All About Birth Control

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  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the cancer research agency of WHO, in its press release of the 29th of July 2005, informed of the publication of Monograph 91 on the carcinogenicity of combined estrogen-progestogen oral contraceptives (COC) and combined estrogen-progestogen menopausal therapy (HRT), based on the conclusions of an international Working Group of 21 scientists from 8 countries. Please see
    http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/ageing/cocs_hrt_statement.pdf and
    http://www.iarc.fr/en/media-centre/pr/2005/pr167.html
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  • If you like the above slide, chkout http://NurseReview.Org
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All About Birth Control

  1. 1. All About Birth Control
  2. 2. Behavioral Methods
  3. 3. Abstinence Abstinence means not engaging in sexual intercourse. If followed perfectly it is 100% effective in preventing both pregnancy and STDs. Advantages include the fact that avoiding sex eliminates all potential negative consequences. Disadvantages are that it requires a great deal of self-control and cooperation from you and your partner.
  4. 4. Barrier Methods
  5. 5. "Male" Condoms The male condom is a barrier made of latex or polyurethane. Theoretically, if used without human error, it is effective at preventing pregnancy and STDs 98% of the time. However, when we factor in human error, it is effective about 85% of the time. It works by acting as a barrier to prevent the release of sperm into the vagina. Advantages include it’s ability to be combined with other birth control methods. They are inexpensive and protect against HIV and most STDs.
  6. 6. <ul><li>1) Check the date </li></ul><ul><li>2) Check for the air pocket </li></ul><ul><li>3) Open with fingers, NEVER with teeth or scissors </li></ul><ul><li>4) Pinch about ½ inch at the top to leave room for semen </li></ul><ul><li>5) Should be unrolled directly onto the penis immediately after it becomes erect, all the way to the base of the penis </li></ul><ul><li>6) After ejaculation, the couple should separate before the penis becomes soft. </li></ul><ul><li>7) Hold the condom at the base as it is withdrawn. </li></ul><ul><li>8) When the penis is completely out, remove the condom and throw it in the garbage. </li></ul><ul><li>9) It is a good idea for the couple to wash their hands and genitals before touching any more, if they have intercourse again, a new condom is needed. </li></ul>How to Properly Use A Condom
  7. 7. &quot;Female&quot; Condoms A female condom is a barrier made of polyurethane. If they could be used perfectly every time they would be 95% effective. However, when we factor in human error, they are around 79% effective. They may be inserted into the vagina up to 8 hours before sex. They protect against HIV, pregnancy and most STDs. They can be combined with hormonal methods of birth control. Can be implemented by the female alone. Disadvantages are that condom breakage and slippage can occur. No side effects.
  8. 8. Hormonal Methods
  9. 9. &quot;The Pill&quot; The pill is composed of synthetic hormones taken daily. If used perfectly it can be 99.7% effective. When you factor in human error, they are around 92% effective. The pill works by preventing ovulation and causing the cervical mucus to thicken, which blocks sperm from the uterus. The pill also causes the uterus lining to be thinner, inhibiting implantation. Advantages can include less menstrual cramping and flow, improve acne, and it can be highly effective. Disadvantages are that the pill must be taken at the SAME TIME DAILY, and the pill offers NO STD PROTECTION, also a backup method can be required occasionally. Pills with the hormone progestin-only can cause irregular periods. Side effects can include: weight change, mood change, breast tenderness, nausea, blood clots, heart attack or stroke.
  10. 10. &quot;The Shot&quot; Depo-Provera Depo-Provera is an injection you receive every 10-13 weeks. If used perfectly it can be 99.7% effective, but when you factor in human error it is about 97% effective. It works by preventing ovulation and thickening the cervical mucus, preventing sperm from entering the uterus. It also thins the lining of the uterus, preventing implantation. Advantages include only needing to think about your birth control every 12 weeks and it can be used by women who cannot take the hormone, estrogen. Also, it can be used while breast-feeding. Disadvantages include NO STD PROTECTION and any side effects will last 12 weeks. Side effects can include irregular or late periods, weight gain, depression, headaches, hair loss, hair growth on body or face, nervousness, skin rash.
