. Research design                    Research questionsIn an eTwinning Learning Event (LE) for teachers’ continuousprofes...
2. Research design                                Action research•   Completed two cycles of action research    1. Initial...
Online Learning Communities for Teachers Continuous Professional Development       Case study of an eTwinning Learning Eve...
3. Findings                    Recommendations from 1st LEMeta-cognition: reflection on own practice             • Increas...
3. Findings                     The revised LE  week           1                 2             3             41st LE2nd LE...
3. Findings              All messages over time in staff roomFrequency ofmessagesrelated closelyto activitiesand to themes...
3. Findings                                                                Coding for cognitive presence                  ...
3. Findings                        Views of participantsApplying ideas in practice …  ‘I was able to apply what I learned ...
Online Learning Communities for Teachers Continuous Professional Development       Case study of an eTwinning Learning Eve...
4. Conclusions           From the teachers’ perspectiveOnline learning community The online community supports teachers t...
4. Conclusions        From an academic perspective (1/2)Facilitation and mutual support Teaching presence has a positive ...
4. Conclusions          From an academic perspective (2/2)Community of Inquiry framework The CoI framework is useful to a...
References (1 of 3)Ala-Mutka, K. (2010) Learning in informal online networks and communities,    Institute for Prospective...
References (2 of 3)Garrison, D. R. & Arbaugh, J. B. (2007) Researching the community of inquiry   framework: Review, issue...
References (3 of 3)McConnell, D. (2006) E-Learning Groups and Communities. Maidenhead, Open   University Press.Riel, M. & ...
Thank you                    Brian.Holmes@skynet.be                    http://holmesbrian.blogspot.com/http://www.slidesha...
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Holmes online learning communities nl2012

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  • Slide part time PhD student at the University of Lancaster in the UK European Commission in Brussels , where I am Head of department at the Executive Agency which manages part of the Lifelong Learning Programme My research on one specific case of an online learning community set in context of the EUs eTwinning initiative , which supports teachers to work together across Europe how I used action research and the Community of Inquiry framework to propose improvements to an online learning event Present some findings showing changes in cognition , social and teaching aspects , and draw some conclusions
  • Slide 1) Context for my research: online learning communities , describe the eTwinning initiative Research design : the theoretical framework the research questions research approach and methods Findings and analysis: what the data suggests Conclusions: from practical perspective from academic perspective bibliographic references at the end of my presentation Slides available on slideshare 2) Start by looking at the research context
  • Slide 01/04/12 1) Why I am interested in online learning communities? They provide benefits to learners , by offering a rich social context for learning online – something that was missing from elearning for many years As this report from the Commission’s Joint Research Centre illustrates, written by Ala-Mutka online communities support formal and informal learning flexible learning , with learners observing each other , discussing and reflecting together they support development of key competencies and transversal skills like team work , intercultural dialogue they can provide opportunity for learning which is more equitable 2) As McConnell adds in his book online communities provide opportunity to further individual understanding through a group endeavour
  • Slide eTwinning is an initiative funded by EU’s Lifelong Learning Programme Supports teachers to work together on joint pedagogical projects using the Internet facilitates teachers ’ continuous professional development is basically a large online community of teachers . Recent innovation, Learning Events short dur ation, typically 10 days, teachers working with a group of peers focused on a theme , supported by a domain expert, usually a fellow teacher non-formal , learning-by-doing My case study: ‘ Exploiting Web 2.0: eTwinning and Collaboration ’
  • Slide Research design : the theoretical framework The research questions research approach and methods
  • Slide Community of Inquiry framework by Garrison, Anderson and Archer – communities for educational purposes Three interrelated aspects or presences Cognitive presence : which they define as ‘ the extent to which participants in … a community of inquiry are able to construct meaning through sustained communication ’ this equates to active learners , constructing knowledge through interaction with their environment and their peers it is essential for critical thinking and meta-cognition Social presence , defined as the ‘ ability of participants … to project their personal characteristics into the community ’ in other words, the extent to which someone is perceived as real has a direct impact on the success of an educational experience Teaching presence , defined as ‘ the design of the educational experience ’ aims to support and enhance cognitive and social presence the design is often led by a teacher (eg choice of content, ) facilitation may be shared with learners
  • Slide In an eTwinning Learning Event (LE) for teachers’ continuous professional development: How does the online learning community influence the development of teachers’ cognition , practice and competence ? ( cognitive presence ) How do teaching presence and social presence influence the collaboration , the cognitive presence and the development of the community ?
