International Standards of Journalism

1,163 views

Published on

This is from the first day of "Putting Children in the Right," a training program I conducted with UNICEF Belize and the University of the West Indies, Open Campus, Belize. November 2011.

There is specific reference to children and youth.

We were looking at codes of ethics and standards of practice from other countries as a means of encouraging Belizean journalists to form a media association.

Published in: Education, News & Politics
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,163
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
8
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
15
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

International Standards of Journalism

  1. 1. “UNICEF Belize &The University of the West Indies Open Campus, Belize
  2. 2. What do we mean by“Standards?” something considered by an authority or by general consent as a basis of comparison; an approved model rules or principles used as a basis for judgment those morals, ethics, habits, etc., established by authority, custom, or an individual as acceptable
  3. 3. Who decides onstandards? Individuals Society Profession Peers Opinion leaders
  4. 4. Professional v. OfficialStandards Journalists may decide have share a consensus on standards of professional practice of news coverage Governments usually apply official regulations to ensure standards for BROADCASTERS. Because the airwaves are “public” Government grants broadcast licenses and has a stake in protecting and guaranteeing the public’s rights and interests
  5. 5. Journalistic Standards Often closely tied to ETHICS Usually a matter of self-regulation Hard to enforce Case by case? Evolving with technology?
  6. 6. “Problem” PeopleA 1994 study by researchers from Stanford University found: Children are largely portrayed in the news as "problem people" - people who either cause problems or have problems - concludes a new analysis of the content of child-related newspaper and television news programs. Stories about crime and violence were found to make up 40 percent of the child-related coverage across various newspaper and television formats….
  7. 7. “Problem” People Stanford study found:
  8. 8. International Federationof Journalists Adopted formal guidelines for news coverage of children in 2001 (2nd World Congress against Commercial Exploitation of Children held at Yokohama, Japan) Based on of codes of conduct and standards already in use across the world. Preamble (excerpt) “To do their job of informing the public effectively, journalists must be fully aware of the need to protect children and to enhance their rights without in any way damaging freedom of expression or interfering with the fabric of journalistic independence. Journalists must also be provided with training to achieve high ethical standards.”
  9. 9. International Federationof Journalists Guidelines and Principles for Reporting on Issues Involving Children
  10. 10. International Federationof Journalists Guidelines and Principles for Reporting on Issues Involving Children
  11. 11. International Federationof Journalists Guidelines and Principles for Reporting on Issues Involving Children
  12. 12. International Federationof Journalists Guidelines and Principles for Reporting on Issues Involving Children
  13. 13. International Federationof Journalists Guidelines and Principles for Reporting on Issues Involving Children “Media should not consider and report the conditions of children only as events but should continuously report the process likely to lead or leading to the occurrence of these events.”
  14. 14. Jamaica A Code of Practice (first draft 2005, revised 2010) Developed by the Media Association of Jamaica & the Press Association of Jamaica Defines the role of the press Includes 15 provisions Including TWO related specifically to children
  15. 15. Jamaica: Code of Practice “Declaration” includes STANDARDS of professional practice Specifically includes EDITORS, JOURNALISTS, PUBLISHERS AND BROADCASTERS Provides for recourse to a MEDIA COMPLAINTS COUNCIL
  16. 16. Jamaica: Code of Practice Standards EDITORS, JOURNALISTS, PUBLISHERS AND BROADCASTERS pledge to: prevent violations of the standards ensure that the Code is observed rigorously by all their contributors agree to cooperate as swiftly as possible with media complaints bodies, where they exist, in the resolution of complaints.
  17. 17. Jamaica: Code of Practice Fifteen provisions – TWO about children 4) Journalists shall not: a. Interview or photograph children under the age of 18 on a subject involving the personal welfare of the child, in the absence of and without the consent of a parent or other adult who is responsible for the b.Report on the private life of a child based solely on the family‟s notoriety or the status of the child‟s parents or guardians. c.Approach, photograph or interview children at school without the permission of the school authorities. d. Photograph or interview children at crime scenes or at protest demonstrations unless due care is taken to avoid any exploitation of the children.
  18. 18. Jamaica: Code of Practice Fifteen provisions – TWO about children 5) CHILDREN IN CRIMINAL CASES a. The Press should not identify children under the age of 18 who are involved in cases concerning sexual offences, whether as victims or as witnesses or defendants n a trial.
  19. 19. Jamaica: Code of Practice Fifteen provisions – TWO about children 5) CHILDREN IN CRIMINAL CASES b.In any news report of a case involving a sexual offence by an adult against a child: i.The child should not be identified. ii.The adult may be identified if such identification would not cause the identity of the child to be revealed.
  20. 20. Jamaica: Code of Practice Fifteen provisions – TWO about children 5) CHILDREN IN CRIMINAL CASES b. In any news report of a case involving a sexual offence by an adult against a child iii. In cases of incest, for the purposes of the protection of the identification the child, the term “incest,” should never be used. • 1. The offence of incest should be described as "serious offences against a young child", “sexual assault of a child” or similar appropriate wording. • 2. Care should be taken that nothing in the report implies the family relationship between the accused and the child.
  21. 21. Jamaica: Code of Practice Fifteen provisions – TWO about children 5) CHILDREN IN CRIMINAL CASES b. In any news report of a case involving a sexual offence by an adult against a child iv. Children who are victims or witnesses to violent crime should not be interviewed about what they experienced or saw unless it is clearly in the public interest and only with the consent and in the presence of an adult.
  22. 22. South Africa South African Press Code Press Council of South Africa Few specifics about children & youth 1.7.2 Child pornography shall not be published.