  11. 11. &quot;The Patch&quot; The patch is made of synthetic hormones and is worn on the skin. If used perfectly it is 99.7% effective, but when you factor in human error it is about 92% effective. It works by preventing ovulation, thickens the cervical mucus, and thins the lining of the uterus preventing implantation. A patch is worn for one week at a time, three weeks in a row, and then you have one week without a patch. Advantages are that there is nothing to do at intercourse, or something to remember daily, more regular periods, less cramping and PMS. Disadvantages are NO STD protection, and you must remember your patch each week. Also the patch delivers more estrogen than other methods, which slightly increases the risks. Side effects include skin reaction at site of patch, similar side effects to the pill, and it is NOT EFFECTIVE FOR WOMEN OVER 198 lbs.
  12. 12. NuvaRing NuvaRing is a plastic ring, placed in the vagina that releases hormones for 3 weeks. When used perfectly it is 99.7% effective, but when you factor in human error, it is about 92% effective. NuvaRing works by preventing ovulation, thickening the cervical mucus and thinning the lining of the uterus. It is highly effective against pregnancy, you only need to remember it twice a month, and no one needs to know you are using it. It offers NO STD PROTECTION, and cannot be used with a female condom, and it may not be suitable for women with weak pelvic muscles or chronic constipation. Side effects can include weight change, mood change, breast tenderness, headaches, nausea, blood clots, stroke, increased vaginal discharge
  13. 13. Implanon Implanon is a flexible plastic rod about the size of a matchstick that is inserted into your arm. If used perfectly it is 99.7% effective, but when you factor in human error, it’s about 92% effective. Implanon works by preventing ovulation, thickening the cervical mucus and thinning the lining of the uterus. It is highly effective against pregnancy, and there is nothing to remember for 3 years while Implanon is implanted in your arm, and no one can tell you’re using it. Also, Implanon can be used by women who can’t take the hormone, estrogen. Implanon offers NO STD PROTECTION, and certain medications can make in less effective. Side effects can include irregular periods, mood swings, weight change, headache, acne, depression and blood clots.
  14. 14. Emergency Contraceptive Pills &quot;Plan B&quot; Plan B pills are high doses of hormones that must be taken within 120 hours of unprotected intercourse. When used perfectly they are 75-89% effective, but when you factor in human error they are about 65% effective. If used perfectly on day 1, they can be up to 98% effective. They work by stopping the egg from being released, and preventing implantation. They must be taken as soon as possible after unprotected sex. They can be used by rape victims as soon as possible after the rape. They are not effective if the egg is already implanted, and they can be difficult to get. The side effects are similar to those of other hormonal methods.
  15. 15. Methods Not Recommended For Teens
  16. 16. IUD Intrauterine Device An IUD is a “T” shaped device made of copper or hormones that is placed in the uterus for up to 5-10 years. You check the string monthly to be sure it is in place. They are over 99% effective at preventing pregnancy. The device blocks most sperm from reaching the egg. If using an IUD with hormones it also causes the cervical mucus to thicken. An IUD is not recommended for anyone who may switch partners, as it offers NO STD PROTECTION and can make the effects of some STDs worse. Advantages to IUDs are that there is nothing to think about for 5-10 years, they are very effective against pregnancy Disadvantages include NO STD PROTECTION, and they can be expensive.
  17. 17. Spermicide Spermicide works by killing sperms and comes in many different forms. You can buy spermicide as a cream, film, foam, gel, tablet, sponge or suppository. If used perfectly it is 82% effective, but when you factor in human error, it is about 71% effective. It is placed in the vagina before intercourse. It offers no STD protection, and can irritate the vagina, making you MORE likely to get an STD or HIV. Failure rates can be high, some people may experience an allergic reaction, some types can not be used during your period and it can cause a urinary tract infection or a yeast infection.
  18. 18. This is when the penis is removed from the Vagina before ejaculation. If used perfectly it can be 96% effective, but when you factor in human error, it is about 73% effective. This is a last resort, and if it is your only option, it is best to be responsible and not have sex. It offers NO STD PROTECTION. Pre-cum can contain sperm and cause a pregnancy before ejaculation occurs. It is very difficult for young men to know when to pull out, many are not aware of when they ejaculate, and are unable to pull out in time. Withdrawal or &quot;Pulling Out&quot;
  19. 19. Diaphragm A Diaphragm is a rubber shaped dome that is used with spermicide. If used perfectly it can be 94% effective, but when you factor in human error, it is around 84% effective. It is used with spermicide which can irritate the vagina and make you more likely to contract an STD or HIV. There are no hormones to take, and you can insert the diaphragm up to 6 hours before intercourse. Failure rates can be high, the diaphragm must be placed correctly in the vagina. It can increase your risk for toxic shock syndrome.