  • Slide Completed two cycles of action research 1. Initial LE, April 2010 , 156 teachers 2. Revised LE, Oct-Nov 2010, 142 teachers Participative research Worked together with the domain expert Tiina Sarisalmi Supported by the LE organisers, European Schoolnet, Participated as tutor in the second LE Data collection and analysis Conducted some initial and final interviews Final online questionnaire for all partcipants Coding of dialogue in the discussion forums using the Community of Inquiry framework
  • Slide Results and analysis: from the first LE changes proposed and why from the second LE
  • Slide Data and analysis from first LE suggested: individual cognitive activities helped participants develop expertise in use of web 2.0 tools, but not necessarily in their teaching practice social interaction good , but secondary and limited relationships developed, but not yet a community Increase further the social presence : Recognise the importance of addressing socio-emotional aspects by balancing the cognitive activities with social ones give more time for trust , shared values and reciprocity to develop between participants and community to grow Reinforce the cognitive presence : including specific activities to encourage critical thinking - encourage meta-cognition, give time for teachers to try out ideas in their own teaching practice and reflect with peers Strengthen teaching presence provide more tutor support and guidance at key points (what Dillenbourg refers to as orchestration)
  • What we actually did Scheduling of second LE is compared with the first Still 12 days for the cognitive activities Added time for practice and activities for reflection 19 days to try out in own teaching practice, 2 days of final reflection in the LE Encouraged sharing of stories , feelings and reflections Added a virtual staff room A place for informal discussion and reflection, available throughout the four weeks Tables of small groups of participants to foster stronger ties Increased facilitation Moderator/facilitator at key points to encourage and support Encouraged participants to support each other and to do their own facilitation Slide
  • Show some of the data, to illustrate results Plot of all messages in the staff room over time , over the full LE Participants in blue , tutors in red Frequency of participant messages related closely to the cognitive activities Also closely follows the messages of the tutors Almost no interaction in the staff room during the period for trying out ideas in teaching practice Purposeful communication, focused on learning Dies off when not needed Slide
  • Shows the results of the coding of a typical participant , named Edita . A teacher from Greece with some previous experience of web 2.0 tools and collaboration online. The graph shows all her messages over time , in the various discussion forums and in the staff room The early messages of Edita are at the lower levels of cognition , triggering event and exploration . Over time the messages move to the higher levels of cognition , integration and resolution , suggesting critical thinking We may also note that the interaction towards the end is taking place in the final reflection activity Other plots of messages do not necessarily reflect such an obvious progression as this one, especially with participants who were already experienced . However, the trend in all of them is upwards Slide
  • The comments of participants in the final questionnaire, interviews and discussion forums reveal how they perceived the event and how they have learned . Here are just two examples , the first is in response to a questionnaire concerning the benefit of having applied ideas in their teaching practice : It reflects success in trying out ideas and a positive impact on the motivation of the children. This teacher is now quite convinced about the value of using such tools in her teaching The second concerns a question on the value of the staff room : It suggests that he used the staff room to get ideas from other teachers and mutual support . It was a stable friendly place to go and find support, regardless of the individual activities However, comments also reflected frustration when collaboration didn’t take place And the tutor with whom I worked cautioned about going too far with our interventions , indicating that too much tutor presence can reduce the creativity and spontaneity of the participants Slide
  • Slide Conclusions: from practical perspective from academic perspective
  • From the perspective of the teachers Concerning the online community evidence suggests that the online community did support teachers’ professional development the community of peers offered mutual support and the exchange of experience in a trusted environment however, the community was purposeful and lasted only as long as it supported learning Learning by doing teachers who were able to try out what they were learning in their teaching practice were motivated , gained confidence and believed in the importance of what they were learning Guidance it was beneficial for learning to reinforce facilitation at key points , but back-off as the participant started to support each other Social interaction social interaction was important , participants felt more connected and this facilitated learning , i ncreasing the sense of community Slide
