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NM TIE 09 New Learning Communities: A Theoretical Framework
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NM TIE 09 New Learning Communities: A Theoretical Framework

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A landscape of new tools has lead to entirely new forms of communication. Learning itself is a ‘mashup.’ Teaching and communicating using online tools creates a conversation that takes place in a …

A landscape of new tools has lead to entirely new forms of communication. Learning itself is a ‘mashup.’ Teaching and communicating using online tools creates a conversation that takes place in a cloud. New learning skills and styles emerge. This presentation will introduce three concepts especially relevant to teaching and learning in this potentially overwhelming context: learning ecosystems, organizational biomimicry, and connectivism. This is a concise introduction to what's new in learning and communication and is meant to provide the background knowledge to support changes in practice.

This presentation is part one in a two part series about New Learning Communities. The second part is Practical Applications by Julia Parra, Ed.D.

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  • Individualized
    Unique
    Can go awry
  • Tools – vygotsky language, gibson
    Papert, wenger, - constructionism and constructivism (active learning)
    Social learning bruner, vygotsky, bandura
    Epistemological views – downes connective knowledge and cormier – rhizomatic knowledge
    Concept of mind – papert, minsky
    New media theory – McLuhan – humanity and tech the impact of technology on humanity will continue to grow in greater prominence as we are increasingly able to augment human cognitive functioning through pharmaceuticals and the future promise of embedded chips.
    Systems theory – complexity – Mason Davis
    Network theory – strong ties and weak ties small worlds, power laws, hubs, structural holes, and weak/strong ties are common in literature. Educational focus of networks comes from work by Starr-Roxanne Hiltz, Chris Jones, Martin de Laat, and others.
  • Learning is connecting new experiences within our neural, conceptual and social networks - integration

    2 how well and how consistently we are connected to ideas and concepts

    Frequency of exposure (how often, the manner we integrate with other contexts)
    Connections can be strong (small world – well connected) or weak (bridging separate worlds)

    Expertise!! richly connected nuanced and diverse
  • SO What is expertise? A whole lot o skills – multi literacy view


    Anchoring Staying focused on important tasks while undergoing a deluge of distractions.
    Filtering Managing knowledge flow and extracting important elements.
    Connecting with each other Building networks in order to continue to stay current and informed.
    Being human together Interacting at a human, not only utilitarian, level context.
    Critical and creative thinking Questioning and dreaming.
    Pattern recognition Recognizing patterns and trends.
    Navigate knowledge landscape Navigating between repositories, people, technology, and ideas while achieving intended purposes.
    Acceptance of uncertainty Balancing what is known with the unknown
    Contextualizing (understanding comtext games) Understanding the prominence of context ... seeing continuums... ensuring key contextual issues are not overlooked in context games""
  • Make a map, update it as you learn. A map is a visual representation of an area, regions, and themes. (Mapmaking from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Map)
    Looking at your change over time rather than expecting to arrive at a certain point. Dead reckoning (DR) is the process of estimating one's current position based upon a previously determined position, or fix, and advancing that position based upon known or estimated speeds over elapsed time, and course. (from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dead_reckoning)
    Identify themes you are looking for, keep notes as you work, are you on track? A compass is a navigational instrument for determining direction relative to the Earth's magnetic poles. It consists of a magnetized pointer (usually marked on the North end) free to align itself with Earth's magnetic field. (from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compass)
    Watch the stars. Look to your strong and weak ties, what are others learning? Astronomy and Natural Cues The wayfinder depends on observations of the stars, the sun, the ocean swells, and other signs of nature for clues to direction and location of a vessel at sea. from 'Modern Wayfinding' from Polynesian Voyaging Society http://pvs.kcc.hawaii.edu/navigate/wayfind.html
    Notice navigation elements, viewing and sharing options, personal settings, social features, or saved searching options. make it work for you! Global positioning satellites (GPS) are placed in orbit above the earth's atmosphere. These systems provide a tool for labeling every point on the surface of the planet using longitudinal and latitudinal coordinates. Three satellites must be in orbit overhead, in any given region of the earth before triangulation strategies can be used to determine exact position. from NEC Foundation of America Grant Textbook: Environmental Literacy: GPS http://www.wayfinding.net/iibnNECtextGPS.htm
  • Vocabulary sheet
    Tools
    Channels