  20. 20. Natural Family Planning This is when a couple chooses not to have intercourse during the female’s fertile time each month. It is very difficult to determine when a female’s fertile time is. It is determined by charting her temperature and vaginal mucus thickness at the exact same time each day. To learn how to do this you must buy a book and read it or take a class. It can take 6-12 months to be certain about the fertile time, so a back-up method must be used until then. The couple must be disciplined to abstain from sex or use a back-up method during the fertile period. This is only recommended for monogamous couples who are open to having a child at that time.
  21. 21. Sterilization This is an operation that permanently alters the reproductive system to prevent a pregnancy. It is over 99% effective It offers NO STD PROTECTION. Some regret the decision later in life. It is permanent, and may not be reversible, even with surgery. There are no lasting side effects.
  22. 22. Which kinds of birth control work 100% of the time? <ul><li>A. The pill, sterilization (getting your tubes tied) and abstinence (not having intercourse) </li></ul><ul><li>B. Only sterilization and abstinence </li></ul><ul><li>C. Only abstinence </li></ul>
  23. 23. C. Only Abstinence
  24. 24. 2. “Male condoms prevent pregnancy at least 85% of the time. <ul><li>A. True </li></ul><ul><li>B. False </li></ul>
  25. 25. A. True <ul><li>When used correctly and every time, “male” condoms are around 95% effective </li></ul><ul><li>Even with 85% effectiveness (for typical users), that’s a 15% chance of pregnancy compared to an 85% chance of pregnancy if no contraception is used. </li></ul>
  26. 26. 3. Of the following kinds of birth control, which one is the most effective? <ul><li>A. The pill </li></ul><ul><li>B. The “male” condom </li></ul><ul><li>C. Fertility awareness (“natural family planning”) </li></ul>
  27. 27. A. The Pill
  28. 28. 4. A woman can use hormones to prevent pregnancy in all of the following ways EXCEPT: <ul><li>Pills </li></ul><ul><li>A shot into her muscle </li></ul><ul><li>A vaginal ring </li></ul><ul><li>An injection into her blood stream </li></ul><ul><li>An implant in the arm </li></ul><ul><li>A T-shaped plastic device inserted into the uterus </li></ul><ul><li>A patch put on the skin </li></ul>
  29. 29. D. An injection into her blood stream
  30. 30. 5 . Using two methods (such as a condom and a hormonal method like the pill) is very effective in preventing pregnancy, HIV and other STDs. <ul><li>True, this may be as effective as sterilization </li></ul><ul><li>False, this is probably only about as effective as a “male” condom by itself </li></ul><ul><li>False, this is less effective than a “male” condom by itself </li></ul>
  31. 31. A. True, this may be almost as effective as sterilization <ul><li>A male or female condom must be one of the methods to add protection from STIs </li></ul><ul><li>NEVER use more than one condom </li></ul><ul><li>NEVER use a male and female condom together </li></ul>
  32. 32. 6. What is the main way hormonal birth control methods work? <ul><li>They block the sperm from the egg </li></ul><ul><li>They prevent the ovary from releasing an egg </li></ul><ul><li>They kill the sperm </li></ul>
  33. 33. B. They prevent the ovary from releasing an egg.
