Andre Bazin “The Ontology of the Photographic Image” – an image of the world… without the intervention of man – ontological bond between the world and the image – photography + time– history of cinema = ever increasing ability to represent reality – faith in the image versus faith in reality – eventless plots; slow rhythm; deep focus; viewer decides where to look; long takes – respect for the time and space of the world – leads to “revelation”
Italian Neo-Realism• not creating stories about reality, but turning reality into stories• loss of national identity requires its remaking through cinema
ROME OPEN CITYROBERTO ROSSELLINI 1945
THE BICYCLE THIEF VITORIO DE SICA 1948
UMBERTO DVITORIO DE SICA 1952
French New Wave, 1958-1964Alexandre Astruc, “The Camera-Stylo” Andrew Sarris, the auteur theory
THE 400 BLOWSFRANCOIS TRUFFAUT 1959
BREATHLESSJEAN-LUC GODARD 1960
Dogme 95: The Vow of Chastity 1. Shooting must be done on location. Props and sets must not be brought in. 2. The sound must never be produced apart from the images or vice versa. 3. The camera must be hand-held. Any movement or immobilityattainable in the hand is permitted. (The film must not take place where the camera is standing; shooting must take place where the film takes place).4. The film must be in color. Special lighting is not acceptable. (If there is too little light for exposure the scene must be cut or a single lamp be attached to the camera).
5. Optical work and filters are forbidden. 6. The film must not contain superficial action. (Murders, weapons, etc. must not occur.)7. Temporal and geographical alienation are forbidden. (That is to say that the film takes place here and now.) 8. Genre movies are not acceptable. 9. The film format must be Academy 35mm. 10. The director must not be credited.