1.8 The identity of rape victims and victims of sexual violence shall not be published without the consent of the victim. 1.9 News obtained by dishonest or unfair means, or the publication of which would involve a breach of confidence, should not be published unless a legitimate public interest dictates otherwise. 1.10 In both news and comment the press shall exercise exceptional care and consideration in matters involving the private lives and concerns of individuals, bearing in mind that any right to privacy may be overridden only by a legitimate public interest.
  23. 23. South Africa The Independent Communications Authority of SAs Code of Conduct for Broadcasters Defines children as “persons below 16” Mainly specifies rules for non-journalistic programming Provides for a “watershed” period, between 9 p.m. and 5 a.m. Restrictions on programming with “violence, sexually explicit conduct and/or offensive language intended for adults” Parental advisories
  24. 24. South Africa The Independent Communications Authority of SAs Code of Conduct for Broadcasters Children “embraces a wide range of maturity and sophistication, and in interpreting this Code it is legitimate for licensees to distinguish, if appropriate those approaching adulthood from a much younger, pre-teenage audience.”
  25. 25. South Africa The Independent Communications Authority of SAs Code of Conduct for Broadcasters Broadcasters shall not broadcast material unsuitable for children at times when large numbers of children may be expected to be part of the audience. Broadcasters shall exercise particular caution in the depiction of violence in childrens programming In childrens programming portrayed by real-life characters, violence shall, whether physical, verbal or emotional, only be portrayed when it is essential to the development of a character and plot.
  26. 26. South Africa The Independent Communications Authority of SAs Code of Conduct for Broadcasters Animated programming for children…shall not have violence as its central theme, and shall not invite dangerous imitation. Programming for children shall with due care deal with themes which could threaten their sense of security, when portraying, for example, domestic conflict, death, crime or the use of drugs. Programming for children shall with due care deal with themes which could invite children to imitate acts which they see on screen or hear about, such as the use of plastic bags as toys, use of matches, the use of dangerous household products as playthings, or other dangerous physical acts.
  27. 27. South Africa The Independent Communications Authority of SAs Code of Conduct for Broadcasters Programming for children shall not contain realistic scenes of violence which create the impression that violence is the preferred or only method to resolve conflict between individuals. Programming for children shall not contain realistic scenes of violence which minimise or gloss over the effect of violent acts. Any realistic depictions of violence shall portray, in human terms, the consequences of that violence to its victims and its perpetrators. Programming for children shall not contain frightening or otherwise excessive special effects not required by the story line.
  28. 28. USAThe Society of Professional Journalists About 8,000 members Largest professional organization for journalists “Code of Ethics” Widely accepted by industry and academe Basis for many other media-specific codes
  29. 29. USAThe Society of Professional Journalists, SPJ Code of Ethics 4 Provisions Seek the truth and report it Minimize harm Act independently Be accountable
  30. 30. USAThe Society of Professional Journalists Code of Ethics Seek the truth and report it Avoid stereotyping by race, gender, age, religion, ethnicity, geography, sexual orientation, disability, physical appearance or social status. Give voice to the voiceless; official and unofficial sources of information can be equally valid.
  31. 31. USAThe Society of Professional Journalists Code of Ethics Minimize harm Show compassion for those who may be affected adversely by news coverage. Use special sensitivity when dealing with children and inexperienced sources or subjects Be sensitive when seeking or using interviews or photographs of those affected by tragedy or grief Be cautious about identifying juvenile suspects or victims of sex crimes.
  32. 32. USARadio Television Digital News Association:RTDNA Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct Guidelines for Avoiding Conflicts of Interest Guidelines for Breaking News Events Guidelines for Amber Alerts Social Media and Blogging Guidelines
  33. 33. Who decides onjournalism standards inBelize? Individual journalists The boss The owner The audience

×