  • From an academic perspective first of two slides Facilitation and mutual support increasing the teaching presence (design of relevant activities and orchestration) had a positive impact on the cognitive presence and critical thinking Reflective practitioners there was evidence of competence development when teachers were able to apply and reflect with peers there was also evidence of vicarious learning , from those who could not try out things for themselves, reading and discussing the experience of others Social and community aspects social interaction was important and the community engendered mutual support , trust and sharing of stories, experience, etc. As such it was an appropriate micro-context for reflection but the community was ephemeral , focused on purposeful learning and tasks , it died quickly when no longer needed Slide
  • From an academic perspective second of two slides Community of inquiry useful framework for the holistic analysis of a community focused on learning, looking at cognitive , teaching and social aspects and their interrelationship cognitive presence coding scheme was the most useful, showing evidence of cognitive development over time. There is information to support its application, in the Practical Inquiry model Teaching presence coding scheme suggests indicators which favour instruction and the ‘tutor as expert’ Social presence coding scheme indicators need to be updated to reflect the social affordances of modern software Slide
  • Slide Here is a short bibliography of some of the key research material that I am using
  • Slide Here is a short bibliography of some of the key research material that I am using
  • Slide For now, Thank you very much for your attention
  • Holmes online learning communities nl2012

    1. 1. Online Learning Communities for Teachers Continuous Professional Development Case study of an eTwinning Learning Event April 2012 Networked Learning conference, Maastricht Brian Holmes, Lancaster University & European Commission Dr. Julie-Ann Sime, Lancaster University with the support of Tiina Sarisalmi, Municipality of Orivesi, Finland Anne Gilleran, European Schoolnet, Belgium
    2. 2. Online Learning Communities for Teachers Continuous Professional Development Case study of an eTwinning Learning Event  1. Research context 2. Research design 3. Findings 4. Conclusions http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn 2
    3. 3. 1. Research context Online learning communities Study on learning communities supported by ICT Benefits for learners: • Online communities support intentional and non-intentional learning • Participants can follow and observe life of others, encouraging reflection • Support active learning of all key competences and transversal skills • Online communities provide new opportunities for equality (Ala-Mutka, 2010) • Greater individual understanding through a group endeavour (McConnell, 2006)http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn 3 3
    4. 4. 1. Research context Case study: an eTwinning Learning Event • eTwinning supports teachers across Europe ° Joint pedagogical projects ° Continuous professional developmentwww.eTwinning.net ° Thriving community of teachers ° ‘Learning Events’ ° Short, intensive online sessions, in groups ° Focused on a theme, led by a subject expert ° Involve teachers in hands-on, non-formal learning with peers ° My case ° ‘Exploiting Web 2.0: eTwinning and Collaboration’ http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn 4
    5. 5. Online Learning Communities Case study of an eTwinning Learning Event for Teachers Continuous Professional Development  Research context Research design  Findings  Conclusions http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn 5
    6. 6. 2. Research design Theoretical framework • Cognitive presence Community of Inquiry active learners in a community ° Constructing meaning through sustained communication SOCIAL Supporting COGNITIVE ° Essential for critical thinkingPRESENCE Discourse PRESENCE • Social presence EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE feeling a person is ‘real’ Setting Selecting ° Projecting personal characteristics into the Climate Content community TEACHING PRESENCE ° Directly contributes to success of learning (Structure/Process) • Teaching presence design and support for active learning Communication Medium ° Support and enhance cognitive and social (Garrison et al, 2000, p.88) presence for the purposes of learning ° Design often led by teacher ° Facilitation often shared with learners http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn 6
    7. 7. 2. Research design Research questionsIn an eTwinning Learning Event (LE) for teachers’ continuousprofessional development:– How does the online learning community influence the development of teachers’ cognition, practice and competence?– How do teaching presence and social presence influence the collaboration, the cognitive presence and the development of the community? http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn 7