  34. 34. 7. What does a person have to know to use an IUD correctly? <ul><li>Check the string once a month </li></ul><ul><li>Put it in and take it out every time you have sex. </li></ul><ul><li>Take one every day </li></ul>
  35. 35. A. Check the string once a month <ul><li>Only a doctor or nurse should insert or remove an IUD </li></ul><ul><li>It is replaced once every 5 or 10 years </li></ul><ul><li>Feel for the string, if it gets longer, shorter or disappears, return to the doctor. </li></ul>
  36. 36. 8. What does a person have to know to use a “male” condom correctly? <ul><li>Put it on just before you ejaculate (“come”) </li></ul><ul><li>Check the date on the package to make sure it hasn’t expired </li></ul><ul><li>Take one every day </li></ul>
  37. 37. B. Check the date on the package to make sure it hasn’t expired <ul><li>Condoms are NOT reusable </li></ul><ul><li>Condoms must be used from the very beginning of sex, before any type of intercourse </li></ul>
  38. 38. 9. Fertility Awareness means figuring out when the woman ovulates (releases an egg) and not having intercourse (or using another method)… <ul><li>… After that time </li></ul><ul><li>… Before and during that time </li></ul><ul><li>… During your period </li></ul>
  39. 39. B. Before and during that time <ul><li>Must abstain around 1 week every month </li></ul><ul><li>Abstaining during one’s period does NOT prevent pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>The only way to learn when you ovulate is to buy a book or take a class. Even then it can be very difficult. </li></ul>
  40. 40. 10. How long after unprotected sex or a birth control method failure (like a “male” condom breaking) does a woman have to take emergency contraceptive pills to improve her chances of preventing an unplanned pregnancy? <ul><li>24 hours </li></ul><ul><li>72 hours </li></ul><ul><li>120 hours </li></ul>
  41. 41. C. 120 hours <ul><li>5 days </li></ul><ul><li>The sooner, the more effective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Day 1: 98% effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After that: 75-89% effective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does not work if woman is already pregnant </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used when other methods fail </li></ul>
  42. 42. 11. Which of the following has the highest mortality rate (risk of death)? <ul><li>The pill </li></ul><ul><li>Sterilization (getting your tubes tied) </li></ul><ul><li>Giving birth </li></ul>
  43. 43. C. Giving Birth
  44. 44. 12. Which of the following has the least health risk? <ul><li>“ male” and “female” condom </li></ul><ul><li>The IUD </li></ul><ul><li>spermicides </li></ul>
  45. 45. A. “Male” and “Female” condom <ul><li>The risk comes from the choice to engage </li></ul><ul><li> in sex, which is the risk of pregnancy or contracting an STI or HIV </li></ul><ul><li>Spermicides are NOT recommended </li></ul><ul><li>The IUD carries the risk of HIV or STIs as well as a small risk of harm to the uterus, or a miscarriage if the woman does become pregnant </li></ul>
  46. 46. 13. Women who have had more than one sex partner in the last couple of years, or who think they might in the next couple of years, should probably not use the IUD. <ul><li>True </li></ul><ul><li>False </li></ul>
  47. 47. A. True <ul><li>People who change partners “frequently”, which includes many teens, are at a greater risk of getting STIs </li></ul><ul><li>The greater your chances for an STI, the less safe it is for her to have an IUD </li></ul>
  48. 48. 14. Who should probably not use the pill, patch or ring? <ul><li>Women over age 35 who smoke </li></ul><ul><li>Women under age 20 </li></ul><ul><li>Women who have had more than one sex partner in the last couple of years </li></ul>
  49. 49. A. Women over age 35 who smoke <ul><li>Even for very young women, the pill is safer than a pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike the IUD, the pill does not increase the risk of getting an STI </li></ul><ul><li>For disease protection, a condom is still necessary! </li></ul>
  50. 50. 15. Who can buy condoms? <ul><li>Only people over age 18 </li></ul><ul><li>Only people with a prescription </li></ul><ul><li>People under age 18 who have a note from their parents </li></ul><ul><li>anyone </li></ul>
  51. 51. D. ANYONE
  52. 52. 16. What % of 18 year olds in the United States have not yet had sexual intercourse? Guess. <ul><li>79% of girls and 76% of guys are virgins </li></ul><ul><li>42% of girls and 46% of guys are virgins </li></ul><ul><li>19% of girls and 15% of guys are virgins </li></ul>
  53. 53. B. 42% of girls and 46% of guys are virgins <ul><li>More than 4 out of 10 have chosen not to have intercourse yet </li></ul><ul><li>Also, some of those who have ever had intercourse, had it once (or in one relationship) and have since decided not to. </li></ul><ul><li>NOT EVERYONE IS DOING IT! </li></ul>
  54. 54. 17. People sometimes get pregnant the first time they have sexual intercourse. <ul><li>True </li></ul><ul><li>B. False </li></ul>
  55. 55. A. True <ul><li>Even before her first menstrual period, a girl might have ovulated, and might be able to get pregnant. </li></ul>

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