What is Multimedia Scholarship? * + genres + examples + assessment
Argumentation Thesis-driven; supported by evidence -includes naming/framing device -includes a primary assertion -includes a justification -can be inductive or deductive - structurally similar to an expository essay - intended to make an argument or persuade someone to adopt a particular viewpoint Successful arguments creatively encourage users to think about something differently than they had previously (i.e., they do not simply present “facts” or recapitulate accepted ideas)
An Inconvenient Truth , by Al Gore and Davis Guggenheim, offers a good example of argumentation through media; the project deploys multiple forms of rhetorical appeal, to logic, emotion and ethics, using multiple kinds of visual material…
Retro: The Camera and Mad Men | Jefferson Robbins | 2009 Created by a journalist, this project is a clear example of an argument about the cinematography used in the television show; the argument could be a text-based essay, but is greatly enhanced through sound and video.
McKenzie Wark’s online book, GAM3R 7H3ORY, is an example of an argumentative multimedia project: it makes a clear argument, but uses media to push that argument in new directions. The book was written “in public,” with comments from readers, and via an algorithm that dictated each page’s design.
Sonic Arguments | Judith Jackson Fossett | African American Popular Culture Students were asked to make an argument by juxtaposing three very different kinds of sound.
Essayistic - values subjectivity, individuality, cultural and personal backgrounds - acknowledges biases and beliefs of authors - often engages issues related to gender, racial, ethnic, sexual, national (etc.) identities - often constructed using first person perspective - often engages questions of memory, consciousness, experience, etc.
- values subjectivity, individuality, cultural and personal backgrounds
- acknowledges biases and beliefs of authors
- often engages issues related to gender, racial, ethnic, sexual, national (etc.) identities
- often constructed using first person perspective
often engages questions of memory, consciousness, experience, etc.
- counter-history / oral history
- interrogating conventions of truth, science, history, objectivity
- creates space for multiple and unheard voices to speak
Essayistic Possible disadvantages: - easily dismissed by empirical traditions - does not claim universality / reproduceability - may not serve goals of argumentation - does not seem “academic”
Public Secrets , by Sharon Daniel and Erik Loyer, points to the essayistic genre with its opening sequence, spoken by Sharon Daniel. This project is based on research on women’s experiences in prison, and unites voice recordings of the women telling their stories with the creator’s critical analysis. The interface visualizes key themes in the project, and Daniel’s voice in the opening segment frames the argument. This project offers an interesting example of a scholarly project that uses an archive of research material to create a visceral experience.
Narrative Database narrative - selection and combination - non-linear temporal structures - decentered characters - multiple focalization / point of view - micro-narratives
The Whale Hunt, by Jonathan Harris, exemplifies multimedia in a narrative form. Harris wanted to create a new story interface for an “archive” of images collected that document a whale hunt. His online project allows users to filter and alter their experience of the story.
Annotation// Citation Visual annotation and citation - examining visual material closely, and adding notes or commentary to explain or explicate it.
Bruce Zuckerman | Cylinder Seal Analysis | Linguistics Simple PowerPoint animation allowed this student to outline specific areas of different artifacts to highlight similarities. The images are “annotated,” and an argument emerges in the process.
Spatial Arguments Arguments that become “spatialized”: - the argument is discovered - it is experiential - based on evidence that requires creative extension
Lynn Swartz Dodd | Near Eastern and Mediterranean Archeology Students create “archeological arguments” based on research on ruins that then becomes manifest in 3-D replicas created in Google SketchUp.
Matt Lee | Rivenscyr A reading of The Tempest through a virtual space that houses the argument.
conceptual core * --- Is the project’s controlling idea clearly articulated? --- Is the project productively aligned with one or more of the multimedia genres outlined in the IML program? --- Does the project effectively engage with the primary issues raised in the project’s research?
research core * --- Does the project display evidence of substantial research and thoughtful engagement with its subject? --- Does the project use a variety of types of sources (i.e., not just Web sites)? --- Does the project deploy more than one approach to its topic?
form & content * --- Do structural and formal elements of the project reinforce the conceptual core in a productive way? --- Are design decisions deliberate and controlled? --- Is the effectiveness of the project uncompromised by technical problems?
creative realization * --- Does the project approach its subject in creative or innovative ways? --- Does the project use media and design principles effectively? --- Does this project achieve significant goals that could not have been realized on paper?
Longterm Goals Emphasize research competency Integrate with other modes of scholarly practice Facilitate and support: Trans-disciplinarity Multiple perspectives Cultural relevance Technological innovation New scholarly vernaculars as epistemological tools Networked / Extensible / Emergent