    8. 8. 2. Research design Action research• Completed two cycles of action research 1. Initial LE, April 2010, 156 teachers 2. Revised LE, Oct-Nov 2010, 142 teachers• Participative research  Worked together with Tiina Sarisalmi, a teacher and the domain expert  Supported by EUN, the LE organisers  Participated as tutor• Data collection and analysis – Initial and final interviews – Final online questionnaire Cycle of Action Research – Coding of discussion forums using (O’Leary, 2004, in Koshy, 2010, p.7) the Community of Inquiry framework http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn 8
    9. 9. Online Learning Communities for Teachers Continuous Professional Development Case study of an eTwinning Learning Event 1. Research context 2. Research design Findings  Conclusions http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn 9
    10. 10. 3. Findings Recommendations from 1st LEMeta-cognition: reflection on own practice • Increase social presenceand competence ° More support for socio-emotional aspects (Kreijns et al, 2003, Web 2.0 tools and collaboration Zenios & Holmes, 2010) Cognitive activities Social activities ° Give time to develop trust, shared values and reciprocity ° Introductions ° Introductions ° What is web 2.0? ° Social interaction (McConnell, 2006) ° Documenting the ° Mutual support learning ° Feedback • Reinforce cognitive presence ° Planning and ° Stories ° Activities for critical thinking managing a project ° Reflection in practice and ° Sharing videos, presentations, photos meta-cognition ° Collaborative (Schön, 1987, Eraut, 1995) learning ° Conclusion and • Strengthen teaching presence evaluation ° Increase facilitation and ‘orchestration’ at key points (Dillenbourg, 2008) http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn 10
    11. 11. 3. Findings The revised LE week 1 2 3 41st LE2nd LE Cognitive activities Applying ideas in practice Final reflection• Added time for practice and reflection – 12 days for the LE cognitive activities, 19 days to try out in own teaching practice, 2 days of final reflection in the LE – Encouraged sharing of stories, feelings and reflections• Added a virtual staff room – A place for informal discussion and reflection in practice – Tables of small groups to foster stronger ties• Increased moderation – Moderation at key points to encourage and support – Encouraged mutual support and guidance http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn 11
    12. 12. 3. Findings All messages over time in staff roomFrequency ofmessagesrelated closelyto activitiesand to themessagesfrom tutorsAlmost nomessageswhilstapplyingideas inpractice http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn 12
    13. 13. 3. Findings Coding for cognitive presence Critical thinking Coding suggests critical thinking reached in later stages Garrison et al (2001) Resolution IntegrationCognitive presence Exploration Cognition Triggering event Other 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Messages in order of time (first to last) Example of Edita: illustrates the progression in cognition for a typical participant http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn 13
    14. 14. 3. Findings Views of participantsApplying ideas in practice … ‘I was able to apply what I learned in the classroom and my pupils are very excited and they want to learn more’ (final questionnaire)Staff room … ‘most of my time was spent in the staff room, to get ideas, to get support, and to feel proud and happy when my work got commented on. i think the idea of the staff room was the best’ (final interview) However ...Collaboration does not always work… ‘Well in the forum there is merely discussion and I understand that cooperation is a step further and collaboration even further, and I did not enjoy not being able to collaborate in my own group’ (final interview)Facilitation and feedback from the tutor is not always a good thing … ‘I think those are things that can very easily smother the flame of creative thinking and learning’ (email feedback from tutor) http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn 14
    15. 15. Online Learning Communities for Teachers Continuous Professional Development Case study of an eTwinning Learning Event  Research context  Research design  Findings Conclusions http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn 15
    16. 16. 4. Conclusions From the teachers’ perspectiveOnline learning community The online community supports teachers to develop their professional competence The community provides opportunity for mutual support, exchange of experience and reflection in a trusted environment The community is useful for as long as it supports learningLearning by doing Teachers who apply what they are learning in their own teaching practice gain motivation, confidence and belief in what they are doingGuidance It is beneficial to provide moderation at key points and to back-off as and when peer support emergesSocial interaction Social interaction is important - it facilitates learning and engenders a sense of community http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn 16
