William Labov<br />Social Stratification of (r) in New York City Department Stores<br />
William Labov<br />Is known for…<br />Attention to dialects<br />“Logic” of African American English<br />Reduce reading g...
Gathering Data Through Observation<br />Tape recorded interviews<br />Speech is formal<br />Alternatives<br />Natural soci...
Social Stratification<br />“The product of social differentiation and social evaluation”—Bernard Barber<br />Social Constr...
Labov’s Classic Study of New York City Department Stores (1962)<br />Speech corresponding to that of their social class<br...
Hypothesis<br />Differential use of (r) directly <br />corresponds to ranking in <br />social stratification<br />Fine soc...
Three Large Department Stores<br />Differential ranking<br />Location<br />Advertising<br />Price of goods and emphasis on...
Stratification of Employees<br />Prestige of store<br />Working Conditions<br />Not wages<br />
The Method<br />Interviewer is customer<br />“Fourth Floor”<br />Ask to repeat<br />Data entry<br />(r-1)<br />(r-0)<br />
Variables<br />Independent<br />The store<br />Floor within the store<br />Sex<br />Age<br />Occupation<br />Race<br />For...
Overall Stratification of (r)<br />Three Categories<br />All (r-1)<br />Some (r-1)<br />No (r-1)<br />Results<br />62% Sak...
(r-1) is most appropriate for emphatic speech
Linguistic security</li></li></ul><li>Race<br />Occupation<br />African Americans<br />Kleins<br />Lower use of (r-1)<br /...
Differentiation By Age of the Informants<br />Estimated within 5 year intervals<br />Expect a rise in (r-1) in younger sal...
Experiment Limitations<br />More systematic sampling<br />Data not tape recorded<br />Method used to elicit emphatic speec...
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Social Stratification Of (R) In New

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Social Stratification Of (R) In New

  1. 1. William Labov<br />Social Stratification of (r) in New York City Department Stores<br />
  2. 2. William Labov<br />Is known for…<br />Attention to dialects<br />“Logic” of African American English<br />Reduce reading gap for African American Children<br />
  3. 3. Gathering Data Through Observation<br />Tape recorded interviews<br />Speech is formal<br />Alternatives<br />Natural social context<br />No explicit observation<br />
  4. 4. Social Stratification<br />“The product of social differentiation and social evaluation”—Bernard Barber<br />Social Construction<br />
  5. 5. Labov’s Classic Study of New York City Department Stores (1962)<br />Speech corresponding to that of their social class<br />Speech Continuum<br />“Standard” American English <br />Predictable, Quantifiable, and Explainable<br />Preliminary studies led to (r) <br />
  6. 6. Hypothesis<br />Differential use of (r) directly <br />corresponds to ranking in <br />social stratification<br />Fine social differences <br />as well as gross ones<br />
  7. 7. Three Large Department Stores<br />Differential ranking<br />Location<br />Advertising<br />Price of goods and emphasis on price<br />Physical plant<br />Saks Fifth Avenue (Highest)<br />Macy’s (Middle)<br />S. Klein (Lowest)<br />
  8. 8. Stratification of Employees<br />Prestige of store<br />Working Conditions<br />Not wages<br />
  9. 9. The Method<br />Interviewer is customer<br />“Fourth Floor”<br />Ask to repeat<br />Data entry<br />(r-1)<br />(r-0)<br />
  10. 10. Variables<br />Independent<br />The store<br />Floor within the store<br />Sex<br />Age<br />Occupation<br />Race<br />Foreign or regional accent<br />Dependent<br />Casual: fourth floor<br />Emphatic: fourth floor<br />
  11. 11. Overall Stratification of (r)<br />Three Categories<br />All (r-1)<br />Some (r-1)<br />No (r-1)<br />Results<br />62% Saks<br />51% Macy’s<br />20% Kleins<br /><ul><li>Emphatic Results
  12. 12. (r-1) is most appropriate for emphatic speech
  13. 13. Linguistic security</li></li></ul><li>Race<br />Occupation<br />African Americans<br />Kleins<br />Lower use of (r-1)<br />General pattern of social stratification<br />Floorwalkers<br />Sales people<br />Cashiers stockboys<br />Elevator operators<br />The Effect of Other Independent Variables<br />
  14. 14. Differentiation By Age of the Informants<br />Estimated within 5 year intervals<br />Expect a rise in (r-1) in younger sales people<br />Compared with Lower East Side Data<br />The explanation<br />
  15. 15. Experiment Limitations<br />More systematic sampling<br />Data not tape recorded<br />Method used to elicit emphatic speech<br />Sources of error offset by<br />Three subsections<br />Size of sample<br />Availability for rechecking<br />
  16. 16. Future of Rapid and Anonymous Studies<br />Control the interactive effect of the observer<br />Nonreactive experimentation<br />Most important experimental method<br />

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