    Developing a framework is essential sense making for educators and students
  • Ecosystems are a hot topic!
  • Facilitation is the water
    Teacher provides the nutrients soil seeds and through facilitation keeps the social and climate fertile for learning

    Sun is the energy, the internet the tools
    The higher up you go the less structured and less formal the learning is
    Laughing humor and fun appear at all levels
    The wind is the current, the weather cycle. This involves precipitation of current events, news , trends viral videos etch right into your ecosystme. This is out of your control but you can somewhat tailor what comes through by using widgets

    a framework for understanding new learning environments that incorporate a variety of
    tools (ie: course management systems, Web 2.0 applications) and
    multiple touch points (web, client, mobile) that aims to make transparent to the members of the learning community various
    channels (relationships, pathways, protocols) for learning.

  • New patterns emerge when communities are happening in with so many channels
  • Ants and bees communicate with a community with pheremone messaging (whole to group)
    Geese who rotate in and out of the lead position exhibit collective leadership (no single member has all the responsibility)
    Penguins migrate without a leader, each knows a part of the route
  • Ants and bees communicate with a community with pheremone messaging (whole to group)
    Geese who rotate in and out of the lead position exhibit collective leadership (no single member has all the responsibility)
    Penguins migrate without a leader, each knows a part of the route
  • * Broadcast and individual – either to all or to one avoiding one to some or subgroups
    * One-way – does not require a reply
    * Whole species – available to all, allows for lurking and listening, reputation matters
    * Simple vocabulary – concise messages are more readable
    * Robust delivery – can work in different environments, despite time and/or ‘noise’
    * Low energy – low cost to send or receive
    * Longevity potential – messages persist in ecosystem
    * Multi channel - Communicating through more than one channel ensures it 'gets through' and sometimes to understand the entire message means crossing channels
    * Quick and slow responses - 'releaser messages' which have an immediate effect and 'primer messages' which assist in long term responses, reminders
    * Location information - communicate new pathways, nearest team member, most accessible resource
  • OTLGC summer internship emailed all the other students
    # Self organizing - each member can take the lead at any time
    # Many leaders - various strengths, highly interactive and cooperative
    # High agility, initiative and resiliance
  • Expertise is not a joke!
  • Carl & Nigil
  • Transcript