    17. 17. 4. Conclusions From an academic perspective (1/2)Facilitation and mutual support Teaching presence has a positive impact on cognitive presence (critical thinking) (Dillenbourg, 2008; Shea & Bidjerano, 2009)Reflective practitioners Applying ideas in practice and reflection-in-practice with peers reinforces competence development (Schön, 1987; Eraut, 1995) Vicarious learning from peers (Lave and Wenger, 1991)Social and community aspects The learning community engendered mutual support, trust and sharing. It provides an appropriate micro-context for reflection (Boud and Walker, 1998; Grossman et al, 2000; McConnell, 2006) Social ties are important for learning, however interaction is purposeful and the community is task based and ephemeral (Riel and Polin, 2004; Garrison and Arbaugh, 2007) http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn 17
    18. 18. 4. Conclusions From an academic perspective (2/2)Community of Inquiry framework The CoI framework is useful to analyse learning holistically in a community, and the interrelation between the cognitive, teaching and social aspects (Garrison et al, 2000) The cognitive presence coding scheme was the most straightforward to apply and the most useful, perhaps because it is based on the Practical Inquiry model (Garrison et al, 2001) The teaching presence coding scheme favours instruction and ‘tutor as expert’ rather than ‘tutor as facilitator/moderator’ (Anderson, et al., 2001) The social presence coding scheme needs to be updated to take into account social affordances of modern social computing (Rourke, et al., 2001)
    19. 19. References (1 of 3)Ala-Mutka, K. (2010) Learning in informal online networks and communities, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS), J., European Commission (ONLINE accessed 18.11.2010 - http:// ipts.jrc.ec.europa.eu/publications/pub.cfm?id=3059 -)Anderson, T., Rourke, L., Garrison, D. & Archer, W. (2001) Assessing teaching presence in a computer conferencing context. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 5 (2), pp.1-17Boud, D. & Walker, D. (1998) Promoting reflection in professional courses: The challenge of context. Studies in Higher Education, 23 (2), pp.191-206Dillenbourg, P. (2008) Integrating technologies into educational ecosystems. Distance Education, 29 (2), pp.127 – 140Eraut, M. (1995) Schon Shock: a case for refraining reflection-in-action?. Teachers and Teaching, 1 (1), pp.9 – 22Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T. & Archer, W. (2000) Critical Inquiry in a Text- Based Environment: Computer Conferencing in Higher Education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2 (2-3), pp.87-105 http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn 19
    20. 20. References (2 of 3)Garrison, D. R. & Arbaugh, J. B. (2007) Researching the community of inquiry framework: Review, issues, and future directions. The Internet and Higher Education, 10 (3), pp.157-172Garrison, D., Anderson, T. & Archer, W. (2001) Critical thinking, cognitive presence, and computer conferencing in distance education. American Journal of Distance Education, 15 (1), pp.7-23Grossman, P., Wineburg, S. & Woolworth, S. (2000) What makes teacher community different from a gathering of teachers?, Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy, University of WashingtonKoshy, V. (2010) Action research for improving educational practice, 2nd ed., London, Sage publications Ltd.Kreijns, K., Kirschner, P. A. & Jochems, W. (2003) Identifying the pitfalls for social interaction in computer-supported collaborative learning environments: a review of the research. Computers in Human Behavior, 19 (3), pp.335-353Lave, J. & Wenger, E. (1991) Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation, Cambridge University Press. http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn 20
    21. 21. References (3 of 3)McConnell, D. (2006) E-Learning Groups and Communities. Maidenhead, Open University Press.Riel, M. & Polin, L. (2004) Online learning communities: Common ground and critical differences in designing technical environments, in Barab, S., Kling, R. & Gray, B. (Eds.), Designing for virtual communities in the service of learning, pp.16-50, Cambridge University PressRourke, L., Anderson, T., Garrison, D. & Archer, W. (2001) Assessing Social Presence in Asynchronous Text-based Computer Conferencing. Journal of Distance Education, 14 (2), pp.50-71Schön, D. A. (1987) Educating the reflective practitioner, Jossey-Bass San Francisco.Shea, P. & Bidjerano, T. (2009) Community of inquiry as a theoretical framework to foster ‘‘epistemic engagement” and ‘‘cognitive presence” in online education. Computers & Education, 52, pp.543-553Zenios, M. & Holmes, B. (2010), Knowledge creation in networked learning: combined tools and affordances, Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Networked Learning 2010, Copenhagen, pp.471-479
    22. 22. Thank you Brian.Holmes@skynet.be http://holmesbrian.blogspot.com/http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn 22

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