In this lesson we will:• Define narrative• Identify 3 narrative theories• Apply these theories to media products• Define non / linear narrative
Firstly…• Collect Misfits / Advert Homework (Those who do not have it will stay at 3.45 to complete it)
• Give back special effects homework:• 2 marks – spelling and grammar• 2 marks – opinion• 2 marks – terminology• 2 marks – valid example• Semiotics Terminology Quiz!
What is narrative?• Narrative is about how stories are told• So stories which are told again and again, can still have different narratives• What stories can you think of that have been told time and time again?
What happens at the end of thesefilms? Is there a ‘happy’ ending?
Narrative Theory• Narrative theory sets out to show us that what we experience when we ‘read’ a text is to understand a set of conventions• In Media, it is important to be aware of how these conventions are put together
Todorov• Todorov argued that all stories share a common structure• How do you think most stories could be structured?
Todorov’s theory is very similar, withjust two extra stages added:1. Equilibrium - all is in order2. Disruption - of the ordered state by an event3. Recognition - that the disruption has taken place4. At attempt to repair - the damage of the disruption5. New equilibrium - different from where the story began
Task• Using a film of your choice apply Todorov’s theory of narrative• 10 minutes
Linear and Non Linear Narratives• What does linear mean?• So a linear narrative will go in a straight line – or normally in chronological order• A non linear narrative will be a story told out of order and can often be confusing for the viewer
Can you think of any examples of non-linear texts?
So, why are these texts non linear?What devices do they use?• Non chronological order• Flashbacks• Flash forwards
Vladimir Propp• A Russian theorist who analysed fairytales• He argued that whatever differences there might be in a story you can group together the characters into 7 character roles• Can you guess what some of these might be?
Propp’s Character types1. The hero2. The villain3. The donor (someone who provides an essential object)4. The helper (aids hero)5. The princess6. The dispatcher (sends hero on a mission)7. The false hero
Individual Task• Choose an adventure or action film• Identify the character role• Identify the character’s function (Why are they there? What is their motivation?)
Applying Todorov/Propp to other texts• We need to practice identifying narrative structure and characters in other types of texts• It is easy to identify some of the roles and structure in a film or a TV programme but what about texts on different platforms?
Binary Oppositions – Levi-Strauss• He said that it is the constant creation of conflict/opposition that propels narrative• Narrative can only end on a resolution of conflict• Oppositions can be visual (light/darkness, movement/stillness) or conceptual (love/hate, control/panic)• These are called ‘Binary Oppositions’
Some examples:• Love / hate• Beauty / ugliness• Law abiding / criminal• Freedom / imprisonment• In what texts are these examples found?
Task – Watch the news fromyesterday• 1) List the three main stories• 2) What are the binary oppositions in each story?• 3) Is there any language which indicates the ‘good’ or ‘bad’ sides?• 4) can you apply any of Propp’s character roles to the stories?• 5) Can you apply Todorov’s narrative structure to the stories?
Homework Task – Due Thursday 13thOctober• Apply Propp and Todorov to a text of your choice• If you can describe any binary oppositions you noticeThe text must be one of the following:• A magazine article• A news broadcast• A reality TV programme• An advert• You may use bullet points