    • 1. New Learning Communities: A Theoretical Framework Holly Rae Bemis-Schurtz, M.A. RETA & NMSU New Mexico Technology in Education Conference Oct.22.09 Ruidoso, New Mexico @hollyrae hollyrae@nmsu.edu Wiki for this presentation: https://nmtiepresentation.pbworks.com/New-Learning-Communities%3A-A-Theoretical- Framework
    • 2. http://wave.google.com
    • 3. Created with Wordle http://wordle.net
    • 4. http://www.flickr.com/photos/mikebaird/ / CC BY 2.0
    • 5. http://wave.google.com
    • 6. http://www.flickr.com/photos/mikebaird/ / CC BY 2.0
    • 7. Big Shifts •The world is changing Gutl & Chang •Learning is changing Seimens & Downes •Communication is changing Thompson Attributions at https://nmtiepresentation.pbworks.com/New-Learning-Communities%3A-A-Theoretical-Framework
    • 8. http://www.flickr.com/photos/formforce/3409362834/ by @ia
    • 9. Scoble’s Social Media Starfish http://www.flickr.com/photos/dbarefoot/1814873464/ Social Media Landscape http://www.fredcavazza.net/2008/06/09/social-media- landscape/ The Conversation Prism http://www.briansolis.com/2008/08/introducing-conversation-prism.html
    • 10. What happens to learning in this context? “Our learning and information acquisition is a mashup. We take pieces, add pieces, dialogue, reframe, rethink, connect, and ultimately, we end up with some type of pattern that symbolizes what’s happening ‘out there’ and what it means to us. And that pattern changes daily. G. Siemens and P. Tittenberger. Handbook of emerging technologies for learning, March 2009.
    • 11. The Golden Triangle as Interpreted by Brian Solis http://www.flickr.com/photos/briansolis/ / CC BY 2.0
    • 12. Connectivism  Affordance of tools  Contextual situated learning  Social learning theory  Epistemological views  Embodied cognition  New media theory  Systems theory  Network theory ‘A learning theory for a digital age’ from George Siemens & Stephen Downes. Influenced by learning theories, social structures, and technologies, such as Handbook of emerging technologies for learning, March 2009 http://ltc.umanitoba.ca/wikis/etl/index.php/Handbook_of_Emerging_Technologie s_for_Learning
    • 13. What is knowledge?  ‘knowledge and cognition are distributed across networks of people and technology is the process of connecting, growing, and navigating those networks'  the knowledge of the network is bigger than any one node Handbook of emerging technologies for learning, March 2009 http://ltc.umanitoba.ca/wikis/etl/index.php/Handbook_of_Emerging_Technologie s_for_Learning
    • 14. Learning is forming connections Connectivism (George Siemens & Stephen Downes)  Learning is connecting new experiences within our neural, conceptual and social networks  Depth and diversity of the connections is what determines understanding  Frequency of exposure and integration with other concepts can strengthen understanding  Connections can be strong or weak – different networks serve different needs  Expertise (the facility of using networks) is what is needed to learn in this new context
    • 15. New Learning Skills G. Siemens and P. Tittenberger. Handbook of emerging technologies for learning, March 2009. “New Learning, New Educators, New Skills”
    • 16. Created with Wordle - http://www.wordle.net/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soft_skills Soft Skills
    • 17. Flickr Creative Commons Search for ‘early adopters’ or ‘power users’ Technology Fluency & Adeptness http://www.flickr.com/photos/hbemisschurtz/favorites/
    • 18. Wayfinding Wayfinding encompasses all of the ways in which people and animals orient themselves in physical space and navigate from place to place •traditional navigation methods used by indigenous peoples •in the context of architecture to refer to the user experience of orientation and choosing a path within the built environment •the set of architectural and/or design elements that aid orientation. From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wayfinding
    • 19. Sensemaking Sensemaking is the ability or attempt to make sense of an ambiguous situation.  creating situational awareness and understanding in situations of high complexity or uncertainty in order to make decisions.  "a motivated, continuous effort to understand connections (which can be among people, places, and events) in order to anticipate their trajectories and act effectively" (Klein et al., 2006a). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sensemaking Klein, G., Moon, B. and Hoffman, R.F. (2006a). Making sense of sensemaking I: alternative perspectives. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 21(4), 70-73.
    • 20. How do we make sense of all this?
    • 21. Learning Ecosystem as a Model Gutl & Chang, 2008  a comprehensive review of the ecosystem model as used to describe highly dynamic learning environments that change organically and often  a model to identify perspectives, relationships, approaches and implementations  assists in identifying pedagogical, cognitive, social, organizational, and technological aspects
    • 22. Characteristics  Open and flexible to allow for student's self direction  Support the individual learner and the community in a natural learning process  Network of learning agents and sources dynamically changes according to situations and context (Gutl & Chang, 2008)
    • 23. from David Armano (@armano)
    • 24. A learning ecosystem is a framework… for understanding new learning environments that incorporate a variety of tools (ie: course management systems, Web 2.0 applications) and multiple touch points (web, client, mobile) that aims to make transparent to the members of the learning community various channels (relationships, pathways, protocols) in support of learners (who learn in a variety of contexts) as facilitated by a master learner who models the strategies of how to use the channels
    • 25. External Communities Current Events & Trends FacilitationandAssessment Nurturing a Professional Development Ecosystem - Julia Parra, Holly Rae Bemis-Schurtz & Susie Ceppi-Bussmann - Virtual School Symposium, Phoenix, November 2008 http://vss2008.wikispaces.com/nurturing
    • 26. LearnerResponsibility Relationship to Requirements NurturingaProfessionalDevelopmentEcosystem-JuliaParra,HollyRaeBemis- Schurtz&SusieCeppi-Bussmann-VirtualSchoolSymposium,Phoenix,November 2008http://vss2008.wikispaces.com/nurturing
    • 27. Characteristics of New Learning Communities  Personal learning skills are integral  Conversation is not just in one system/tool/place  Communities overlap between networks  Connections (the stuff of learning) are made organically  Highly dynamic, Influenced by a wider social experience and...
    • 28. …they can be bioteams!
    • 29. Organizational Biomimicry •Looking at ‘power users’ & ‘power’ communities of natural ecosystems •from Ken Thompson (the Bioteaming Manifesto, @kenthompsonbio) •Traits of successful bioteams •Pheromone messaging •Collective leadership These are new communication styles for humans.
    • 30. http://www.flickr.com/photos/fesoj/3960397486/ CC Attribution 2.0 Generic
    • 31. http://www.flickr.com/photos/martinlabar/ / CC BY-NC 2.0
    • 32. http://www.bioteams.com/2008/04/30/did_ants_invent.html
    • 33. One to Many Communications Thompson
    • 34. http://www.nesta.org.uk/assets/features/why_penguins_have_no_commanding_officer
    • 35. Collective Leadership Thompson & Good
    • 36. This is a tremendous shift!  Successful bioteams are highly dependent on members’ beliefs and values  Collective communication is somewhat new to humans  Each users experience is unique and personal responsibility is substantially increased
    • 37. What happens when anyone can take the lead?
    • 38. Anyone can #harshtag On this slide I relay a personal perspective on the#heweb09 keynote hashtag ‘drama’- probably does not make sense from slide alone. http://wthashtag.com/transcript.php?page_id=5224&start_date=2009-10-06&end_date=2009-10-07&tz=2%3A00&export_type=HTML
    • 39. Anyone can pull a ‘Kanye’ http://www.safm.com.au/entertainment/music/mtv-vma-2009?selectedImage=6
    • 40. Anyone can make a Kanye parody http://mashable.com/2009/09/15/kanye-west-parodies/
    • 41. Anyone can make a Kanye parody http://mashable.com/2009/09/15/kanye-west-parodies/
    • 42. Blended Teamwork Original Source: From Small is Beautiful… but Big is Powerful (on NESTA site, no longer available) by Ken Thompson New source also by Ken Thompson, Nature’s four teamwork systems http://www.bioteams.com/2006/01/16/natures_four_teamwork.html#
    • 43. Teamwork in Nature Anderson & Franks Description Ken Thompson’s Term Individual Work •Single individuals •Without help Solo Work Group Work •Multiple members •Same tasks •Concurrent/Synchro nous Crowd Work (eg: Brainstorming) Partitioned Work •Two or more subtasks, sequential •Not concurrent, can be asynchronous Group Work (eg: Subtask 1 – Collect Data; Subtask 2 – Analysis) Team Work •Multiple individuals •Different tasks •Concurrent/Synchro nous Team Work (eg: Responding to a threat; Exploiting an opportunity)
    • 44. Blended Teamwork  “You need the right sized team for the job.”  Successful bioteams have many types of inter-connected groups.  A bioteam uses all type of collaboration in the right context.  Solo – sometimes the most effective  Group – great for asynchronous  Crowd – used carefully, too much = poor role definition, time wasted  Teamwork – requires coordination of individuals and roles Original Source: From Small is Beautiful… but Big is Powerful (on NESTA site, no longer available) by Ken Thompson New source also by Ken Thompson, Nature’s four teamwork systems http://www.bioteams.com/2006/01/16/natures_four_teamwork.html#
    • 45. http://www.scimaps.org/maps/wikipedia/
    • 46. Evaluating Collective Leadership  Is network membership growing?  Is the proportion of members who are active in the network growing?  Is network membership increasingly diverse?  Are members engaging in multiple kinds of activities provided by the network?  Are members coming together in different combinations in the network?  Are members both bonding and bridging in the network? http://link-to-results.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=54&Itemid=62
    • 47. ORGANICS Seven Key Behaviors which demonstrate Collective Leadership  Outgoing - get to know any members of the team you don't already know by talking to them and finding common interests.  Recruit - when you meet a new team member or customer introduce them to another team member with a common interest.  Go - network widely inside and outside the team and constantly expand your field of operations.  Ask - ask for help from others in the team whenever you join a work group. Pay it forward too - offer help to other team members.  Note - keep yourself aware on a daily basis of overall team priorities and issues, and reflect on these in your team activities.  Investigate - when you see something "interesting", investigate, communicate and discuss it with at least one other team member.  Collaborate - join and work in at least one team work group or special interest group, which is interesting to you but is outside your normal role http://www.nesta.org.uk/assets/features/why_penguins_have_no_commanding_officer
    • 48. What sense do we make now? @hollyrae @desertjul Practical Applications

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